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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends,
here we are again, now with the issue number 37 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations, concerns and interests. The purpose, as always, is that our readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services these trees provide to the benefit of the human society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

In this edition, we have selected some good news on forestry to you. We started with the tribute to the IYOF - International Year of Forests - nothing more fair - if we recognize the trees with one day a year, nothing better than a whole year to the world's forests: 2011 - defined by the United Nations as the International Year of Forests - deservedly so, but must be something to be repeated shortly - we hope (and we need).

Well, nothing better than honoring the forests and also some great names of people who seek doing good to them, studying the forests and managing them correctly and in an environmentally sound manner. Therefore, we have chosen some people we admire to tell you something about them and about their accomplishments and achievements.

Our "Friend of the Eucalyptus" in this edition is a good friend of mine and also a great friend of the Eucalyptus trees - known and admired in the industry by acting as a forestry executive for many years, always valuing the knowledge and innovation for the continuous search for improvements in the quality, environment and forestry operations. He is the competent and respected forester Manoel de Freitas, whose achievements deserve to be shared with you.

We are also offering to you the technical knowledge developed about several pests of Eucalyptus trees by the talented researcher at Embrapa Florestas, Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz, one of the world's leading authorities on the psyllids that are important insect pests of Eucalyptus trees in many countries. Know more about these pests and about Dr. Dalva on the section “Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases”.

In the section Online Technical References, we have selected several articles and texts about Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii). These papers have the authorship or guidance by one of the icons of the today’s Brazilian silviculture - Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher, a renowned professor from UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria.

You can also benefit in this edition by navigating in the set of the Eucalyptus Online Book chapters, all I have written over these past four years about Solid Wastes in the Pulp and Paper Industry. I believe that these chapters collection may bring to readers one of the best sources of global knowledge on this issue of vital importance to the forest, pulp and papermaking industry. I hope they may be of much use to you.

In the section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells you, something very interesting and valuable to be known about the utilization of the Eucalyptus woods: "Beams of Eucalyptus Wood for Structural Uses in the Civil Construction Industry". It is a well-known and growing utilization of such type of wood, which adds greater environmental quality to the constructions, because the wood of the Eucalyptus plantations is gradually replacing the wood of Brazilian species from natural forests - including some which are already considered endangered and protected species due to the extensive use over the years.

Our technical article in this edition continues with our reflections about indicators to measure and check the competitiveness and sustainability of the forestry sector in Brazil, with emphasis on the pulp and paper industry. This time, we completed the series telling you about "Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management to the Plantation Forests". Remember that I have till now written about performance and productivity indicators, environmental performance indicators and social indicators for companies in the pulp and paper industry. Now, we are completing the series with indicators that are dedicated to improve the sustainability of the plantation forests management.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites; other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites. Anyway, every time when trying to access a referenced link from our newsletter and it does not work, I suggest you to copy the title of the article or event and place in quotation marks to search for the same in a search engine such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc. Sometimes, the entity that holds the reference remodels its website and the URL addresses are modified. Other times, the material is removed from the referenced website, but may eventually be located at some other address, if properly pursued.

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you who honor us with your reading.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology, Blog do Papeleiro and Blog 1800 Flowers. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland, Belarus and South Africa. However, thanks to the World Wide Web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to a long "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to many thousands of registered web addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now onwards is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree and ABTCP, and also from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book about Solid Wastes in the Pulp and Paper Industry

International Year of Forests

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases – Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

The Friends of the Eucalyptus – Forest Engineer Manoel de Freitas

Online Technical References - Articles about Black Wattle - Acacia mearnsii – written by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Beams of Eucalyptus Wood for Structural Uses in the Civil Construction Industry – by Ester Foelkel

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel
Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management to the Plantation Forests

Chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book about Solid Wastes in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Throughout my career as a technological researcher and mill executive, and later, when immersed in technical consulting to the pulp and paper (and its forests), I have always been working on environmental issues. Anyone who specializes himself in eco-efficiency and cleaner production has a constant focus on wastes, reworks and losses. This I have done since I was working at Riocell (today, Celulose Riograndense) - from the late 70's till nowadays. Due to the enormous experience (over 35 years) in this issue, I decided to share this expertise with the technical people working for the pulp and paper sector. So, I dedicated myself to write several Eucalyptus Online Book chapters, dealing with waste management in the industrial area, as well as in the forest segment. I believe I managed to compose (hopefully) a great value collection as a guide for action and also for much reflection to our readers. In case you do not know this collection, or have only one or another of these chapters, I decided to bring all of them together to facilitate the online access to them. I sincerely hope that they may be very useful to you.

Please, know our modest contribution to this important source of opportunities to our mills and forests:

Industrial solid wastes from Eucalyptus kraft pulp production. Part 01: Fibrous organic residues. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 05. 78 pp. 9.2 MB. (2007) (in English)

Eco-efficiency in managing the pulp fiber losses and the broke generated in paper manufacturing. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 06. 99 pp. 9.1 MB. (2007) (in English)

Eco-efficient management of woody forest residues from the Eucalyptus plantation forestry. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 07. 48 pp. 6.6 MB. (2007) (in English)

Industrial solid wastes from Eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper production. Part 02: Sucess factors for management. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 13. 128 pp. 13.5 MB. (2008) (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial solid wastes from Eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper production. Part 03: Sludges & sludges. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 20. 191 pp. 10.1 MB. (2010) (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial solid wastes from Eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper production. Part 04: "Dirty bark". Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 21. 101 pp. 11.5 MB. (2010) (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial solid wastes from Eucalyptus kraft pulp production. Part 05: Mineral wastes. Celso Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 25. 174 pp. 8.3 MB. (2010) (Just in Portuguese till now)

International Year of Forests

Man has always had an affinity and even a passion for forests. We always had a connection with forests, not just interest and curiosity, but admiration and a strong sentimental attachment to them. After all, the forests gave shelter, food and livelihood to our primitive ancestors. However, while we enjoy and dedicate affection for the trees, we need to consume products and services from forests. Because of uncontrolled population growth and the needs to meet the growing requirements of increasing number of people on the planet, forests began to be voraciously consumed and with this, great reserves of natural ecosystems have been and are being destroyed every single day. However, there are still many remaining forests. Also, the environmental culture that exists today on citizens and on companies in the world forest-based business is quite different from that merely known as extractivism of some decades ago. There is a good future waiting for us and not an irreversible ecological disaster. That's for sure (at least in my opinion). In my point of view, there is not just a light at the end of the tunnel, but an illuminated forest of high biodiversity, full of trees, wildlife, flora and many other natural resources. But a hard-work is being demanded for reaching such.

With the aim of increasing respect and awareness of humans in relation to forests, UN - United Nations decided to pay tribute to them in the way of a global campaign. The objective was very clearly drawn: raise awareness among world citizens for the protection, respect and sustainable management of world forests. The forest sustainability is also needed to guarantee the sustainability of humans, since there is an intimate interaction between these two components of nature.

Trying to prevent increased deforestation, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2011 as the IYOF - International Year of Forests, inviting the governments of many nations, the United Nations system, the private sector, NGO’s - Non Governmental Organizations and all world citizens to engage in the effort to protect and to respect forests. It is being recommended a joint effort for the global adoption of sustainable forest management for all types of forests, from the forests with protection objectives as well to the industrial planted forests. The idea is not just promoting forest conservation - purely and simply - but to favor the use of the benefits that forests can provide to humans, with no harm or adverse impacts to biodiversity, soils and water, air and all other components of these ecosystems.

The results have been absolutely amazing - there was a huge adhesion of almost all governments and a large number of private and public companies, associations, research institutes, NGO’s, celebrities, etc. In almost all parts of the world it is being possible to find the commemorating and distinctive IYOF logo: a simple and unique art, including the drawing of a tree composed by all Nature wealths represented by the flora, fauna, climate, people and economic activities of our society.

In Brazil, the IYOF has been highly celebrated by public institutions, research & business associations and forest-based companies. The Brazilian pulp and paper sector has been one of the segments that showed high adherence and it is strongly promoting and highlighting the Brazilian forests.

Brazil is considered one of the main forestry barns of the planet, both with a huge area of natural forests that the country houses in the several different biomes (Amazon Forest, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga, etc.) as well as the high productivity plantation forests - mostly with forest certification.

For you to learn more about the International Year of Forests and about the forests of Brazil and those from Earth, we recommend that you browse the selection of articles and websites we have prepared to you. Also, we recommend that you download to your virtual library two books of exceptional value to mirror the forest situation in the world (2011 - State of the world's forests, FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization) and Brazil (Brazil's forests in brief 2010: data from 2005 - 2010, from Brazilian Forestry Service). Read carefully and keep these two documents for future comparisons. In the next edition of the IYOF, we will be able to see the changes to show that awareness worked or started work (hopefully). However, awareness is not achieved with just a short campaign of a year. There is much more to be done.

I have the belief that we are to receive your help, by cooperating also in campaigning for a better world, richer in forests, and with people and businesses more environmentally eco-efficient and environmentally responsible.

We need the forests, but they rely more heavily on us, not just on our awareness, but most on our actions to ensure to them the most adequate levels of protection and sustainable forest management.

Suggestions of reading and literature related to the IYOF - International Year of Forests

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

United Nations Celebrating Forests for People. International Year of Forests. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in English) (Videos) (in English) (Photo gallery) (in English) (Event celebrating logos) (in English)

2011: Um Ano Internacional das Florestas. (2011: An International Year of Forests). Ministry of Environment. Brazilian Government. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese) (Brazilian forests) (in Portuguese) (The forest protects you) (in Portuguese)

UNEP Forests. United Nations Environment Programme. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in English)

2011 International Year of Forests. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization. Acesso em 21.11.2011: (in English) (Toolkit to communicators) (in English) (Celebrating video) (in English)

Ano Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). Forests at Embrapa. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

Ano Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). Portuguese Government. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

Ano Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). E. Carvalhaes. Website SouAgro. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

Florestas plantadas: grandes aliadas do planeta. (Planted forests: vital allies of the planet). BRACELPA – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. Video in Portuguese. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

Planted forests: vital allies of the planet. BRACELPA – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. Video in English. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in English)

Plantar florestas e proteger o planeta. (Planting forests is to protect the planet). BRACELPA – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. Video in Portuguese. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

International Year of Forests. Futura Channel. YouTube videos. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (“Headpiece” in English) (“Headpiece” in Portuguese)

Celebrating 2011 – International Year of Forests in Australia. yForests. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in English)

Gisele Bunchen lanca video sobre Ano Internacional das Florestas. (Gisele Bunchen launches video about the International Year of Forests). Planeta Sustentavel. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)
and (YouTube videos) (in English)

O Brasil e o Ano Internacional das Florestas. (Brazil and the International Year of Forests). F. Barbosa. IPADES - Institute of Applied Research in Sustainable Economic Development. 04 pp. Accessed on 21.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

State of the world’s forests. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization. Forestry Department. 179 pp. (2011) (in English) (Other previous editions) (in English)

Forest products. Annual market review 2010/2011. D. Clark. UNECE – United Nations Economic Commission for Europe / FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 174 pp. (2011) (in English)

2011 is the International Year of Forests. BRACELPA BR Pulp & Paper News. pp. 01. (2011) (in English)

BRACELPA adere ao “Ano Internacional das Florestas”. (BRACELPA adheres to the International Year of Forests). BRACELPA – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. (2011) (in Portuguese)

Ano Internacional das Florestas. International Year of Forests. E. Carvalhaes. O Papel (March): 16 – 17. (2011)
(in Portuguese and in English)

Florestas do Brasil em resumo 2010: dados de 2005 – 2010. (Brazil's forests in brief 2010: data from 2005 – 2010). Brazilian Forestry Service. 152 pp. (2010)

e (in Portuguese)

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases

Eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz is one of the most talented and productive researchers on insect pests of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Her numerous research and papers published on dispersion models, risk management, entomological assessments, insect/plant interactions, environmental conditions, pest control, integrated pest management, induction of resistance, etc., etc. have impressively collaborated for the better understanding and to prevent and to combat some very harmful pests to Eucalyptus, through innovative integrated management techniques in terms of forest plant health. Her preference and expertise fall on the insects of the family Psyllidae, commonly known as psyllids, including the renowned and dangerous Eucalyptus-shell-psyllid.

Dr. Dalva was born in the city of Patos de Minas / MG in 1961. She graduated in Forest Engineering at the UFV - Federal University of Vicosa (1985); immediately started working to achieve her Master of Science at the same university (1988). Her master's research was focused on ants in Eucalyptus and it was titled "Resistance of Eucalyptus spp. to the leaf cutter ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa and Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)”, having the teaching guidance of the prestigious Dr. Mauro Renato Brandi. Her Ph.D. was obtained in 2003 at the Federal University of Parana, also in the Forest Entomology concentration area, under the guidance of Dr. Keti Maria Rocha Zanol. The research was carried out in a very broad sense, and it was dedicated to the species of insect pest Ctenarytaina spatulata (psyllid-of-Eucalyptus-young-branches), one of the main species of psyllids attacking Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Her results and conclusions have helped to understand the morphology, population dynamics, resistance and damage to Eucalyptus grandis. The thesis entitled "Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): morphology, biology, dynamics, and damage resistance in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden" was provided in the digital format by Dr. Dalva and with that, we placed it available to the general public interested in this important pest. The link to the web address can be found below in this issue which honors the scientific achievements by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz.

Recently, Dr. Dalva completed her postdoctoral studies at Curtin University of Technology (, Australia, having performed studies and researches on Forest Entomology, especially with the shell-psyllid. Her research work in Australia was entitled: "Predicting the geographical distribution of Glycaspis brimblecombei", whose goals were related to the development of modeling systems to predict the distribution and dispersion of this psyllid.

Currently, Dr. Dalva is a researcher at Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, more specifically at Embrapa Forestry, Colombo/Parana, working with plant health and forest protection, with emphasis on issues of forest entomology. Her curriculum vitae, published in the Lattes Platform of CNPq - National Council for Scientific and Technological Development can be seen with rich information on:

We asked Dr. Dalva on her feelings and thoughts about the current state-of-the-art of forest protection in Brazil, involving the Eucalyptus. After all, this country has great expectations for the substantial growth on the planted area with Eucalyptus trees to feed rapidly growing industries such as pulp and paper, furniture, wood panels, agro-renewable energy, etc.

Dalva promptly answered with her wisdom with the following remarks:

"Eucalyptus is a native genus from Australia, with rapid growth trees and multiple uses. These properties make these trees as some of the trees mostly planted around the world. Brazil has favorable conditions for the Eucalyptus cultivation and the different species of this genus are planted from North to South in this country, with an area of over 4.75 million hectares (and growing). As the plantation area grew, the problems with insect pests started to become more serious. The presence of native species of Myrtaceae in Brazil allows the hosting for abundant insect fauna; thus, facilitating the establishment of pests related to that culture. In addition, there has been a progressive increase in the entrance of exotic pests, such it has been observed since the 50's, with the detection of Phoracanta sp. and Gonipterus spp.

A little known insect group in Brazil, but very common in Australia, is made up of insects of the Psyllidae family, which came to Brazilian territory in the 90's. Currently there are four important species: Ctenarytaina spatulata, Ctenarytaina eucalypti, Blastopsylla occidentalis, and Glycaspis brimblecombei. The latter, introduced in 2003, caused great losses of productivity in forests located in Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, even those of highly productive commercial clones.

Another exotic species, Epichrysocharis burwelii, has been detected in Brazil in 2004, attacking Corymbia citriodora. In 2008, two new introductions have caused major concerns to foresters: the Eucalyptus bronze bug (Thaumastocoris peregrinus) (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) and the gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

Besides the mentioned insects, other pests that attack Eucalyptus have great potential to be introduced in Brazil and to cause harm, some of which are already in other countries and can quickly reach Brazil. Among them, it may be mentioned:

Ophelimus spp. - introduced in Chile, Spain, Iran, Morocco, Italy, Kenya and Uganda. It attacks in these countries mainly E. globulus and E. camaldulensis.

Chilecomadia valdiviana
Lep. Cossidae - is a borer insect, a native of Chile and Argentina, with a wide range of hosts, including E. nitens, E. camaldulensis and E. gunnii.

Xyleutes magnifica (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) – a species native from Australia and attacks several hosts.

In addition, several species of the superfamily Psylloidea are insect pests in Australia, such as: Creiss costatus, C. corniculatus, Cardiaspina fiscella, C. densitexta and C. retator. If these insects gets way to enter in Brazil, they may cause great damage, mainly because they attack E. grandis, E. saligna and E. urophylla, which are the main components of the genetic basis of the clones planted in Brazil.

The spread of insect pests is facilitated by the vast clonal areas in homogeneous stands distributed throughout the country. Thus, monitoring of pests is essential for early detection of new pests and to speed up decision-making process regarding control measures. New monitoring methodology and prediction tools are being improved for forecasting insect expansion and the risks plus damages related to these pests".

We thank very much Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz for answering so promptly and carefully to our requests, so we were able to offer to our readers a part of her vast scientific production. We have elaborated, as shown below, a selection of eucalyptic literature which had the participation of Dr. Dalva as author or coauthor. They are around 40 articles, in which you can browse and obtain copies from the provided euca-links. Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz has also a large number of articles published and referred to as being written by Dalva Luiz de Queiroz Santana (Santana, DLQ). Moreover, Dr. Dalva researches are not restricted to Eucalyptus, but include many other forest species and genera, as Pinus, Acacia, Tabebuia, Enterolobium, Bactris, Tipuana, Grevilea, Araucaria, Ilex, Toona, Cocos, Piptadenia, Psidium, Euterpe, Leucaena, etc. Dr. Dalva also features numerous papers on the biology (micro-life) of the soil, with emphasis on micro and meso-fauna. Our selection of research papers is more devoted to articles about the Eucalyptus to be in accordance to the objectives of this newsletter, but you can find many other studies of this remarkable researcher with other kinds of trees and even with Eucalyptus (which were not included here).

Selection of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz and her team of researchers**
**Image of the adult psyllid Blastopsylla occidentalis, kindly provided by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

You can also find the admirable scientific production by Dr. Dalva and any of the hundreds of researchers from the Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation at the devoted website specialized in the scientific and technological production from Embrapa:

When searching for the production by D.L. de Queiroz and D.L.Q. Santana the following results are obtained, to which I suggest your careful attention and navigation for improved results:
PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="dalva luiz de queiroz"
& registraHistorico=N&formFiltroAction=N&hitsInicial=0&paginaAtual=1

PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="dalva luiz de queiroz santana
"& registraHistorico=N&formFiltroAction=N&hitsInicial=0&paginaAtual=1


PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="queiroz D. L. de"
em AUT&registraHistorico=N&formFiltroAction=N&hitsInicial=0&paginaAtual=1

Please, check out and enjoy reading, learning from the teachings and scientific discoveries by Dr. Luiz de Queiroz Dalva about insect pests in Eucalyptus plantations:

Pragas em viveiros de eucalipto. (Pests in Eucalyptus nurseries). D.L. Queiroz; J.I. Rodriguez Fernandez; J.C. Zanuncio. In: Producao de mudas de eucalipto. Capitulo 5 – Production of Eucalyptus seedlings. Chapter 5. Embrapa Florestas. 34 pp. (2010)

Cultivo do eucalipto. Pragas de importancia economica. (Eucalyptus crop cultivation. Pests of economic importance). L.R. Barbosa; D.L. Queiroz; W. Reis Filho. Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Cultivo do eucalipto. Manejo integrado de pragas. (Eucalyptus crop cultivation. Integrated pest management). L.R. Barbosa; D.L. Queiroz; W. Reis Filho. Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Cultivo do eucalipto. Controle biologico. (Eucalyptus crop cultivation. Biological control). L.R. Barbosa; D.L. Queiroz; W. Reis Filho. Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. D.L. Queiroz; K.M.R. Zanol; E.B. Oliveira; N. Anjos; J. Majer. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54(1): 149-153. (2010) (in English)
and (in English)
and (in English)

Registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp., em Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil. (Registering Glycaspis brimblecombei in Eucalyptus spp., at Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil). M.O. Breda; J.V. Oliveira; A.N.M. Carvalho; D.L. Queiroz. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 30(63): 253 – 255. (2010) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773): New record in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. M.Q. Rezende; J.L.A. Campos; L.M.B. Coelho; D.L.Q. Santana. Check List - Journal of Species Lists and Distribution. 02 pp. (2010) (in English)

Abstract: Modelos de distribuicao e gestao de risco de insetos-praga de eucalipto no Brasil. (Distribution models and risk management of insect pests of Eucalyptus in Brazil). R. Zanetti; D.L. Queiroz; E.C. Queiroz; M.C. Garrastazu; B.V. Fernandes; J.I. Rodrigues Fernandez. 23rd Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): modelagem ecologica de uma especie invasora no Brasil. [Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): ecological modeling of an invasive species in Brazil]. D.L. Queiroz; J.I. Rodriguez Fernandez; R. Zanetti; M.C. Garrastazu; B.V. Fernandes; E.C. Queiroz. 23rd Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Dinamica populacional de Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis com novos registros de ocorrencia. [Population dynamics of Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis with new records of occurrence]. D.L. Queiroz; K.M.R. Zanol; N. Anjos; D.P. Andrade. Acta Biologica Paranaense 38(3-4): 157 - 178. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Pragas exoticas e potenciais a eucaliptocultura no Brasil. (Exotic pests and potentials to the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil). D.L. Queiroz. 9th Simposium on Management of Plant Diseases. In: Manejo Fitossanitario de Cultivos Agroenergeticos. Brazilian Society of Plant Pathology. p. 239-249. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao da resistencia de clones de Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN ao psilideo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). [Evaluation of the resistance of clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn to the shell psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)]. J.M.M. Camargo; D.L.Q. Santana; R.A. Dedecek; K.M.R. Zanol; R.C. Melido. I Brazilian Congress of Energy Forest Plantations. 04 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese)

Influencia do manejo de residuos da industria e da colheita de eucalipto na fauna do solo. (Influence of the industrial waste and of the Eucalyptus harvesting residues managements on soil fauna). D.L.Q. Santana; A.F.J. Bellote; H.D. Silva; G.C. Andrade. I Brazilian Congress of Energy Forest Plantations. 04 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Efeito da aplicacao de diferentes fontes e doses de silicio, em plantio comercial de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na inducao de resistencia a Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). [Effects of different sources and doses of silicon in commercial plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in the induction of resistance to Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)]. J.M.M. Camargo; D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; R.A. Dedecek; C.R. Rodrigues; R.C.N. Melido. XXII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Efeito da aplicacao de silicio em plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na inducao de resistencia ao psilideo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). [Effect of silicon on plants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in the induction of resistance to the shell psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana; J.M.M. Camargo; R.A. Dedecek; K.M.R. Zanol; R.C.N. Melido; C.R. Rodrigues. XXII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Psilideos no Brasil: 3- Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985 Hemiptera:Psyllidae. (Psyllids in Brazil: 3 - Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985 Hemiptera:Psyllidae). D.L. Queiroz. Embrapa Florestas Technical Communication # 204. 04 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Psilideos no Brasil: 2- Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1980) (Psilideo das ponteiras do eucalipto). [(Psyllids in Brazil: 2- Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1980) (Eucalyptus branch tops psyllid)]. D.L. Queiroz. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 207. 05 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Psilideo-dos-ponteiros-do-eucalipto – Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera:Psyllidae). [Eucalyptus branch tops psyllid: Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera:Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 185. 04 pp.(2007) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Introduced Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil. D.L.Q. Santana; D. Burckhardt. Journal of Forest Research 12(5): 337 – 344. (2007) (in English)

Microvespa-do-eucalipto-citriodora (Corymbia citriodora) - Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). [Micro-wasp of citriodora eucalypt (Corymbia citriodora) - Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana; N. Anjos. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 188. 04 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Biologia de Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis. (Biology of Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis). D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol. Acta Biologica Paranaense 35(1-2): 47 - 62. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Aspectos bionomicos de Glycaspis (Glycaspis) brimblecombei (Moore,1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e seu controle com fungos entomopatogenicos. [Bionomic aspects of Glycaspis (Glycaspis) brimblecombei (Moore, 1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its control with entomopathogenic fungi]. R.M. Favaro. Co-advising: D.L.Q. Santana. Master Dissertation. UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 53 pp. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Introduced Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil. D.L.Q. Santana. International Forestry Review 7(5): 255. (2005) (in English)

Psilideos em eucaliptos no Brasil. (Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil). D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas Technical Newsletter # 109. 14 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Morfologia externa das ninfas e adultos de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae). [External morphology of the nymphs and adults of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 49(3): 340 – 346. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Danos causados por Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden. [Damage caused by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; P.C. Botosso; P.P. Mattos. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 50: 11 – 24. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Impactos ambientais, economicos e sociais dos danos causados por Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em plantios de Eucalyptus grandis no Brasil. [Environmental, economic and social damage caused by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil]. H.R. Rodigheri; D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas Technical Newsletter # 85. 04 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Monitoramento dos psilideos do eucalipto. (Monitoring psyllids in Eucalyptus). D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas leaflet. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e seus inimigos naturais no Parana. [Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its natural enemies in Parana]. D.L.Q. Santana; R.C.Z. Carvalho; R.M. Favaro; L.M. Almeida. XX Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Dinamica populacional de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. Ex. Maiden. [Population dynamics of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. Ex. Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; R.M. Favaro. XX Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Efeito do manejo do solo e do residuo da exploracao florestal na populacao de formigas em plantios de Eucalyptus grandis, em Sao Miguel Arcanjo, SP. (Effect of soil and forest harvesting residue managements in the population of ants in Eucalyptus grandis plantations, in Sao Miguel Arcanjo, SP). R.M. Favaro; D.L.Q. Santana; H.D. Silva; R.A. Dedecek; A,F,J, Bellote; J.L. Gava. XX Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): morfologia, biologia, dinamica, resistencia e danos em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden. [Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): morphology, biology, dynamics, and damage resistance in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana. Ph.D. Thesis. UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 135 pp. (2003)

O psilideo-de-concha (Glycaspis brimblecombei) em eucalipto. [The shell psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei) in Eucalyptus]. D.L.Q. Santana; A. Menezes Junior; H.D. Silva; A.F.J. Bellote; R.M. Favaro. Embrapa Florestas Technical Communication # 105. 03 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Cultivo do eucalipto. Pragas. (Eucalyptus planting. Pests). D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas. Systems of Production 4. 1st Edition. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Ctenarytaina spatulata, Taylor: agua no solo, nutrientes minerais e suas interacoes com a seca dos ponteiros do eucalipto. (Ctenarytaina spatulata, Taylor: water in the soil, mineral nutrients and their interactions with branch tops dryback in Eucalyptus). D.L.Q. Santana; A.F.J. Bellote; R.A. Dedecek. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 46: 57 – 68. (2003) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Influencia do manejo do solo e do residuo da exploracao florestal na fauna de solo em plantios hibridos de eucalipto em Mogi Guacu. (Influence of soil and forestry residue management in the soil fauna in plantations of Eucalyptus hybrids in Mogi Guacu). R. Favaro; D.L.Q. Santana; H.D. Silva; A.F.J. Bellote. I Event of Scientific Inniciation/Undergraduate Research at Embrapa Florestas. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: First record of an Eriophyid mite from Eucalyptus in Brazil, with a complementary description of Rhombacus eucalypti Ghosh and Chakrabarti (Acari: Eriophyidae). C.A.H. Flechtmann; D.L.Q. Santana. International Journal of Acarology 27(2): 123 - 127. (2001)
(in English)

O complexo gomose da acacia-negra. (The gummosis complex of black wattle). A.F. Santos; A. Grigoletti Junior; C.G. Auer; D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas Technical Newsletter # 44. 08 pp. (2001)
(in Portuguese)

Flutuacao populacional de Ctenarytaina spatullata em Eucalyptus grandis no municipio de Colombo, PR. (Fluctuation of the population of Ctenarytaina spatullata in Eucalyptus grandis at the municipality of Colombo, PR). D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas. Ongoing Research. 03 pp. (2000)
(in Portuguese)

Associacao de Ctenarytaina spatulata e de teores de magnesio foliar com a seca de ponteiros de Eucalyptus grandis. (Association of Ctenarytaina spatulata and magnesium content on leaves with the dryback of Eucalyptus grandis branch tops). D.L.Q. Santana; F.M. Andrade; A.F.J. Bellote; A. Grigoletti Junior. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 39: 41 – 49. (1999) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em eucaliptos no Brasil. [Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus in Brazil]. D.L.Q. Santana; E.T. lede; S.R.C. Penteado; D. Burckhardt. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 39: 139 – 144. (1999) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Resistencia intra-especifica de eucaliptos a formigas cortadeiras. (Interspecific resistance of Eucalyptus to leaf cutting ants). D.L.Q. Santana; L. Couto. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 20: 13 – 21. (1990) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Pragas do eucalipto introduzidas no Brasil. (Eucalyptus pests introduced in Brazil). D.L.Q. Santana; A.L.J.L. Rocha. Embrapa Florestas (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Images of four important species of Eucalyptus attacking psyllids very well studied by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz and obtained by searches at Google Images:
(Glycaspis brimblecombei – Shell psyllid)
(Ctenarytaina spatulata – Young branches psyllid)
(Ctenarytaina eucalyptiEucalyptus psyllid)
(Blastopsylla occidentalis – New branches and branch tops psyllid)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Forest Engineer Manoel de Freitas

The forest engineer Manoel de Freitas has been one of the greatest icons of Brazilian forestry. His professional experience, leadership, and particularly, his personal efforts to promote technological development through integration of forestry companies with outstanding universities are factors which mirror his outstanding personality. I have a great friendship and admiration for Manoel, whom I know from the beginning of my career, as far we have nearly the same age and have graduated engineers about the same time. His first job came to happen in 1970, in the forest sector, at the former Champion Papel e Celulose (now International Paper do Brasil). At that time, Champion was one of the leading companies in the Brazilian Eucalyptus forestry and one of the associate members of IPEF - Institute of Forestry Research and Studies. With that, and both of us having the same "professional godfather", the great and unforgettable Dr. Ronaldo Algodoal Guedes Pereira (former president of Champion and former professor at ESALQ - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"), our roads were frequently crossing, such as in ESALQ, in IPEF, in SBS - Brazilian Society of Forestry and in dozens of conferences and events that happened in the Brazilian forestry sector. From 1997 to 2000, I was his vice-president in his "nth" management term as IPEF’s president. Throughout this entire period, I was able to understand a lot about his professional logic, very similar to mine: the continuous search for synergies and interactions in the pursuit of the common good development.

Manoel de Freitas was born in Sao Paulo state, in the city of Itarare, in 1946, but he also lived a part of his childhood in Votuporanga/SP. In 1965, when attending the Physical Education course in the city of Curitiba, he discovered by chance that there was a new academic career in Brazil: Forest Engineering. He became interested in it and changed his professional objectives: we may have lost a great trainer of Olympic talents, but we won a great planter of trees and supporter of hundreds of students of Forest Engineering.

From 1966 to 1969, he studied forestry at the Federal University of Parana in Curitiba; and as soon as he got the graduation, he had already achieved his first job placement at Champion, where he developed a long and successful career. He held virtually all positions at Champion forest management and its affiliates (AMCEL – Amapa Florestal e Celulose, Inpacel and International Paper do Brasil). When he retired in 2002, Champion had been acquired by International Paper on a global level, what happened in 2000. So, although four companies have been part of his professional life (Champion; Inpacel, which was owned by Champion for four years; AMCEL and International Paper do Brasil), in fact, Manoel de Freitas is one of those characters "who devoted himself with body and soul to a single company”, from the beginning of his career until retirement, in the life style of the great Japanese managers.

However, his retirement was premature - the Brazilian law afforded such an opportunity and it ended up happening too early. The fighting spirit, good health and age were incompatible factors with a retirement dedicated to leisure activities and rest. So, in 2003, he established the forestry company Manoel de Freitas Forestry Consulting, which allowed him to extend his career for many other Brazilian and international companies: Ramires Reflorestamentos, Caxuana Reflorestamento, Votorantim Celulose e Papel, ArborGen, Aracruz Celulose, Suzano, MecPrec, GMR Florestal, etc. Internationally, he has had customers in countries such as Chile, Argentina, Peru, United States, England and Uruguay, among others.

Of course, to tailor his resume to all the forestry and business activities he had, Manoel extended his academic background, having studied Business Administration at the PUC/Campinas and Environmental Management at Metropolitan College of Campinas. Not to mention the dozens of courses and conferences in which he participated (in many of them as speaker).

His affection and dedication to the Eucalyptus came soon after he started working at Champion, as these trees were the key raw materials of the company for the manufacture of kraft pulp and printing and writing papers. However, the silviculture of other species came to enrich his experience, especially after starting his career as a consultant. So, the pine and other native and exotic species have been incorporated into his professional luggage and forest life experience.

Manoel de Freitas always speaks with great affection about Champion, as it should be. He attributes to the company’s philosophy a substantial part of his success in involvement and management in business and technical associations. Champion, despite being a multinational company, encouraged this type of integration between university / company and the exchange of knowledge and experience. Thus, in addition to his eight years in the management of IPEF (as president and also director of the Board), he had important performances in other associations, such as Sao Paulo Association of Forest Engineers; SBS - Brazilian Society of Forestry; Florestar (founder member and president for five years), FUNBIO - Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity; and REFLORE/MS - Association of South Mato Grosso Producers and Consumers of Planted Forests.

The fact that he played key executive positions in international companies (Champion and International Paper do Brasil), and then for acting as an international consultant, opened the doors to his performance "in the four corners of the world," as he referred to this. He had numerous opportunities for international travels along his professional life, whether as a consultant, both also in events and in the businesses in which he operated. With that, his experience and holistic approach have been extended and helped to make his knowledge and experience very diverse and wide.

Throughout his career, he had numerous articles published in magazines and books, conferences, and he presented numerous lectures at events in Brazil and abroad. In his modesty of someone from the interior of Sao Paulo state, Manoel refers to his initial publications "as not very useful today, because they cover situations and practices no longer adopted by Brazilian modern forestry". However, he forgets that those were the silvicultural practices that have contributed to the changes to the development of the unique forestry technologies nowadays practiced in Brazil.

Another issue that Manoel forgets to report (and I know very well) was the always opening arms for receiving students and supporting them with the researches at the Champion and International Paper forestry facilities. Just search for Ph.D. theses and Master dissertations at ESALQ / USP, UNESP, UFPR, UnB, etc. to realize how large has been the number of students who had the opportunity to research and to learn the science and forestry practices under Manoel de Freitas’ guidance or from his staff’s.

When I asked him about his outstanding contributions to the Eucalyptus forestry, he answered modestly that "he believes he has contributed to the evolution of forestry, over his more than 40 years of activities in the sector". He preferred not to highlight any of his accomplishments or achievements, staying more in a position of leveraging and promoter of forestry in Brazil. However, I know him well, so I would like to highlight the important role he played in the selection and implementation of the forestry unit Chamflora, in the municipality of Tres Lagoas in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Manoel revealed to me in a chat, that at that time three locations were studied for expansion of the Champion forest business: Maranhao, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul. The choice was Three Lagoas/MS, with wisdom and determination. In 1988, the Champion top forestry executives had focused eyes and operations to MS, with the leadership of our dear friend Dr. Ronaldo Algodoal Guedes Pereira. It was up to Manoel to take important actions in choosing the site, as well as to lead the purchase of lands and to structure the whole project, from nursery to the planting of trees from selected species, and all that had to be concerned. The first 45,000 hectares were purchased in two years and another 40,000 hectares in the mid 90's. The plantations were started at the end of 1988. "When we finished the 60,000 hectares planted in these full 85,000 hectares land, I was used to say I knew every tree by name in Tres Lagoas, such enormous was my involvement and connections with this project". It is my opinion, my friend Manoel – Tres Lagoas should recognize this fact, it could be even with a street with your name in a plate. If they have not already done such, you deserve this with justice.

In relation to my question about what remains to be done on his way to the future, Manoel has been more emphatic, saying that "in spite of already being time to hang football boots, he continues with great enthusiasm, the same as a newly graduated person". For this reason, he dedicates much of his professional time to the companies Ramires Reflorestamentos and GMR Florestal in Brazil, as well as he works in transferring knowledge and for the development of forestry technologies in Peru (where he has this kind of work since 2003).

Manoel de Freitas has been honored with numerous awards, distinctions and honors, such as those received from IPEF, SIF - Society of Forestry Research, CREA-SP, etc. He was also awarded as patron of many graduating classes in forestry (USP, UNESP, UFPR, UnB). He highlights with well-deserved pride that he has been the first forest engineer to be awarded with the "Floresta Award", by the Federal University of Parana in 2000 along the celebrations of the 40th anniversary of Forest Engineering in Brazil. That is, nothing better and more rewarding than being recognized at the university where we graduate, because it gives a sense of accomplishment in response to the efforts and dedication of our masters.

Manoel de Freitas is married to Elisabete, from Senges-Parana, and the couple has three daughters (Charlote, Camile e Dubianca) and a grandson (Guillermo) - "his greatest and most valuable assets in his existence."

Thanks to a rescue effort of technical material prepared by our dear friend Manoel de Freitas to this issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we were able to bring to you this selection of lectures and articles for navigation: a valuable asset to all those interested in technical forestry in Brazil.

Selection of articles and speeches by the forest engineer Manoel de Freitas:

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

Entendendo as novas fronteiras da floresta plantada. (Understanding the new planted forests frontiers). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (June/August). (2011) (in Portuguese)

Desenvolvimento e/ou preservacao? Fatores a considerar. (Development and/or preservation? Factors to be considered). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (December 2010/February 2011). (2011) (in Portuguese)

Perspectivas 2011. (2011 forest perspectives). Interview with Manoel de Freitas. Painel Florestal TV. (2011)
(in Portuguese)

Timberland investing. M. Freitas. Latin American Summit 2011-IQPC. PowerPoint presentation: 13 slides. (2011)
(in Portuguese)

Administrando a empresa florestal aproveitando conceitos aprovados no dia a dia. (Managing the forest company taking advantage of the approved concepts in everyday life). M. Freitas. IPEF – Institute of Forest Research and Studies. PowerPoint presentation: 19 slides. (2011)
(in Portuguese)

Engenharia florestal, uma historia de meio seculo. (Forest engineering: a half century history). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (March/May). (2010) (in Portuguese)

As perspectivas do setor florestal em MS. (The perspectives of the forest sector in MS). Interview with M. Freitas. Ribas Florestal 2010. Youtube videos. Painel Florestal TV channel. (2010) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Eucalipto/Pinus. Bases para um projeto florestal. (Eucalyptus/Pinus. The basis for a forest project). M. Freitas. 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2010)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Desafios das novas fronteiras florestais do Brasil. (Challenges of the new forest frontiers in Brasil). M. Freitas. 1st Tocantins Forestry Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Abordagem sobre o eucalipto destaca “onda verde”. (Approach to the Eucalyptus highlights "green wave"). Informe Agropecuario Newspaper. Edition nº 264. Sindicato Rural de Campo Grande News. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Finalidades dos plantios florestais com eucaliptos. (Objectives of the forest plantations with Eucalyptus). M. Freitas. Workshop about Systems of Management for Eucalyptus Forests. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Eucalipto: aspectos sociais, ambientais e economicos. (Eucalyptus: social, environmental and economic issues). M. Freitas. Sindicato Rural de Campo Grande Forestry Seminar. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Silvicultura de Pinus. (Silviculture of Pinus). M. Freitas. Week of Agronomy. Sao Jose do Rio Preto. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. (2008) (in Portuguese)

O mercado florestal. (The forest market). M. Freitas. Goiania/Goias. PowerPoint presentation: 16 slides. (2005) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Experiencia del desarrollo forestal brasileno. (Experiences of the Brazilian forestry development). M. Freitas. FONDEBOSQUE – Fondo de Promocion del Desarrollo Forestal. Peru. PowerPoint presentation: 39 slides. (2003)
(in Spanish)

Planted forests in Brazil. M. Freitas. XX IUFRO World Congress. (1995) (in English)

Florestas sociais: a experiencia do Fundo Florestar em Sao Paulo. (Social forestry: the experience of the Florestar Fund in Sao Paulo). E.P. Castanho Filho; M. Freitas. 7th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 06 pp. (1993)
(in Portuguese)

Reforma imediata: um conceito em pratica. (Immediate forestry reestablishment: a concept in practice). M. Freitas. Revista Silvicultura 44: 34 – 37. (1992)
(in Portuguese)

Programa com Eucalyptus grandis na Champion Papel e Celulose S.A. (The program with Eucalyptus grandis at Champion Papel e Celulose S.A.). M. Freitas; A.P. Silva; A.S. Diniz; P.Y. Kageyama; M. Ferreira. Revista Silvicultura 31: 537 – 539. (1983)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao e controle de qualidade em florestas de Eucalyptus. (Evaluation and quality control in Eucalyptus forests). M. Freitas; A.P. Silva; R.A. Caneva; O. Beig. IPEF Technical Newsletter # 91. 08 pp. (1980) (in Portuguese)

Estudo comparativo do comportamento de alguns hibridos de Eucalyptus spp. (Comparative study about the behavior of some Eucalyptus spp. hybrids). R.A. Brigatti; M. Ferreira; A.P. Silva; M. Freitas. IPEF Technical Newsletter # 123. 07 pp. (1980) (in Portuguese)

O uso da floresta como supridora de energia na Champion Papel e Celulose S.A. (The utilization of the forest as energy supplier at Champion Papel e Celulose S.A.). M. Freitas. IPEF Technical Series 1(2): F.1 – F.7. (1980)

O interplantio como alternativa para rotacoes sucessivas em Eucalyptus. (Interplanting as an alternative to successive rotations in Eucalyptus forestry). M. Freitas; A.P. Silva; F. Gutierrez Neto; R.A. Caneva. IPEF 19: 1-16. (1979) (in Portuguese)

Densidade basica da madeira de plantacoes comerciais de eucaliptos, na regiao de Mogi-Guacu (S.P.). (Wood basic density in comercial plantations of Eucalyptus in the region of Mogi-Guacu-SP). C.A. Ferreira; M. Freitas; M. Ferreira. IPEF 18: 106-117. (1979) (in Portuguese)

Variacao da densidade basica da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. em funcao da idade e qualidade de local. (Variation of wood basic density of Eucalyptus spp. as a function of forest age and site quality). C.A. Ferreira; M. Freitas; M. Ferreira. I Wood Quality Congress. IPEF/ABCP. IPEF Informative Bulletin # 20: B.1 - B.19. (1978) (in Portuguese)

Reforma de eucaliptais. (Eucalyptus forests reestablishments). M. Freitas. IPEF Informative Bulletin # 16: C.1 – C.05. (1978) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

As I said, I always had a great admiration for the competence and the institutional and technical achievements of this great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and forestry in Brazil. His professional qualification, enthusiasm and dedication to forestry are unquestionable. Therefore, I felt myself honored and privileged to have had the opportunity to reveal a little about the life of this great "Friend of the Eucalyptus" and sharing some of his published technical studies throughout his career.

My dear friend Manoel de Freitas, thank you for your achievements, valuing the Eucalyptus technological and scientific development in the Brazilian forestry. Thank you also for everything you have done and will continue doing for the science, technology and the image of Brazilian forestry - and to the Eucalyptus, as well.

Online Technical References

Articles about Black Wattle - Acacia mearnsii – written by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher

Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher is one of the most productive academic researchers I know. His ability to generate and then to transmit knowledge are immense, whether through the word (courses, lectures and interviews) as in the format of articles and technical texts. His areas of expertise are the Forest Ecology and Forest Nutrition, but he has worked in many other fields of forestry, either in partnerships with other academic researchers or forestry companies technician’s, or in the advising of many undergraduate and graduate students, or in writing books of interest to the forestry sector. For his unquestionable virtues as a teacher, researcher and writer, Dr. Schumacher will be honored by both the PinusLetter as "Great Author about the Pines", as well as by the Eucalyptus Newsletter, as "Friend of the Eucalyptus" (in a future issue). Meanwhile, in spite of having the majority of his research being devoted to these two forest genera, he also has extensive research with the species: Acacia mearnsii (black wattle), Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian pine or araucaria), Platanus x acerifolia (platano), Ilex paraguaiensis (erva mate), etc. In addition, as an expert in forest nutrition and ecology, countless studies have been performed by him with forest species coming from natural native forests from Brazil.

We will prepare a more comprehensive biography with more detailed information about Dr. Mauro Schumacher’s career and professional life, when we will introduce his work in favor of the Eucalyptus, Pinus and Araucaria. This will happen in coming issues of the PinusLetter and the Eucalyptus Newsletter.

Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher holds a degree in Forest Engineering from the Federal University of Santa Maria, where he graduated in 1982. Soon after, he moved to Piracicaba (USP – University of Sao Paulo), to work for his Master of Science, under the guidance of our good friend Dr. Fabio Poggiani. In 1992, he defended his Master dissertation titled "Aspects of nutrient cycling and microclimate in stands of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. torelliana”. Thanks to his enormous dedication, determination and enthusiasm for forest science, he managed for an important international opening to study for his Ph.D. in Austria, in Vienna, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur, under the advising of the renowned Dr. Anton Krapfenbauer. There, he has developed one of the widest academic treatises on the cycling of nutrients in Eucalyptus, studying the species E. globulus, E. dunnii and E. saligna. He was assisted with special support from the company Riocell S.A., both in the form of a simple scholarship supplement, as well as the logistics in the area of forestry for the preparation of the experimental part of his doctoral thesis entitled "Nutrient cycling in different stands of Eucalyptus saligna, E. dunnii and E. globulus in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil", defended with great success in 1995. These two works will become available (online) to public in one of the upcoming Eucalyptus Newsletter, when a tribute will be given to Dr. Mauro Schumacher as a "Friend of the Eucalyptus".

Currently, Dr. Mauro Schumacher is an associate professor at UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria, where he educates his students and develops and manages forestry research in the excellent Laboratory of Forest Ecology - Labeflo, one of the most productive and well-equipped laboratories of forest ecology in Brazil (

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we are bringing some of the many studies published by Dr. Schumacher and his team about the tree species Acacia mearnsii, one of his favorite species on his multiple university research studies. Among the subjects studied about the black wattle, he includes: nutrient cycling, ecology of forest ecosystems, nutrition, interactions with other systems and species, silvicultural practices, forest wastes, etc. Perhaps, Dr. Mauro is one of Brazilian researchers with more papers published about the black wattle, either on forestry or about ecological interactions. This is because the black wattle is a leguminous tree that cycles nitrogen, including the parcel derived from its symbiotic interactions. A huge attraction for a researcher in forest ecology and nutrition. It would be of very high ecological value the establishment of mixed forest systems including black wattle, as proved by several of his studies.

I have also a great confidence in Acacia mearnsii and on its forestry and ecological value. So, in 2008, I wrote the chapter 08 of the Eucalyptus Online Book about it: "The Eucalyptus and Leguminosae. Part 01: Acacia mearnsii." Meet this chapter at:

For all these reasons, I decided to consolidate in this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition a selection of articles written by Dr. Schumacher’s qualified team of researchers about this tree species with significant value to the south of Brazil. In this region, black wattle is being planted in thousands of hectares offering wood (for pulp & paper, charcoal and biomass fuel, among others) and bark (for tannin production). We have made a careful search on the web about the papers by Dr. Mauro. We are also providing, with his consent, some other articles from events which were not open to the public on the web. These papers were placed on the website to expand our selection for you. With this, we were able to recover and prepare for you a selection of about 60 technical and scientific texts about the black wattle, with the fundamental participation of Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher. Definitely, we have an excellent and valuable database on the black wattle for those who have more interest in this species and on its forest potential in Brazil. Most certainly, the reading of them will let you know more about forestry, management, biomass, nutrition, nutrient cycling and the sustainability of Acacia mearnsii in Brazil. Because this species is also planted with success in Australia and South Africa, we are convinced that Dr. Schumacher’s articles are crossing the oceans to collaborate with the black wattle forestry in other lands and continents.

To learn a bit more about Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher’s academic career, please, visit his curriculum as provided by CNPq in the Lattes platform:

Enjoy this selection of references about Acacia mearnsii in the literature and learn with Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher’s texts, with strong participation of his team of researchers and collaborators (students, peer-academic and trainees), such as: Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira, Juarez Martins Hoppe, Leonir Rodrigues Barichello, Rubens Marques Rondon Neto, Luciano Farinha Watzlawick, Elias Moreira dos Santos, Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel, Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles, Flavia Gizele Konig, Jaime Sandro Dallago, Lisias Coelho, Francine Neves Calil, Rudi Witschoreck, Joao Vianei Menezes da Silva, Gelson Pase Dal Ross, Marcio Viera, among others.

Selection of technical papers on the black wattle and authored by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher and his research team

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

Biomassa em povoamentos monoespecificos e mistos de eucalipto e acacia-negra e do milho em sistema agrossilvicultural. (Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system). M. Viera; M.V. Schumacher. Cerne 17(2): 259-265. (2011) (in Portuguese)

Biomassa de povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Biomass in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stand, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). M.V.W. Caldeira; F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V. Schumacher; T.O. Godinho, Scientia Forestalis 39: 133-141. (2011)
(in Portuguese)

Determinacao do ponto de amostragem para a quantificacao de macronutrientes em Acacia mearnsii De Wild.
(Sampling point determination for macronutrients quantification on Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot; W.N. Schirmer. Floresta 40: 49-62. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Crescimento inicial e produtividade em plantios monoespecificos e mistos de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em sistema agrossilvicultural. (Initial growth and productivity in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii). M. Viera. Adviser: M. V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 141 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Deposicao de serapilheira e de macronutrientes em um povoamento de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) no Rio Grande do Sul. [Litter and macronutrient deposition in a stand of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. M. Viera; M.V. Schumacher. Ciencia Florestal 20: 225-233. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Plantio misto de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em sistema agroflorestal: I - Producao de biomassa. (Mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in an agroforestry system: I - Biomass production). I.S. Kleinpaul; M.V. Schumacher; M. Viera; M.C. Navroski. Ciencia Florestal 20: 621-627. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Determinacao do ponto de amostragem para a quantificacao de micronutrientes em acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Determination of the sampling point for micronutrients quantification in Acacia mearnsii De Wild]. F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot. Floresta 39(1): 77 – 87. (2009) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Uso de equacoes para estimar carbono organico em plantacoes de Acacia mearnsii de Wild. no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. (Use of equations to estimate organic carbon in Acacia mearnsii de Wild. plantations in Rio Grande do Sul – Brazil). F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot. Revista Arvore 33: 907-914. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Plantio misto de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em sistema agroflorestal.
(Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii mixed stands in an agroforestry system). I.S. Kleinpaul. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 88 pp. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Biomassa e comprimento de raizes finas em povoamento de Acacia mearnsii de Wild. estabelecido em area degradada por mineracao de carvao. (Biomass and length of thin roots in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stands established in a degraded area due to coal mining). D.E. Ceconi; I. Poletto; T. Lovato; M.V. Schumacher. Floresta 38: 1-10. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Distribuicao de probabilidade em analises nutricionais de especies florestais.
(Probability distribution in nutritional analysis of forest species). A. Dal’Col Lucio; R.A.R. Rossato; L. Storck; M.V. Schumacher; F.O. Fortes. Ceres 54(313): 214-224. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Quantificacao da biomassa de um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Biomass quantification of an Acacia mearnsii De Wild stand in the southern region of Brazil). L.R. Barichello; M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel. Ciencia Florestal 15(2): 129-135. (2005) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Conteudo de micronutrientes na biomassa de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Micronutrients content in biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild). L.R. Barichello; M.V. Schumacher; M.V.W. Caldeira. Revista Academica. Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais 3: 37-45. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Determinacao da biomassa e altura de amostragem para a quantificacao de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Biomass determination and sampling point for nutrients quantification in Acacia mearnsii De Wild). F.L.F. Saidelles. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Ph.D. Thesis. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 97 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Eficiencia do uso de micronutrientes e sodio em tres procedencias de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Nutritional efficiency in micronutrients and sodium of three Australian provenances of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher. Revista Arvore 28(1): 39-47. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Biomassa em um sistema silvipastoril com Acacia mearnsii De Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Biomass in a silvipasture system with Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in the south of Brazil). F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos; R. Witschoreck. Biomassa & Energia 1(2): 165-171. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Efeitos de diferentes tipos de substratos e recipientes no desenvolvimento de mudas de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii) e seu desempenho a campo. [Effect of different substrates and recipient types in the development of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seedlings and their development at the field]. J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; J.A.C. Vivian; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; E. Moreira; M. Pipi; J. Krieger. 9th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 08 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Crescimento de Acacia mearnsii em diferentes densidades de plantio. (Growth of Acacia mearnsii in different planting densities). J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; G.P.D. Ross; J.V.M. Silva; E.M. Santos. 9th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 06 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao da matocompeticao em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii. (Evaluation of the effect of weed control in a stand of Acacia mearnsii). J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; J.A.C. Vivian. E.M. Santos. 9th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 05 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Utilizacao de cinza de caldeira de biomassa como fonte de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii. (Utilization of power boiler ash as source of nutrients to Acacia mearnsii). H.L.M. Vogel; M.V. Schumacher; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; E.S. Moreira. 8th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 08 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Crescimento inicial de Acacia mearnsii relacionado a doses de N, P e K. (Initial plant growth of Acacia mearnsii related to dosages of N, P and K). M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; E.S. Moreira. 8th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 10 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Conteudo e exportacao de micronutrientes em acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild) procedencia Batemans Bay (Australia). [Content and exportation of micronutrients in black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) - Australian Batemans Bay provenance]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher; L.F. Watzlawick; E.M. Santos. Revista Arvore 27(1): 9-14. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Determinacao de carbono organico em povoamentos de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. plantados no Rio Grande do Sul. (Determination of organic carbon in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. planted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; L.R. Barichello; H.L.M. Vogel. Revista Academica. Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais 1 (2): 47-54. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Retorno de nutrientes via deposicao de serapilheira em um povoamento de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. [Nutrient return via litter deposition in a black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) stand in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. M.V. Schumacher; E.J. Brun; L.M. Rodrigues; E.M. Santos. Revista Arvore 27(6): 791-798. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Aspectos da ciclagem de nutrientes em um sistema silvopastoril com Acacia mearnsii De Wild., no municipio de Tupancireta, RS. (Aspects of the nutrients cycling in a silvopasture system with Acacia mearnsii De Wild., in Tupancireta, RS). F.N. Calil. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 77 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Quantificacao da biomassa e dos nutrientes em floresta de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Quantification of the biomass and the nutrients in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. forest in the south region of Brazil). L. R. Barichello. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 58 pp. (2003) (Resumo)
(in Portuguese)

Quantification of nutrient content in above-ground biomass of young Acacia mearnsii De Wild., provenance Bodalla. M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; P. Spathelf. Annals of Forest Science 59: 833-838. (2002)
(in English)

Quantificacao da biomassa aerea em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii. (Quantification of the above-ground biomass in a stand of Acacia mearnsii). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos. 8th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 07 pp. (2002)
(in Portuguese)

Evolucao espacial da gomose durante o inverno de 1999 em um povoamento de acacia-negra com dois anos de idade. (Space evolution of gummosis along the 1999 winter in a stand of Acacia mearnsii with two years of age). L. Coelho; E.A.M. Iensen; E.M. Santos; R. Balbinot; M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe. 8th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 04 pp. (2002)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao da eficiencia nutricional de tres procedencias australianas de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Evaluation of nutritional efficiency of three black wattle Australian provenances (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher. Revista Arvore 26(5): 615-620. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Relacao hipsometrica para Acacia mearnsii com diferentes idades. (Hypsometrical relation for Acacia mearnsii with different ages). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; L.W. Scheeren; L.R. Barichello. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 45: 57-68. (2002)
(in Portuguese)

Exportacao de nutrientes em funcao do tipo de exploracao em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Nutrient exports as function of harvesting system in a stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher; L.F. Watzlawick. Floresta e Ambiente 9(1): 97-104. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Acumulo e exportacao de micronutrientes em um povoamento de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) procedencia Bodalla – Australia. [Accumulation and exports of micronutrients in a stand of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) Bodalla provenance – Australia]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher. Revista Floresta 33(1): 73-78. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Teor e redistribuicao de nutrientes nas folhas e nos galhos em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii de Wild. (Acacia-negra). [Nutrient concentration and retranslocation in the leaves and branches in a stand of Acacia mearnsii de Wild. (black wattle)]. M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; L.M. Rodrigues. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 45(1): 69-88. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Quantificacao do carbono organico em floresta de Acacia mearnsii em diferentes idades. (Estimation of organic carbon in forest of Acacia mearnsii at different ages). M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel; L.R. Barichello; M.V.W. Caldeira. 2nd Latin Americal Symposium on Forest Management. 13 pp. (2001)
(in Portuguese)

Efeito da cinza sobre os teores de nutrientes no solo e nas plantas de Acacia mearnsii. (Effect of ash on the nutrient content in soil and plants of Acacia mearnsii). J.S. Dallago; M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel. 1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate Studies in Forest Engineering. 12 pp. (2001)
(in Portuguese)

A atividade mineradora, seus impactos e aspectos de sua recuperacao - uma revisao de literatura. (The mining activity, impacts and aspects of recovery – A literature review). F.L.F. Saidelles; F.G. Konig; M.V. Schumacher. 1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate Studies in Forest Engineering. 13 pp. (2001)
(in Portuguese)

Acacia mearnsii em sistemas silvopastoris. (Acacia mearnsii on sylvipasture systems). F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher. 1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate Studies in Forest Engineering. 13 pp. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Acumulo de biomassa aerea em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii. (Accumulation of above-ground biomass in a stand of Acacia mearnsii). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos; N. Tedesco; J.C. Pereira. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 42: 95-104. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Quantificacao da biomassa acima do solo de Acacia mearnsii De Wild., procedencia Batemans Bay - Australia. (Quantifying the above-ground biomass in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. - Batemans Bay provenance – Australia). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R.M. Rondon Neto; L.F. Watzlawick; E.M. Santos. Ciencia Florestal 11(2): 79-91. (2001)
(in Portuguese)

Conteudo e exportacao de B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn e Na em acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild) - procedencia Lake George Bunge Dore - Australia. [Content and exportation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Na in black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild) - Lake George Bunge Dore – Australia]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher; P. Spathelf. Floresta 31(1/2): 99-104. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Conteudo de nutrientes em uma procedencia de Acacia mearnsii plantada no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. (Nutrient content in a provenance of Acacia mearnsii planted in Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 42: 105-121. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii De Wild. V. Quantificacao do conteudo de nutrientes na biomassa aerea de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. procedencia australiana. (Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. V. Quantification of the nutrient content in the above-ground biomass in an Australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; N. Tedesco; E.M. Santos. Ciencia Rural 30 (6): 977-982. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Estimativa do conteudo de nutrientes em um povoamento jovem de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. estabelecido na regiao sul do Brasil. (Estimation of nutrient content in a young stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. established in the southern region of Brazil). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos; N. Tedesco; J.C. Pereira. Floresta 29(1/2): 53-65. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Crescimento de mudas de Acacia mearnsii em funcao de diferentes doses de vermicomposto. (Seedling growth of Acacia mearnsii according to vermicompost different dosages). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; N. Tedesco. Scientia Forestalis 57: 161-170. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Utilizacao da cinza de biomassa de caldeira como fonte de nutrientes no crescimento de plantas de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Use of ash from the biomass power boiler as a nutrient source to the growth of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seedlings]. J.S. Dallago. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria. 78 pp. (2000)
(Part 1)
(in Portuguese)
(Part 2)
(in Portuguese)

Quantificacao da biomassa e comprimento de raizes finas em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii no municipio de Butia, RS. (Quantification of biomass and thin root length in an stand of Acacia mearnsii in the municipality of Butia-RS). M.V. Schumacher; L. Copetti; A. Capra; J.I. Hernandes; F.J. Sutilli; R. Balbinot. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern Cone. 05 pp. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Exportacao de nutrientes em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii em idade de corte. (Exports of nutrients in a stand of Acacia mearnsii at harvesting age). J.C. Pereira; M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; E.M. Santos. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern Cone. 07 pp. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao da gomose da acacia negra em um povoamento no Rio Grande do Sul. (Evaluation of black wattle gummosis in a forest stand in Rio Grande do Sul state). L. Coelho; E.A.M. Iansen; E.M. Santos; M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern Cone. 05 pp. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Concentracao e redistribuicao de nutrientes nas folhas e no folhedo em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. no Rio Grande do Sul. (Concentration and redistribution of nutrients in the leaves and in the litter of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stand in Rio Grande do Sul state). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; J.C. Pereira; J.B. Della-Flora; E.M. Santos. Ciencia Florestal 9(1): 19-24. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Comparacao entre as concentracoes de nutrientes nas folhas e no folhedo em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Comparison between concentrations of nutrients in leaves and in litter for a stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; J.C. Pereira; M.V. Schumacher; J.B. Della-Flora; E.M. Santos. Revista Arvore 23(4): 489-492. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Quantificacao de tanino em diferentes povoamentos de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Quantifying tannin in different stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos; J. Viegas; J.C. Pereira. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 37(01): 81-88. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Quantificacao da biomassa e do conteudo de nutrientes em diferentes procedencias de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Quantification of biomass and nutrient content in different provenances of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 96 pp. (1998)
(in Portuguese)

Producao de biomassa em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. (Biomass production in a stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in the state of Rio Grande do Sul). J.C. Pereira; M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; M.V.W. Caldeira; E.M. Santos. Revista Arvore 21(4): 521-526. (1997)
(in Portuguese)

Aplicacao de diferentes doses de bacsol e orgasol em sementes de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii D. Wild.) e seu desenvolvimento no viveiro. [Application of different dosages of bacsol and orgasol in black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seeds and their growth in the nursery]. J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; F.F. Quevedo; R. Thomas; J.C. Vivian; T. Fontana. UFSM Technical Report. 119 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Crescimento inicial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. relacionado a doses de N, P e K. (Initial growth of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. related to doses of N, P and K). M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; H.L.M. Vogel; J.V.M. Silva; G.P. Dal Ross; E.M. Santos. Setaonline. Research Sheet # 12. 06 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Nitrogen compartimentalization in a silvopastoral system. F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher; R. Witschoreck. 10 pp. Eurosoil. (Undated) (in English)

Avaliacao da mato-competicao em plantio com mudas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Evaluation of weed control in a seedling plantation of Acacia mearnsii). J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; J.V.M. Silva; G.P. Dal Ross; E.M. Santos. Setaonline. Research Sheet # 9. 06 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Influencia do tipo de preparo de solo no crescimento de plantas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. atraves do plantio de mudas. (Influence of the soil preparation in the growth of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings). M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; R.S. Correa; J.V.M. Silva; G.P. Dal Ross; H.L.M. Vogel; E.M. Santos. Setaonline. Research Sheet # 15. 06 pp. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel

Beams of Eucalyptus Wood for Structural Uses in the Civil Construction Industry


The wood from planted forests is in continuous rise as raw material for structural elements in the civil construction works (Barr et al., 2010; Mello and Melo, 2004). The growing demand for sustainability in various branches of civil engineering has made Eucalyptus wood to be an option increasingly feasible, both economically and environmentally. This can be explained by the rapid growth, the environmentally friendly management and by the forest certification of most forest stands of the genus in Brazil (Oliveira, 2009; Lobao, 2002).

The wood has been widely used in the past on structures for buildings; and today is returning to gain ground in relation to the concrete and iron, mainly for environmental reasons (Wikipedia, 2011; Postes Mariani, Undated).

Beams are horizontal structural elements of high relevance, being practically present in all buildings, from the small to the large ones, making the uniform distribution of loads among the supporting sections (Wikipedia, 2011; Lobao, 2002). These structures help to reduce tensions in concentrated form and transmit the weights, especially the one from the slab to the supporting pillars of the buildings. The beams are also capable of supporting the bending due to the gaps, tolerating vertical gravitational forces and helping in the stability and safety of the building. These elements are also of high importance in case of winds and earthquakes (which exerts horizontal forces), assisting in the redistribution of forces to the columns and to other auxiliary parts of the structure (Wikipedia, 2011).

The wooden beams may be cylindrical trunks (used for small and rustic buildings), or sawed, flattened, reconstituted, laminated or glued wood (Cecchini, 2010). The pieces can be used in heavy constructions for both the outside and for the internal areas (Nahuz, 2010). The size, type of beams and dimensioning on a construction site will depend largely on its purpose, requiring projects developed primarily by engineers and architects to prevent the structural displacements that are used to happen, while promoting elasticity (Cecchini, 2010; Wolenski et al., Undated). Tecniwood (Undated) showed that the beams can be used in various types of buildings such as offices, homes, swimming pools, bridges, arbors, auditoriums, pavilions, as well as shopping malls and other buildings intended for leisure. Cecchini (2010) commented that the cost of works that require additional carpentry details can increase, reaching 20% of the total.

Despite their enormous relevance, there are few studies involving the Eucalyptus woods as raw materials for structural elements such as beams (Barr et al., 2010). Thus, this paper aims to share technical knowledge about this kind of structural elements, emphasizing the main types, properties, advantages and disadvantages, as related to the durability of the wood for the function.

Types of beams

Cecchini (2010) explained that the beams and pillars are nailed, plugged, or connected by screwed fittings, creating a frame that corresponds to the skeleton of a building. One of the main forms of beam differentiation is by how they are linked to their supports, and can basically be classified into (Wikipedia, 2011):

Cantilever beam - also called consoles, they have only one support where it is fixed.

Dual supported beam - as the name implies, the support structure has double supporting pillars.

Continuous beam arrangement - the beam receives multiple connections along the length; having different rests for its support. These beams are the more common in bridges manufactured in wood, concrete or mixed types (made from different raw materials). This is because, despite the supports, much of the part remains "free", allowing the required displacements to prevent shearing and ensure the safety and stability.

Another classification is based on the raw materials used for beam formation. Currently, there are concrete, steel, solid wood, reconstituted wood or hybrids that combine multiple layers of different products in the beams construction (Oliveira, 2009; Tecniwood, Undated).

The reconstituted wood beams, in turn, can be made of OSB (oriented strand boards), MDF (sheets of medium density fiberboards) or wood veneer (laminated glued wood) (Aprilanti, 2010; Fagundes , 2003). The latter author points out that the wooden beams and glued laminated wooden beams have wood plates of a maximum of 45 mm thickness which are glued together under high pressure and using waterproof adhesives. This gives high mechanical resistance to the pieces (Lobao and Gomes, 2006). They are in great demand for the distribution of weights in floor coverings (simple bending), in porches (biaxial bending) and pillars (compound bending) (Tecniwood, Undated).

Lobao and Gomes (2006) evaluated the adhesion quality of lamellar beams made of Eucalyptus wood with two different wood densities. There were no differences in strength between the bonded specimens and solid wood for the lower density, but the results were superior to the pieces containing blades which were glued parallel to the direction of the fibers.

Advantages of the wooden beams

In addition to environmental benefits, there are several others that make the wood to be an advantageous alternative to steel and concrete for the use as structural elements in the civil construction industry.

The treated wood beams can be more resistant to fire than steel or concrete. Pinto and Calil Jr. (2003) explained that due to the slow degradation of the fibers in the beam core and because the poor thermal conductivity showed by charcoal, these facts prevent the wood beams inner layers to be damaged by the high temperatures.

In addition, the wooden beams provide a better feeling of comfort, especially due to thermal and acoustic insulation that wood provides. The beams of this product are also more aesthetically attractive and can better resist corrosive environments such as pools and locations close the sea.

Barr and others (2010) carried out a case study comparing the performance and advantages of concrete and wooden beams in medium-sized buildings. The authors concluded that the latter has greater benefits especially in ecological terms, but the maintenance of these structures should be performed frequently and the wood is recommended to be recycled at the end of its life cycle.

According to Cecchini (2010) the wood is lighter than concrete, facilitating the labor performance to assemble the beams and provides also a cleaner work. The same author commented that the initial cost of construction, by requiring more details and care with fittings, may be more expensive; but after that, the rapid assembly of beams can make costs to be virtually the same when comparing the wooden with the concrete structures. With regard to the latter, the wood also causes less environmental impact, spending a lot less energy to be produced and processed. This makes Eucalyptus trees to be very potential for the purpose, mainly because this wood is a recyclable and renewable natural resource. As soon Eucalyptus forests are harvested, there is the planting of new individuals in the same area, ensuring new reserves of this product for future generations (Barr et al. 2010; Oliveira, 2009; Postes Mariani, Undated; Tecniwood, Undated). Eucalyptus can be grown commercially near urban centers or close to the processing factories, reducing the cost of log transportation, and later, the cost of the beams (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010). The beams can also be made from wastes from sawmills, such as those prepared with wood veneers or reconstituted wood. This gives added value to the wastes of other wood processing industries (Lobao and Gomes, 2006; Fagundes, 2003). The use of glued and reconstructed wood is one of the few ways to get long beams, winning spans exceeding 6 meters (Cecchini, 2010; Azambuja and Mattos, Undated).

The Eucalyptus wood, although less dense than those of some native species traditionally used in civil construction, does not imply in differences in the quality of the beams. Thus, Eucalyptus wood cooperates to the reduction of the use of many Brazilian native trees from natural forests (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010; Oliveira, 2009; Mello and Melo, 2004).

Baeta and Sartor (1999) recorded the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus citriodora wood and the woods from other endemic species from Brazil, all commonly used in buildings. The authors compared the mechanical properties and specific gravities of several wood species, concluding that they had good qualities for structural uses, including the Eucalyptus. However, each utilization deserves a specific evaluation, and the authors show in detail the ways to evaluate these structural calculations.

Structural timber products are very sensitive to moisture and timber should be avoided in places where there is continuous and direct contact with the water. The ideal is to carry out treatments using preservative products, extending the service life of the Eucalyptus wooden pieces even for periods exceeding 20 or more years. Treatment of wooden beams under pressure prevents the attack of biological agents able to detract mechanical strength and aesthetics, such as termites and fungi (Postes Mariani, Undated).

The use of hybrid beams (containing in addition to wood, other materials such as concrete, steel or glass fibers) is an alternative to reinforce the structure in areas with high humidity (Cecchini, 2010; Oliveira, 2009). The hybrid beams are generally more resistant than those with only one material, which allows the use of wider distances between them (larger gaps) (Azambuja and Mattos, Undated). The use of multiple materials in a single beam can also help to compensate for the defects of the wood, especially those responsible for the decrease of tensile strength.

Miollo cited by Oliveira (2009) studied the resistance of hybrid beams containing Eucalyptus wood by comparing the results with those of other pure materials. The author reported that the use of glass fibers can make the beams 134% stiffer and 28% stronger.

Properties of beams made from Eucalyptus wood

The beams may have different formats in their sections, also known as beam profiles (models of beams). They are found in structural engineering in designed profiles such as "I-beam” profile, "H-beam" profile, "U" profile, "T" profile, and "L" profile. The first two are the most commonly used in buildings, especially because most structures are far from neutral axis, increasing the stiffness of them. Thus, the “I-beam” profile can give bending strength to the axis, either up or down, being considered highly efficient because of the high resistance when related to its weight (Cunha and Matos, 2010). The other profiles are used in more specific cases of the civil engineering (Wikipedia, 2011).

To any type of beam profile, mathematics calculations are needed to determine the maximum weight that the beam can support, while transferring stresses. The shear stresses are the main characteristics being studied for the beams. The site of application of the beams can also be calculated by the bending moment (Wikipedia, 2011; Pinheiro et al., 2010; The Brazilian standard NBR 7190/07 sets out the tests that should be used for finding allowable stresses that are supported with safety by the beams. Several engineering calculations must be performed, but the simple bending is the most used and takes into account the purpose, the average density and stiffness of the wood lot, as well as the wood moisture content (Lobao, 2003).

According to Azambuja and Mattos (Undated) there are three factors to be observed in the timber beams. They are: limitations of stress (including stresses derived from bending moment and tangential shear stress), limitations of deformations and evaluations of the stability of the structures.

The concerns about the quality of wood for structural elements of buildings have always existed. It is for this reason that studies are needed to the new and current generation of technologies. They are expected to minimize the defects of Eucalyptus wood and reduce the variation of mechanical properties of them. These studies should be encouraged. In addition, incentives are required for additional researches, aimed to clarify the properties of composite beams in a wide range of beam profiles, as well as the assessment of reconstituted wood for the purpose (Wikipedia, 2011).

Several technical papers related to the evaluation of the properties for Eucalyptus beams have been developed and are available in the literature. Here, we have some of the results in a summarized way:

Aprilanti (2010) analyzed the influence of joints in laminated beams of Eucalyptus grandis in relation to their resistance. Tests were performed in the specimens such the non-destructive static bending and the modules of elasticity in the static bending. It was found that the cut of the piece causes considerable differences in the stiffness of the beams, which was explained by the change of stress flow throughout their extension. This may lower the strengths of the piece, because the cut acts like a crack or a defect in the wood.

Calil Jr. and Brito (2010) assessed the properties of various Eucalyptus wood species such as flexural modulus of elasticity and flexural strength limit, comparing them to existing works in literature. E. citriodora (Corymbia citriodora) was the species with data more similar to those found and considered theoretical values for properties in accordance to Brazilian standards. However, less dense wood species showed variations in elastic modulus up to 47%.

Santos et al. (2009) further developed the existing knowledge on the type I-beams for reconstituted wood through the study of their properties. Theoretical values of the modulus of elasticity, the bending moment and vertical displacement were compared to experimental results obtained for two types of beams. One that had plywood as core and the other with OSB. The pieces containing plywood resulted in values very similar to those found in the literature; however, the resistances of the beams containing OSB were slightly superior.

Bartholomeu and Goncalves (2007) evaluated the quality of wood of two species of Eucalyptus with different moisture contents for making beams. To this purpose, they have studied the longitudinal velocity of ultrasound waves, comparing the survey data with those already existing in the literature. The results were more consistent for E. citriodora than for E. grandis in saturated samples (30% moisture).

Pedrosa (2003) studied the properties of "I-beams" manufactured with reconstituted wood (laminated and OSB), having Pinus taeda and E. citriodora as wood supply. The tests aimed to evaluate the contribution of each type of raw material in the performance of these structural elements. The author pointed to the OSB the best results, resulting in a better uniformity in the analyzed properties such as modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and deflection. The beams of laminated plywood from one of the tested species had greater variability in results than the others – those with OSB were more uniform.

Durability of Eucalyptus wooden beams

Much of the wooden structural elements are subject to chemical attack, physical and biological agents that cause the deterioration of their properties, and can therefore affect both the quality of the building and even in the safety (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010; Postes Mariani, Undated). The durability of the beams is an extremely important quality test, requiring the beams to show good performance during the entire life. Brito (2011) identified three factors that influence the durability of wooden structural elements, which are: correct detailing and execution of the project; the use of preventive treatments in wood; and regular maintenance / repairs on structures.

The proper use of wood for this purpose, associated to the necessary calculations for dimensioning beams and structures for avoiding excessive pressure on the elements can extend lifespan (Lobao, 2002).

One of the main ways to increase the longevity of the wood is through its preventive treatment with preservative substances. Currently in Brazil, most treatments of the beams are performed in Wood Preservation Plants (WPP's) that follow the NBR's # 8456, 9480, 12083, using the process of vacuum/pressure in dedicated autoclaves for the uptake of chemicals compounds to the interior of the timber porosity (Postes Mariani, Undated; Uniao Madeiras, Undated; Cobrire, Undated). The treatments with chemicals can reduce the attack of insects and microorganisms in the woods, turning their lives longer and better in performance.

The durability of the treated Eucalyptus wood can be extended up to 50 years, as far it receives the appropriate treatment, inspections and repairs. After the addition of the preservative chemical, other finishing steps may be applied to timber with products to give hydro repellency and sunscreen, especially for beams that are exposed to bad weather conditions (Postes Mariani, Undated)

Final remarks

The Eucalyptus woods are increasingly being used as structural elements at the civil construction industry. Therefore, the knowledge of their features and properties is extremely relevant to guarantee the best utilization, increasing durability and strengths.

Wooden beams made of reconstituted wood or mixed materials are in continuous rise in the markets. If well used, they can deliver numerous economic and environmental benefits. More incentives for researching of new technologies and the improvement of the Eucalyptus wood properties for beams manufacturing should be promoted. This would help reducing the price of these structural elements making them more accessible to low-income people, besides promoting additional durability and sustainability to buildings.

References of literature and suggestions for additional reading

Look below some technical texts, news, speeches, theses and scientific papers that deal with the use of Eucalyptus wood for making beams to be used in civil engineering works. Many of these technical and scientific texts were used for the preparation of this article. In them, you can also check the main advantages, disadvantages and properties of Eucalyptus wood used for this purpose.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

The use of wood in construction. A triple bottom line assessment of the use of laminated wood in construction relative to reinforced concrete. C. Barr; A. Lam; W. Wei. NewSub. UBC-Vancouver. 25 pp. (2011)
(in English)

Estruturas com pecas de madeira de florestas plantadas. (Structures with wooden pieces from planted forests). L.D. Brito. CIMAD. Painel Florestal. (2011)
(in Portuguese)

Rigidez e resistencia de vigas estruturais de madeira laminada colada e com perfil I compostas por diferentes adesivos. (Bending stiffness and resistance of structural glulam beams of I type composed of different adhesives). A.B. Cunha; J.L.M. Matos. Ciencia Florestal 20(2): 345-356. (2010)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Onde achar eucalipto tratado. (Where to find treated Eucalyptus wood). M. Cecchini. Dicas da Arquiteta – Tips of the architect. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Uso da madeira de florestas plantadas na construcao civil e no mobiliario: tendencias e perspectivas. (Use of wood from planted forests in construction and furniture making: trends and perspectives). M.A.R. Nahuz. MS Florestal. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Cisalhamento em vigas – Capitulo 13. (Shear in beams – Chapter 13). L.M. Pinheiro; C.D. Muzardo; S.P. Santos. USP – College of Engineering of Sao Carlos. 12 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Influencia de um corte na borda tracionada de uma viga macica simulando uma emenda de topo na lamina inferior de vigas laminadas coladas. (The influence of a cut in the tensioned edge of a solid beam simulating a butt joint at the bottom lamination of glued laminated beams). M.D. Aprilanti. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 109 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Manual de projeto e construcao de estruturas com pecas rolicas de madeira de reflorestamento. (Handbook for the design and construction with cylindrical pieces of wood obtained from plantation forests). C. Calil Junior; L.D. Brito. USP – University of Sao Paulo. EESC – College of Engineering of Sao Carlos. LaMEM – Laboratory of Wood and Wooden Structures. 332 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Influencia do teor de umidade nas propriedades de adesao da madeira de Corymbia citriodora. (Influence of moisture content on the adhesion properties of Corymbia citriodora wood). J.P. Motta; R.C. Alves; J.T.S. Oliveira. Meeting of Scientific Initiation and Graduated Studies. UNIVAP – University of Paraiba Valley. 04 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Comportamento teorico e experimental de vigas de madeira em perfil I: efeito do tipo de alma na resistencia, rigidez e deslocamento vertical. (Theoretical and experimental behavior of wooden I-beams: effects of web type on strength, stiffness and deflection). A.M.L. Santos; C. Henrique; S.D. Menezzi; G. Bortoletto Júnior. Scientia Forestalis 37(82): 131-141. (2009)

Vigas hibridas feitas com laminas de eucalipto coladas, reforco de fibra de vidro (na base) e ganchos metalicos (no topo) para ligar a estrutura ao concreto. [Hybrid beams made with glued sheets of Eucalyptus, with glass fiber reinforcement (at the bottom) and metal hooks (on top) to connect to the concrete structure). R. Oliveira. Madeira Total. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Producao e avaliacao de vigas de madeira laminada colada confeccionadas com laminas de eucalipto. (Production and evaluation of glued laminated wood beams with blades made of Eucalyptus). J.L. Miotto; A.A. Dias. Revista Tecnologica, Special edition. p. 35-45. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Avaliacao do comportamento mecanico ao cisalhamento de conectores de barras de aco com ganchos em vigas mistas de madeira laminada colada e concreto. (Evaluation of the mechanical behavior to shear in rod-type fasteners in glued-laminated-timber and concrete connections). E.P. Carvalho. Ph.D. Thesis. UFMG – Federal University of Minas Gerais. 173 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Comportamento de juntas coladas de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus sp. (Behavior of glued joints of Eucalyptus sp. sawn wood). O.B. Plaster; J.T.S. Oliveira; C.P. Abrahao; R.L. Braz. Cerne 14(3): 251-258. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Predicao do modulo de elasticidade a flexao em vigas de eucalipto saturadas e secas ao ar utilizando a velocidade longitudinal de ultra-som. (Prediction of the flexural modulus of elasticity in Eucalyptus saturated and air-dried wood beams using the longitudinal velocity of ultrasound). A. Bartholomeu; R. Goncalves. IV Pan American Conference on Non-Destructive Essays. Buenos Aires. 07 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Qualidade da adesao de madeira de eucalipto em corpos de prova colados em dois diferentes planos e densidades. (Quality of bonding on Eucalyptus wood specimens glued in two different densities and shear planes). M.S. Lobao; A. Gomes. Revista Cerne 12(2): 194-200. (2006) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Caracterizacion mecanica de viga cajon. (Mechanical characterization of girder). V.H.V. Riveros. Monography of Course Graduation. Wood Engineering. Universidad Austral de Chile. 58 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Durability of laminated veneer lumber made from blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis). J. Carrick, K. Mathieu. 10th DBMC - International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. 09 pp. (2005) (in English)

Escoramento em edificacoes. Obras civis. (Anchoring in buildings. Civil works). CEHOP – State Company for Housing and Public Works. 13 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Constructive systems using Eucalyptus logs for ecological parks in central Brazil. R.L. Mello; J.E. Melo. EWPA – Engineered Wood Products Association. 04 pp. (2004) (in English)

New advances for the application of Eucalyptus as structural wood. J.A. Santos; A.C.M. Pinho. Silva Lusitana 12(1): 43 – 50. (2004) (in English)

Analise experimental de um modelo reduzido de uma ponte mista de madeira-concreto utilizando vigas de madeira rolica. (Experimental analysis of a limited model of mixed-material bridge of timber-concrete using beams of log timber). P.G.A. Segundinho; J.A. Matthiesen. IX Brazilian Meeting on Woods and Wooden Structures. Cuiaba. 15 pp. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Estruturas de madeira. (Wood structures). F.A.R. Gesualdo. Class-room handouts. Federal University of Uberlandia. 98 pp.(2003) (in Portuguese)

Performance de vigas “I” constituidas por flanges de PLP e almas de compensado de Pinus taeda L. e Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, e alma de OSB de Pinus spp. (Performance of “I” beams made up of LVL flanges and core of Pinus taeda L. Maiden, Eucalyptus dunnii plywoods or Pinus spp. OSB). A. L. Pedrosa. Master Dissertation. UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 119 pp. (2003),al.pdf (in Portuguese)

Estudo teorico e experimental sobre a degradacao termica e os gradientes termicos da madeira de Eucalyptus de uso estrutural exposta ao fogo. (Theoretical and experimental study on the thermal degradation and thermal gradients of Eucalyptus structural wood exposed to the fire). E.M. Pinto; C. Calil Junior. Minerva 3(2): 131-140. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Comportamento de vigas retas em MLC com emendas de topo e bisel – parte II. (Behavior of straight wooden glued laminated beams with scarf and butt joints - part II). A.M. Nascimento; R.M.D. Lucia; F.C. Baeta. Floresta e Ambiente 10(2): 19 – 29. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Diagnostico da producao de madeira serrada e geracao de residuos do processamento de madeira de florestas plantadas no Rio Grande do Sul. (Diagnosis of lumber production and generation of waste from wood processing from forest plantations in Rio Grande do Sul). H.A.V. Fagundes. Master Dissertation. UFRGS – Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. 173 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Madeira: Uso sustentavel na construcao civil. (Wood: sustainable use in the civil construction industry). G.J. Zenid et al. IPT. 60 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao experimental de vigas com emendas de topo coladas com cobrejuntas de madeira de eucalipto. (Experimental evaluation of beams with end-grain joints and side members made with Eucalyptus wood). M.S. Lobao. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 64 pp. (2002)
(in Portuguese)

Proyecto vigas laminadas. (Laminated beams project). Ritim - Red Instituciones de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Industria Maderera. 02 pp. (2002) (in Spanish)

Resistencia dos materiais e dimensionamento de estruturas para construcoes rurais. (Resistance of materials and design structures for rural buildings). F.C. Baeta; V. Sartor. Rural Constructions. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 46 pp. (1999)
(in Portuguese)

Utilizacao da madeira comercial do hibrido de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na confeccao de vigas laminadas coladas. (Use of commercial timber from the hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in the production of glued laminated beams). I.R. Nielsen. Master Dissertation. UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 123 pp. (1998)
(in Portuguese)

Utilizacao da madeira em construcoes rurais. (The utilization of wood in rural buildings). C. Calil Junior; A.A. Dias. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental I: 71-77. (1997) (in Portuguese)

Tensoes de flexao nas vigas. (Bending stresses in beams). S.S.O. Buffoni. UFF – Fluminense Federal University. 20 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Metodos de tratamentos de preservacao de madeiras. (Treatment methods for preserving wood). C.R. Gurski. UNIUV - Uniao da Vitoria University Center. 26 pp. (Undated)étodos%20de%20tratamento.pdf (in Portuguese)

Constructive method of an Eucalyptus laminated timber edification. E.V.M. Carrasco; C.M. Teixeira; C. Paoliello. WSU – Washington State University. 07 pp. (Undated) (in English)

Saligna laminated beams. Technical data. Technical data. Superspan Timber Structural Systems. (Undated) (in English)

Vigas de madeira laminada e colada submetidas a flexao simples. (Glued laminated wooden beams subjected to simple bending). E. Azambuja; A.P.M. Mattos. Tecnicas e Estruturas II. FAU – PUCRS. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Vigas lameladas coladas. (Lamellar glued wooden beams). Tecniwood. 05 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Vigas de madeira lamelada-colada. (Beams of glued-laminated timber). Tecniwood. 02 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Verificacao da validade sobre a hipotese de pequenos deslocamentos em vigas de madeira do genero Eucalyptus. (Checking the validity about the hypothesis of small displacements in beams of Eucalyptus wood). A. L. Christoforo; A.R.V. Wolensnki; T.H. Panzera; P.C.M. Lamim Filho; F.B. Batista. Fascículos UNESP 29(1). (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Some images on beams, rafters, columns and girders obtained from Eucalyptus wood (just for referencing images and technical information - should not be understood as commercial suggestions for trade)
(“Eucalyptus wood beam”. Google Images)
(“Vigas de madeira de eucalipto”. Google Images)
(“Caibros de madeira de eucalipto”. Google Images)
(“Colunas de madeira de eucalipto”. Google Images)

Websites of producers and manufacturers (just for referencing images and technical information - should not be understood as commercial suggestions for trade):
(Floresta Representacoes de Madeiras. Products) (Cobrire. Wood structures) (Diamade. Products) (Fermade woods. Products) (Madeireira Jobb. Beams)
(Kaska Woods. Eucalyptus wooden beams) (Postes Mariani. Products) (Tecniwood) (Tratasul. Photo Gallery) (Uniao Woods. Products)

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel

Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management to the Plantation Forests

The maintenance of the productive capacity of forest areas has always been a major concern for the forest plantation companies. With the pursuit and utilization of appropriate management techniques, the goal is to ensure the perpetuity of forest productivity, without depleting it. Foresters are very much interested in developing the ability of a given ecosystem to remain productive in the long run. However, productivity is only one of many requirements to the sustainable management of forests. This is because planted forests are a lot more than simply areas of growing trees for industrial or domestic timber production. They are complex ecosystems that involve not only the area of the planted trees, but an entire and intricate ecological mosaic, including permanent preservation areas (riparian areas, wetlands, river banks, springs, etc.), legal reserve areas and other areas containing agricultural crops in the surroundings. In these complexity of areas, there are not just trees to enjoy the natural resources, but also other plants (flora, ranging from higher plants to micro-soil plant life), animals (from micro-fauna to superior animals, and also people), and even minerals (clays , sand, rocky outcroppings, etc.). Finally, they are complex ecosystems and the responsibility of the user of this ecosystem is not to harm, but to improve it.

Until the mid 90's, there was not a clear view of how to proceed to improve forest management in a way to cause minimum negative environmental impacts on these ecosystems as well as how to improve the sustainability of these complex ecosystems. The main concern was to cultivate the plantations in the same way as done in other agricultural activities - planting, managing the operations and harvesting the trees. At most, there was a concern to keep the soil productivity, at least in the medium term.

During the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - UNCED, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, a major worldwide event known as "Earth Summit" (, it was released an important document entitled "Declaration of Forests", a kind of suggestions book to guide the protection and empowerment of the world's forests. However, it was considered that protection and conservation was not to be obtained just by prohibitions. Forests have always been major producers of goods and services to humanity. Shortly, there was a need to protect forests, while maintaining production of these essential benefits to humans.

Soon after Earth Summit, several groups of nations with similar forest characteristics have begun to mobilize themselves to discuss how to measure, evaluate and develop what was called forest sustainability. In 1993, a working event happened in Montreal (Canada) with the presence of a dozen non-European nations to discuss criteria for the sustainable development of boreal and temperate forests, which were common to these countries. This gave rise to various working groups for the generation of criteria and indicators for this type of forests, in what was called the "Montreal Process". This process had several developments and the addition of new members.

There were also other intergovernmental processes (between nations) such as:

• Helsinki process – to develop principles, criteria and indicators on forest sustainability to the European forests;
• ITTO process – International Tropical Timber Organization – same objectives, but to the tropical forests;
• Tarapoto process – to the Amazon forests, including several countries of this region.

These processes have formed the basis for dialogue and understanding among stakeholders to the creation of the principles, criteria and indicators in order to ensure the health of the forest environments, whether of natural occurrences or plantation forests.

A common understanding that became soon clear was that these processes could not speak on forest sustainability without privileging the fundamental connection between forests and people. Therefore, no country would achieve the sustainability of its forests without the effective participation of people. Therefore, transparency and dialogue with interested parties were considered vital to the improvement of the principles, criteria and indicators (P&C&I). For this reason, it must become clear that all these P&C&I are much more than simply management or performance standards. They house a whole conceptual process and developments that begin in the basic principles of adherence and end on the indicators that are the necessary evidences to ensure that proper forest management is being practiced. Despite having been created according to conceptual purposes, they were transferred to the effective practice from the time they were incorporated into the forest certification systems.

The certification of forests (or forest green label) started to be developed from the early 90's and it was consolidated in a worldwide basis at the end of that decade, with several local and global initiatives. The highlights were initiatives and programs such as FSC - Forest Stewardship Council, PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes, American Sustainable Forest Initiative, ISO 14001 - Bridge document on guidelines for sustainable forests; WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Sustainable Forest Management), etc. In addition, there were several initiatives of nongovernmental organizations and private initiatives, such as SGS Forestry (Qualifor), Rainforest Alliance (SmartWood) and SCS - Scientific Certification Systems (Forest Conservation Programme), among others. Also, forest certification schemes have emerged in many countries, including the Cerflor system in Brazil.

Those programs and forest certification systems had sought the involvement of main stakeholders, including actors from environmental, social and productive sectors. With that, the seeds of larger worldwide programs have been launched, with global involvement and strong participation of society. Remember friends, forest ecosystems are rich in fauna, flora, minerals, but also in people. This engagement was facilitated by the leverage provided by the Internet, which has been a remarkable tool for public consultations, discussions, dissemination of information, etc.

Definitely, this type of process has been successful and has been able to show two very important things, even the most incredulous persons:

• Even stakeholders with dramatically differing viewpoints can work together to achieve agreed upon results;
• The involvement of the whole society adds great value and provides the necessary credibility to improve the major of all assets we have, which is Nature - in this case, in the format of forest ecosystems (productive or conservation).

We always had some kind of confusion between what are defined as principles, criteria and indicators for SFM - Sustainable Forest Management. Some processes prefer to work with just two levels instead of three and to define only criteria and indicators. There were numerous discussions at technical, scientific and conceptual levels to the election of the P&C&I. They are vital both to define the limits of good forest management, such as to support the programs for forest certification. The P&C&I provide a logical framework for the establishment and construction of rules and procedures about what to do for the proper forest management. They also help in comparing and search for compatibility between the various forest certification systems.

Let's try to separate these three hierarchical levels according to our best judgments about:

› Principles: they are broader guidelines, which define the primary framework oriented to forest sustainability. They are guidelines that express the first-order wisdom about things related to SFM - Sustainable Forest Management. They refer to the vital functions of forests and their management environments and “principles should last forever".

› Criteria: are second-order deployments of the principles, in order to operationalize them, without, however, provide elements for measuring or checking. They are patterns to provide functionality to the principles. The criterion should indicate the degree of agreement is expected to meet the principle. The set of criteria must be exhausting for each principle to make sure that the principle will be obeyed or reached. They can be changed and adjusted with the aim not to become obsolete.

› Indicators: are components of the forest ecosystem that can be measured or that provide clear evidences that the principles and criteria are being followed. In some cases, they are numeric (quantitative), in others only evidences (qualitative). They must, therefore, be elements that are verifiable in the ecosystem at the productive, social and environmental issues. Indicators should allow reaching a verdict about how, when and where the efforts for the achievement of SFM are being allocated. They indicate the status or conditions followed by a criterion.

Some schemes have also established what they have called as Verifiers or Checkers. These are limits or required specifications to meet the P&C&I. For example, a verifier may be the maximum dosage of herbicides to be applied per hectare and the indicator is the measured amount actually applied, which may or may not conform to the specification of the verifier.

The purpose of the P&C&I is to build a framework of wisdom, knowledge, information, data and evidences to encourage and to guide actions and operations in the adoption of SFM. They also intend to give the required credibility to the whole process. With an appropriate set of P&C&I it is possible to:

To express, disseminate and make public the sustainable forest management to communities and stakeholders;

  • To evaluate the performance of the forest management;
  • To monitor the impacts of management interventions;
  • To register data, evaluations, etc.;
  • To understand the changes are going on in the forest ecosystem;
  • To provide guidelines for the construction of the best operational forest practices;
  • To build or to adapt the management strategies;
  • To innovate with regard to the forest practices in order to make them more sustainable;
  • To build a wide common understanding about the existing interactions;
  • To guarantee effectiveness, efficacy and eco-efficiency to the operational practices.

These hierarchical levels sometimes bring confusion to users. For this reason, some certification systems have decided to convert them into just two levels, as mentioned earlier: criteria and indicators – this has the aim to facilitate the understanding by stakeholders. However, they must do this without changing the vital objectives of the process.

Anyway, the indicators are just the tools for operational assessment. They are vital parts to assist the implementation and the maintenance of any forest certification system. Even if a forest company does not want to obtain the green label (the third party certificate of SFM), but wants to practice a sustainable forestry, it should work with the P&C&I. Today, empiricism and goodwill are not enough. We must have access to the wisdom about the forests, whether natural or planted. The whole process relies on the best that science has offered (or will even offer). Today, almost everything is accessible on the web to the knowledge of interested parties. Therefore, a company that does not aim to have its forests certified may well develop a set of forest management indicators with focus on sustainability and not only in productivity indicators of the areas actually planted with trees.

Indicators of forest productivity are very commonly utilized by foresters in management. They may be indicators of machinery performances (example: m³ of timber harvested by the harvesting machine per hour) or persons (example: number of seedlings produced per man-hour in the nursery). They may also be related to productivity and growth of forests (example: MAI - Mean Annual Increment in m³/ha.year). The indicators for forest sustainability are created having as basic foundations the P&C of SFM.

Prior telling you about what are the basic principles of sustainable forest management (or appropriate forest management, as some prefer), I would like to offer to you two examples of this hierarchy of levels of sustainability discussed so far.

Example 01:

› Principle: Conservation of ecological diversity

› Criterion: To save and/or to raise the population of endangered species in the forest management unit

› Indicator: Survey of fauna endangered species in the areas of forest fragments, natural corridors and plantations

› Verifiers: minimum frequencies of individuals of the endangered species in relation to the normal figures available to the biome and region in which the management forest unit is located

Example 02:

› Principle: Maintenance of health, integrity, functions and vitality of the forest ecosystem

› Criterion: Regeneration ability of the natural forests must be assured

› Indicator: Forest corridors and fragments of natural forests must remain untouchable and preserved and well-distributed in the forest management unit

› Verifier: minimum ratio between untouchable and preserved areas and the effective commercially oriented plantations

The management of the forest plantations is performed according to the same principles and criteria developed to the natural forests. However, there are specific adjustments to the plantations peculiarities. In particular, indicators and verifiers are developed locally, depending on the operational features of the region and its conditions, etc. They vary depending on the topography, the level of mechanization, the design of the forest eco-mosaic, the water regime in the region, hydrology and design of micro-basins and watersheds, soil types, etc.

Good science and appropriated knowledge on forestry techniques plus the knowledge about impacts and socio-environmental interactions are vital in this process. The goal is to produce forests with minimal negative impacts and excellent positive effects. This means that we need to produce wood and other forest products to meet the demands of society for these goods and services. However, we must do this in a sustainable manner, ensuring that forest sites will keep their productivity and will be enriched in terms of other ecosystem components, such as fauna, flora, water, soil, etc.

To combine production outputs with sustainability, the forest company should not only focus on productivity and production in the area actually planted with commercial trees, but to focus on a wide and varied range of P&C&I for SFM. It should develop its indicators and verifiers with wisdom, determination, knowledge and competence.

The forest management with a focus on sustainability should have the unit of forest management (which may be a farm, or a micro-basin, for example) as the scope, where the various components and members of the forest eco-mosaic can be followed up, assessed, measured, monitored and managed.

The technologies and silvicultural practices should be designed and utilized to comply with the P&C. Indicators and verifiers will provide the tools to test, to demonstrate and to improve the process. The producers of planted forests, usually very active as stakeholders of this process, are in reality the most important drivers to the development of operational techniques and innovations for attaining SFM. With this in mind, SFM will become better and more eco-efficient. Because sustainability is an endless process, there will always be new challenges, new technologies, new ways of doing forestry and harvesting trees, etc.

Ultimately, since we need to manage our forest units based on the wisdom and the best available knowledge, the main target will be to design all forest management on the basis of the fundamental principles already defined by the different processes (Montreal, Helsinki, etc.). They were developed (and are being continuously improved) based on the dialogue between stakeholders and are primarily the following, according to our understanding of the different processes that have set them:

  • Conservation of ecological and biological diversity (biodiversity), involving the diversity of ecosystems, species, germplasms, etc.;
  • Maintenance (and even increase) of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems (both in terms of wood, biomass or other forest products);
  • Maintenance of health, vitality, integrity and ecosystem functions;
  • Perpetuity of the dynamic balance between inputs and outputs of energy and nutrients in the forest site;
  • Conservation and maintenance of the quality of the forest soils;
  • Conservation and maintenance of water resources in the region;
  • Capacity of ecosystems regeneration;
  • Minimization of environmental impacts: ecological diversity, water resources, soils, ecosystems, fragile and unique landscapes, etc.;
  • Maintenance and expansion of multiple social and environmental benefits of forests to meet the increased needs of society;
  • Guarantee that the human beings have the central focus in sustainable forest management;
  • Contribution of sustainable forest management for reduction of poverty and the generation of jobs;
  • Attendance to the legal requirements, to guarantee the institutional and economic success of sustainable forest management;
  • Acknowledgement and respect for the aspects related to the national sovereignty in the design and implementation of sustainable forest management;
  • Innovation capacity to ensure the continuous improvement of the SFM in order to be able to deliver products and services in more sustainable forestry processes;
  • Search for the continuous enhancement of forest management through science, experience, local and traditional knowledge, etc.;
  • Responsibility in terms of land rights and land use;
  • Community relations and workers' rights;
  • Rights of indigenous people and other communities associated with the forest management unit;
  • Preservation of archaeological, paleontological and cultural and scenic sites;
  • Preservation of forest areas of high conservation value;
  • Incentive to the efficient use of multiple products and services obtained from forests;
  • Development of a management plan for the forest management unit that is suitable to the intensity of the operations;
  • Development of appropriate monitoring, tracking and assessing plans in accordance to the scale and intensity of the forest management;
  • Guarantee that plantation forests will provide benefits to meet the global demands for forest products without causing losses with respect to all the sustainability principles applicable to forest ecosystems;
  • Ensuring opportunities so that stakeholders will have a voice in the debates and in the operationalization of the SFM;
  • Privilege of transparency, non-discrimination, unbiased activities and participation and collaboration;
  • Guarantee that forest operations are focused on eco-efficiency with minimum wastes, losses, reworks, etc.;
  • Focus on the aspects of the renewability of forests and their positive aspects to mitigate climate change;
  • Guarantee the maintenance of forest contribution to sinking, storage and cycling of organic carbon;
  • Promotion the global acceptance for sustainable forest management through educational programs, knowledge and information dissemination, etc.

In addition to these sustainable forestry principles established in international processes, and also by inter compositions and dialogues between NGO’s and the productive sectors, there are several more aggressive motions claimed by radical environmental organizations in relation to forest plantations as a forestry design for timber production. Some of these organizations even deny and reject the certification of plantation forests, arguing that these plantations are not forests but "just agriculture in the form of extensive monocultures." Obviously, these entities have their reasons, but they tend to focus just on the areas of silviculture and not on the whole forest eco-mosaic. These organizations have some strong demands in terms of P&C. They also would like to be heard on their demands, which are mainly associated with:

  • Reduction of the monoculture monotony;
  • Minimization in the exposure of areas harvested by clear-cutting (or even prohibition of clear cutting);
  • Landscape management (preventing the formation of clearings by the harvesting, for example);
  • Orientation of the forest management of plantation forests to natural models (similar to those used by nature itself. For example, natural regeneration rather than planting seedlings obtained in nurseries, etc.);
  • Giving priority to the protection of natural resources and processes which are in evolution by nature;
  • Preservation (or even untouchability) of the banks of genetic heritage and biodiversity;
  • Minimization of human interventions in the forest site (adoption of longer rotation with thinning’s rather than clear-cutting at early ages);
  • Prioritization of the "Precautionary Principle" in all situations of uncertainty or conflict;
  • Guarantee of active engagement of forest communities in decisions regarding the use of land and of the forest products;
  • Creation of a preliminary plan for delimitation all the protected areas prior to start to generate the forest management plan of the area to be planted with commercial purposes (first the environment must be located, and later the productive activity);
  • Maintenance of natural areas as reference (protected natural areas without any human intervention, except those to be made by the forest researchers);
  • Public disclosure of all the observations and new knowledge about SFM;
  • Respect and dialogue with interested parties;
  • Prohibition of drainage of wetlands, floodplains, etc.;
  • Prohibition of the use of GMO’s - Genetically Modified Organisms;
  • Minimization of the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals;
  • Minimization of the area of plantation forests compared to the area of preserved native forests;
  • Utilization of forestry techniques with minimum action on soil, water, etc. (minimum cultivation, etc.).

Nevertheless, the great truth is that most of these NGO’s recommendations have been also adopted and evaluated by researchers from academia and by foresters from the forest companies. We cannot forget that the environmental culture has permeated heavily on forestry companies and universities - the search for sustainability has favored this change of culture in all organizations. This has favored to the better understanding of these suggestions and to the incorporation of some of these concepts to current forest management practices. Ultimately, we can say that the current models of SFM have already incorporated many of the recommendations of environmental groups but without taking this to extremes. With that, the processes are being improved step-by-step and the new designs of forest management are achieving improved levels of sustainability. After all, nature also has several ecosystems that are similar to the monocultures, with large areas of the same type of ecosystem. Similarly, monoculture with clear-cutting is gradually migrating to other more complex systems (multiple products and agroforestry), with longer rotations, and intermediate harvesting.

The things are dynamic - science will provide new opportunities and forestry will find new ways and designs for further improvements. Indeed, in about 20 years from now, we will surely find much better SFM models in relation to those accepted today. They will be increasingly closer to the lessons learned and offered by Mother Nature. The research and continued pursuit of innovation will help us to find these new SFM models, and this is going always to happen, because it is an endless process. All this can and should happen with the participation of interested parties and must be done without harming the achievement of the benefits that plantation forests provide. Among them, there is the mission of creating products and services to society, thereby cooperating to the protection and preservation of the remaining natural forests on the planet. Doing such, we will always be moving towards the desired and required sustainability.

References of literature and suggestions for additional reading

Next, we are providing to you a selection of websites and texts / lectures that have the mission to expand the knowledge on this topic, which is vital to the success of the forest-based industry, especially for those based on planted forests.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

The Rio Forest Certification Declaration. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in English) (Principles of the Rio Forest Certification Declaration) (in English)

Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (FAO documents on Sustainable Forest Management) (in English) (The Montreal process) (in English) (The Helsinki process) (in English) (The ITTO process) (in English) (The Tarapoto process) (in English)

PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Website) (in English) (Publications and toolkits) (in English) (PEFC standards) (in English) (PEFC guides) (in English)

Cerflor: Sistema Brasileiro de Certificacao Florestal. (Cerflor: Brazilian System for Forest Certification). INMETRO – National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in Portuguese) (Brazilian standards) (in Portuguese)

FSC Brasil. Conselho Brasileiro de Manejo Florestal. (FSC Brazil. Brazilian Forest Stewardship Council). Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Website) (in Portuguese)ês.doc (Principles and criteria) (in Portuguese) (Frequent questions) (in Portuguese) (Link to FSC International website) (in English)

IMAFLORA - Institute of Forest and Agricultural Management and Certification. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Website) (in Portuguese) (Library) (in Portuguese) (Publications) (in Portuguese)
(Guidebook to FSC certification) (in Portuguese)
(Social indicators to the Sustainable Forest Management) (in Portuguese) (A guide to the sustainable forest management according to the FSC system) (in Portuguese)

Padrao interino Rainforest Alliance/SmartWood para avaliacao do manejo de plantacoes florestais no Brasil. (Interim Rainforest Alliance / SmartWood standards to assess the management of forest plantations in Brazil). IMAFLORA - Institute of Forest and Agricultural Management and Certification. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in Portuguese)

Forest certification. Rainforest Alliance. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in English)

North America’s SFI - Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Website) (in English) (Standards of the program) (in English) (AF&PA – American Forest and Paper Association incentives to the program) (in English)

SFI – Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Forest certification in Canada. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in English)

Standards for sustainable forest management in Canada. CSA – Canadian Standard Association. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Standards for areas up to 4.000 hectares) (in English) (Standards for larger areas) (in English)

Sustainable forestry. Principles, criteria, indicators. South Africa Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (in English)

Greenpeace International.
Archives. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
(Guide to monitoring FSC certifications) (in English) (Pulp fiction- genetically engineered trees) (in English) (Greenpeace good wood guide) (in English)

WRM - World Rainforest Movement. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Website) (in English) (Publications) (in English) (Videos) (in English)

Criteria & indicators for sustainable forest management. ITTO – International Tropical Timber Organization. Accessed on 24.11.2011: (Collection of guides and publications on P&C&I to tropical forests) (in English)

Comparing sustainable forest management certifications standards: a meta-analysis. M.R. Clark; J.S. Kozar. Ecology and Society 16(1). 24 pp. (2011) (in English)

Padrao para avaliacao de plantacoes florestais no Brasil. (Standard for assessment of forest plantations in Brazil). SGS Qualifor. 74 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Codigo de boas praticas florestais. (Code of good forest practices). Portucel Soporcel Group. 97 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

O que e desenvolvimento sustentavel. (What sustainable development is...). J. Goldemberg. Revista Opinioes. (September/November). (2010) (in Portuguese)

A busca da sustentabilidade. (The search of sustainability). M.A. Fujihara. Revista Opinioes. (September/November). (2010) (in Portuguese)

Brasil - Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto. Floresta plantada a papel. (Brazil - Sustainability in the Eucalyptus value network. From planted forest to paper). C. Foelkel. Workshop Ecolabelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Indicadores de sustentabilidade na pratica agroflorestal: um estudo de caso no sitio Sao Jose, Sertao de Taquari, municipio de Paraty – RJ. (Indicators of sustainability in agroforestry: a case study at sitio Sao Jose, Sertao de Taquari, Paraty municipality – RJ). G.M. Pollmann. Monograph of Course Graduation. UFRRJ – Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. 46 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Criterios e indicadores de sustentabilidade para bioenergia. (Criteria and indicators of sustainability to bioenergy). A. Moret; D. Rodrigues; L. Ortiz. FBOMS - Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements for Environment and Development. 11 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

The forest certification handbook. R. Nussbaum; M. Simula. Earthscan. 300 pp. (2005)
(in English)

Diagnostico e indicadores de sustentabilidade em fomento florestal no estado do Espirito Santo. (Diagnosis and indicators of sustainability in forest fostering in the state of Espirito Santo). P.R.S. Oliveira. Master Dissertation. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 140 pp. (2003),prs-m.pdf (in Portuguese)

Criterios e indicadores de sustentabilidade em florestas manejadas por comunidades. (Criteria and indicators of sustainability in forests managed by communities). B. Ritchie; C. McDougall; M. Haggith; N.B. Oliveira. CIFOR – Center for International Forestry Research. 134 pp. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Criterios e indicadores de sustentabilidade para o manejo de florestas tropicais. (Criteria and indicators of sustainability to the management of tropical forests). A.P.C. Gomes. Master Dissertation. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 118 pp. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Criterios e indicadores para a sustentabilidade da Floresta Amazonica: o processo de Tarapoto. (Criteria and indicators to the sustainability of the Amazon Forest: the Tarapoto process). R. Deusdara Filho; N.J. Zerbini. Brasil Florestal 71: 42 - 48 . (2001) (in Portuguese)

Padroes de certificacao florestal do FSC – Forest Stewardship Council – para o manejo florestal. (Standards of forest certification to the forest management as recommended by FSC – Forest Stewardship Council). FSC – Forest Stewardship Council. 33 pp. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Definicao de indicadores de sustentabilidade para sistemas agroflorestais. (Definition of sustainability indicators to agro-forestry systems.). O. Daniel. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 123 pp. (1999) (in Portuguese)

The business of sustainable forestry: strategies for an industry in transition. M.B. Jenkins; E.T. Smith. Island Press. 356 pp. (1999)
(in English)

Guidelines for developing, testing and selecting criteria and indicators for sustainable forestry management. R. Prabhu; C.J.P. Colfer; R.G. Dudley. The Criteria & Indicators Toolbox Series. CIFOR – Center for International Forestry Research. 183 pp. (1999) (in English)

Memoria do 2º Workshop sobre Monitoramento Ambiental em Areas Florestadas. (Memories of the 2nd Workshop on Environmental Monitoring of Planted Forest Areas). IPEF – Institute of Forest Research and Studies. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Monitoramento florestal: iniciativas, definicoes e recomendacoes. (Forest monitoring: initiatives, definitions and recommendations). L.C.E. Rodriguez. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 09 – 22. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Monitoramento de florestas plantadas no Brasil: indicadores sociais e economicos. (Monitoring of planted forests in Brazil: social and economic indicators). L.C.E. Rodriguez. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 23 – 32. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de sustentabilidade das plantacoes florestais. (Indicators of sustainability to the forest plantations). F. Poggiani; J.L. Stape; J.L.M. Goncalves. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 33 – 44. (1998) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Indicadores de sustentabilidade de florestas naturais. (Indicators of sustainability to the natural forests). F.B. Gandara; P.Y. Kageyama. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 79 - 84. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: new findings from CIFOR’s forest management unit level research. R. Prabhu; C. Colfer; G. Shepherd. ODI Rural Development Forestry Network. 15 pp. (1998) (in English)

The development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization. (1997) development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management (in English)

Testing criteria and indicators for assessing the sustainability of forest management: genetic criteria and indicators. G. Namkoong; T. Boyle; H.-R. Gregorius; H.l. Joly; O. Savolainen; W. Ratnam; A. Young. CIFOR – Center for International Forestry Research. 15 pp. (1996) (in English)

Sustainable forest management: an analysis of principles, criteria and standards. R. Nussbaum; S. Bass; E. Morrison; H. Speechly. IIED – International Institute for Environment and Development. 131 pp. (1996) (in English)

Sustentabilidade florestal para um mundo sustentavel. (Forest sustainability to a sustainable world). C. Foelkel website. Grau Celsius. 08 pp. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

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