Here we are again, with another issue of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter to provide to you valuable information about the eucalyptus.
In this issue,
we are again bringing to you something new. It is a new section, in which
I'll introduce "Online Technical Journals", where you may find
important articles about the eucalyptus. All referred journals and magazines
have public access and free downloading. Take your chance, and visit
them, it worth.
In our section about "The
friends of the Eucalyptus",
we are introducing the professional life, scientific production and
the forest engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis, one of the most renowned
experts on forest breeding and silviculture of the eucalyptus.
In this issue, we are also bringing to you the fourth chapter of our
Eucalyptus Online Book. The title of this chapter (only in Portuguese
till now) is:
elements and eucalyptus pulps"
we are used to do, in this newsletter issue, we are bringing a lot
of interesting subjects about the eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer
knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such.
For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to
grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles,
and recommendations of books and interesting events.
My mini-article in this edition shows my vision about
ways to reduce water consumption in the production of eucalyptus bleached
Something more than needed, and very feasible under my viewpoint. Fresh
water is being considered the "21st century petroleum or richness" to
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletters and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
We have now several non financial supporting partners
to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline,
CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL. They
are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the eucalyptus in
countries as Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Australia
and New Zealand. However,
thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote
our project to the whole world. Thanks very much to our partners for
believing in what we are doing. Know more about all of our today’s
partners at the URL address: http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/partners.html
Thanks again for the support to our work. I beg your help to inform
your friends about our project, in case you feel these publications may
be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude
from ABTCP, BOTNIA, ARACRUZ and partners.
Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.
Online Book Chapter in Portuguese
on Events and Courses
section: Online Technical Journals
(Suggested Websites for your Navigation)
Bleaching of the Eucalyptus
The Friends of the Eucalyptus
-Forest Engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis
mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Manufacturing and the
Online Book Chapter (in Portuguese)
chapter in English will soon be released. Thanks for the patience.
Elements and Eucalyptus Pulps"
this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant
publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You
have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or
to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for
the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they
are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they
are very much connected with the eucalyptus. In this section, we
are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that
are helping to build the foundations and the history of the eucalyptus
forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas
related to these magic trees.
publication of FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (English)
The Ecological Effects of Eucalyptus
This is a publication that was written in 1985 and soon converted into
a reference for the purpose of showing the ecological and environmental
impacts of the eucalyptus plantations. The authors are M.E.D. Poore
Publications - Bibliographical References about the Environmental
Effects of the Eucalyptus (English and Spanish)
Annotated Bibliography on Environmental,
Social and Economic Impacts of Eucalyptus. Compilation from English,
French and Spanish Literature, 1985 to 1994 - C. Palmberg (English)
Sobre los Efectos Ambientales, Sociales y Economicos de los Eucaliptos.
Compilacion de Documentos Elaborados en Ingles, Frances y Espanol
entre 1985 y 1994 - C. Palmberg (Spanish)
In a continuation of the previous mentioned book written in 1985, FAO
decided to launch in 2002 a selection of articles published from 1985
till 1994 on the same subject. Unfortunately, FAO has selected only
papers published in English, Spanish and French, not including papers
on Portuguese. We all know the high frequency of papers that have been
released in Brazil and Portugal on these issues. Anyhow, there are
several references of papers written by Brazilian authors in English,
using international journals and conference proceedings to publish
them. This is a valuable publication, have a look on it.
Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tasmania (English)
Gene Flow from Introduced Eucalyptus Plantations
into Native Eucalypt Species
growth of eucalyptus forest plantations in Australia has enabled
the migration of genes from one region to another. The exports of
genes from genetically improved eucalyptus trees to native eucalyptus
forests is a concern. There are areas in Australia where the eucalyptus
native forests genomes are still virgin. The contamination of these
genomes worries the foresters, because the potential hybridization
among the eucalyptus species. This very interesting study by Dr.
Robert Barbour shows the gene flow patterns of E.nitens introduced
in Tasmania and the potential of genetic contamination to E.ovata native forests. Based on the developed model, the author concludes
about the potential migration of genes to other Symphyomyrtus species
that are present in the region.
FAO Publication - Planted Forests and Trees Working Paper 37/E
Management of Planted Forests: voluntary guidelines
publication was released on 2006. It has the aim to introduce the
activities and the voluntary guidelines for promoting forest sustainability
to the forest plantations for industrial utilization. The objective
was to evaluate the balance of economical, social and environmental
contributions on plantation forests in several countries. There are
many references on forest certification and voluntary schemes for
sound forest management.
Book by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller (English)
Eucalyptographia - A Descriptive Atlas of the Eucalyptus of Australia
and the Adjoining Islands
Definitively a masterpiece on the Eucalyptus science. Published in
1883 by the great botanist and taxonomist Baron Ferdinand von Mueller.
We have 496 pages in the book, many information and gracious hand-made
drawings about the eucalyptus plants morphology. The file is heavy
(63,9 MB), but it pays to download. We are able to know in this book
about the initial steps of the Eucalyptus species identification and
classification in their homelands.
Baron Ferdinand von Mueller Biography in:
Factsheets - Paper Industry Technical Association / UK (English)
Factsheet - An introduction to pulping
- Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp
Factsheet - Eucalyptus
camaldulensis kraft pulp
Factsheet - Eucalyptus
globulus kraft pulp
Factsheet - Acacia
mangium kraft pulp
- All the factsheets
- Interactive flowsheet of the pulp and paper manufacturing processes http://pita.co.uk/factsheets
is the technical association of pulp and paper industry in the United
Kingdom. In the association website PITA is making available an interesting
series of technical factsheets . They are for beginners and are presented
offering technical information and flowsheets, some of them in a
good temper format. A highlight in these factsheets are the different
technical sheets showing the quality of pulp fibers of several raw
Key to the Eucalyptus (English)
EUCLID - Eucalypts of Australia
EUCLID is a system of eucalyptus classification and
identification based on an extensive databank and in a software. It
covers 894 species in the genus Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. It was developed by the Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research in Australia.
The digital publication may be obtained as an interactive DVD.
Hand-outs - Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau (Portuguese)
is the science to study the trees, and by extension, the eucalyptus
trees, indeed. Professor Dr. Alexander C. Vibrans, from the Forest
Department of Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB provides
a great lecture on this subject in these hand-outs. He talks about
native and exotic species growing in Brazil, with a chapter about
eucalyptus, pines, acacias, and other forest species too.
UFRGS Hand-outs - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul (Portuguese)
- Celulose e Papel (Organic Technologies - Pulp & Paper)
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil has a course on
Organic Technologies in its career on chemical engineering. One of
the professors of this course is our dear friend Leonardo Masotti.
At the pulp and paper laboratories in this university, several good
papers have been generated to the Brazilian scientific network (journals
and conference proceedings). The course hand-out is relatively basic,
with several pulp fundamentals, but very helpful to beginners.
Virtual Book about Watershed Environmental Management from the
Brazilian Ministry of Environment (Portuguese)
Ambiental Integrada de Bacias Hidrograficas (Integrated environmental
evaluation of watersheds)
It is a great book, plenty on information about watersheds:
water quality, monitoring impacts, management, and a lot more. Our
recognition and admiration to the authors Carlos Tucci and our friend
Carlos Andre Mendes. Published in 2006, and available in digital format
for download. It is a heavy file (302 pages and 19 MB).
Book by ANORGS about the Environmental Impacts of the Eucalyptus
para Avaliacao de Impactos Ambientais na Eucaliptocultura para
Fabricacao de Celulose (A methodology to the evaluation of the
eucalyptus plantations oriented to the production of paper pulp)
Written by Eduardo Pagel Floriano and published in
2004 by ANORGS - Association for Research, Education and Environmental
Protection to the Northwestern of Rio Grande do Sul. It presents, in
a simple way, the development of a methodology to evaluate environmental
impacts of eucalyptus plantations to the manufacture of pulp. The book
has a very large list of literature references, and several annexes.
CD about Market Pulps (English)
- World of Market Pulp - Excerpts (English)
a previous Eucalyptus Newsletter, we have already made reference
to the World of Market Pulp. Now, we are also able to show more about
the content, with this demo of excerpts. The CD provides a very wide
material about pulp qualities, raw materials, processes, forestry,
trends, etc. An unique work by our dear friends Dave Hillman, Alan
Button and Hiroki Nanko. Check the link to know more.
Social Economic Study about Aracruz Celulose (English and Portuguese)
From Trees to Homes - Generating Income, Jobs, Exports and Taxes in
Aracruz Celulose's Supply Chain
Arvores aos Lares - A Geracao de Renda, Emprego, Divisas e Impostos
da Cadeia Produtiva da Aracruz Celulose
A wide and comprehensive study made by Fundacao Getulio
Vargas about the socio-economic impacts of the Aracruz Celulose supply
chains, both to the mills in Espirito Santo and in Rio Grande do Sul.
One of the very few papers on this subject with a deep level of evaluation
and coverage. It is recommended to all people wondering to know more
about the generation of jobs, work, exports, and taxes due to the eucalyptus
plantations and the manufacture and trade of market pulp.
about the Carbon Cycle in the Earth Planet (English)
The Carbon Cycle
fantastic window to discover a lot of knowledge about things related
to the carbon cycle, sinking, human role, impacts, etc. Offered by
the North American Space Agency through the Earth Observatory website.
Download Center (English)
Articles on Pulp Bleaching Technologies
is a traditional supplier of oxidative chemicals to the pulp and
paper segment, and to other types of industry. Lignin oxidants are
welcome in the kraft pulp bleaching. Degussa technical staff has
dedicated strong efforts to study, to research and to publish technical
papers about pulp bleaching. Our friends Hans Suess, Cesar Leporini
and many others are surely adding valuable knowledge to this field,
especially about the recently developed technologies as ECF, ECF-Light
and TCF bleaching. Have a look in the many articles are available
on Events and Courses
Forestales de Entre Rios Argentina - INTA & AIANER
- 1986 a 2005 (Spanish)
In this URL, included in the website of the Argentinean
Secretary of Agriculture - Forestry Section, you are able to find hundreds
of technical papers presented in the annual events on forestry, organized
in the Entre Rios province. The majority of the papers are in Spanish,
and relate to: silviculture, forest genetics, tree breeding, forest
management, market and economy, wood industrial utilization, and other
issues. There are many publications about Eucalyptus, Pinus, Salix,
Acacia, Platanus, etc.
The papers presented and released as posters are in another URL address:
- participation of the Rural Sciences Center, Soil Department of
the Federal University of Santa Maria (Portuguese)
website shows many papers presented in soil congresses in Brazil.
There are papers about soil morphology, formation, fertility, and
Symposium on Silvopastoral Systems and Second Congress on Agroforestry
and Livestock Production in Latin
event had as major theme the rehabilitation and recovery of degraded
soils due to intense use of pastures. The techniques for doing this
were agroforestry systems and silvopastoral schemes. The event was
organized by FAO in 2002. It was addressed to tropical regions in
Latin and Central America, Mexico, but we also had other countries
outside America with presentation of speeches and papers.
IUFRO World Forestry Congress in 2000 (English)
IUFRO - International Union of Forestry Research Organizations brings
the World Forestry Congress in a 5 year basis. The event in
the year 2000 was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The main theme
was "Forests and Society". All paper summaries for oral
presentation and posters are included in the suggested link for your
Meeting about Forest Plantations (English)
This event was held by IUFRO in the year 2006 in South
Carolina/USA. We have great presentations, both in PowerPoint or executive
summaries. There are some papers about the eucalyptus, pines, and other
forest species used in plantation forestry. Take your time to select
what is more relevant to you.
Congress - III International Congress on Solid Wood Products
from Planted Forests (Portuguese)
(Brazilian Association of the Mechanically Processed Wood - www.abimci.com.br)
is an association related to the different types of industries utilizing
the wood for converting to solid products as: plywood, boards, particle
boards, furniture, veneers, lumber, MDFs, etc. This association has
promoted several high quality events about these topics in Brazil.
In the year 2006, the above mentioned event was organized in Curitiba,
Brazil. There are about 20 speeches in PPT/PDF for your reading and
downloading. The speeches talk about statistics, exports, markets,
competitiveness and related issues in the Brazilian forest products
Project Seminar (English)
consists in a joint project among STFI-PackForsk, AFOCEL, SkogForsk
and several European high yield pulp and paper manufacturers, and
equipment suppliers. The objective of the EuroFiber project was to
develop R&D to evaluate the relationship between wood quality
and the corresponding pulp and paper production. Although the project
was oriented to European wood species, and high yield pulping, the
knowledge is very appropriate to the eucalyptus high yield pulp manufacturers,
as an example of technological partnership. We are able to find several
files for downloading, speeches, R&D reports, and the presentations
of the 2003 EuroFiber Seminar. There are also detailed description
of the project, evaluations, and practical knowledge applicable both
to the industry and forestry.
Seminar "Integrated Management of Watersheds in Forest Plantations" (Portuguese)
recent event organized by our partner SIF - Sociedade de Investigacoes
Florestais (Forest Investigations Society). It deals with the methodologies
and collected results in the evaluation and monitoring of watersheds
in the region where plantations forests are being cultivated.
section: Online Technical Journals
this new section, we'll be showing to you a selection of excellent
online journals with connection to the eucalyptus. In these journals,
you may freely download articles or read the news, without the need
of memberships, passwords or payments. They are journals or article
collections at our hands (or eyes), available to all those wondering
to read and to learn more about forestry, environment, pulp, paper,
woods, and eucalyptus, surely. To the editors of these journals,
our most sincere appreciation and thanks. They for sure understand
that when knowledge is made public, we are adding value to society
and helping to build a better future. When making the articles available
for public domain, they are helping to improve the knowledge and
technology in the planet. At the same time, they are reaching thousands
of readers and admirers in all countries and regions. Once more,
thanks. We hope many other journals may join forces to this scientific
and technical knowledge chain.
Scientific journal of our partner IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos
Florestais (Institute of Forestry Research and Studies) - University of Sao
Paulo, Brazil. Most of the articles are in Portuguese, some in English, but
all have summary in English.
Scientific journal of our partner SIF - Sociedade de Investigacoes
Florestais (Society of Forestry Investigations) - Department of Forest
Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, Brazil. Articles are in
Portuguese, Spanish or English. All with summaries in the three languages.
CERNE is the journal of the Centro de Estudos em Recursos Naturais
Renovaveis (Center of Studies in Renewable Natural Resources) - Department
of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. Articles
are in Portuguese, with summaries in English.
Ciencia Florestal is the journal of CEPEF - Centro de Pesquisas Florestais
(Forestry Research Center)- Department of Forest Sciences, Federal
University of Santa Maria, Brazil. Articles are in Portuguese, with
summaries in English.
This magazine is a creation of our friend William Souza, Editora WDS.
The main feature of the magazine is the presentation of viewpoints
from different authors about a specific central theme. The articles
are in Portuguese, and the covered business sectors are: environment,
forestry, pulp and paper, sugar cane cultivation, sugar and ethanol
Scientific journal of FUPEF - Fundacao de Pesquisas Florestais do Parana
(Parana Forestry Research Foundation), a research organization linked
to the courses of forest engineering and wood industrial engineering,
Federal University of Parana, Brazil. Articles are in Portuguese, with
summaries in English.
Unasylva is the forestry journal of the FAO - Food and Agriculture
Organization, United Nations, one of the most traditional and renowned
journals in forestry. It has a wide range of contents in the forestry
science, wood utilization and applications. Articles are in English.
Paper Technology is the official journal of PITA - Paper Industry Technical
Association - United Kingdom. The collections of the years 2005 and
2006 are in digital format and available for public reading at PITA
website. It is one of the most important journals in pulp and paper
science and technology. Articles are in English.
Technical articles presented in the TAPPSA Journal, and in some of
the association conferences are available in this website. TAPPSA is
the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry of Southern
Africa. Articles are in English.
Celulosa y Papel - ATCP Chile
Celulosa y Papel is the technical journal of our partner ATCP Chile
- Asociacion Tecnica de Celulosa y Papel (Chilean Technical Association
of Pulp and Paper). It has news and technical articles about pulp and
paper in this important Chilean economic segment. Articles are in Spanish.
This is the journal on forestry edited by the SAGPyA - Secretary of
Agriculture, Cattle Growing, Fish and Food from Argentina. Articles
are in Spanish.
Euca-links (Suggested Websites for your Navigation)
- Multi-Divisional Program in Forestry Productivity - Eucalypt
CSIRO - Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research
Organization is one of the most famous and renowned research organizations
One of the innumerous R&D projects being developed is the one related
to the productivity of the Southeastern Australian eucalyptus forests,
using geo-information systems, remote sensoring, landscape monitoring,
and specific softwares. You may become more aware on this project by
clicking the icons available in the page we are introducing to you.
This page "Eucalypt Trees" offers excellent explanation about
the eucalyptus trees, morphology, species, taxonomic issues, classification,
EucaLink - An Internet Guide
to the Eucalyptus (English)
website was created, maintained and developed by Dr. K.D. Hill,
until his retirement. From 2004 onwards, the website
is being maintained alive by CANRI - Community Access to Natural
Resources Information, without updates. Even so, it is a fantastic
page. In case you may need information about the genus Eucalyptus,
Corymbia, and Angophora, such as species identification, taxonomy,
and classification, this is one place to come. We still have some
pages said "under construction". Do not feel disturbed,
go to navigate in the others, they are definitively rich on content.
University Course "Fundamentos
de la Produccion de Pastas Celulosicas" (Fundamentals on the
Pulp Production) - Universidad Nacional del Litoral - Argentina
website introduces the course program, the professors, and the
technical hand-outs. The course is given to the students of chemical
engineering in the Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del
Estero, Argentina. The content has been written by some friends
of mine, Miguel Angel Zanuttini, Juan Carlos Formento, Ana Maria
Adell, Maria Claudia Taleb, Victorio Marzocchi, Miguel Citroni
and Emilio Fernandez. In case you need to know more about pulp
production (theory and practical exercises) go to visit the home
Revision of the Principle 10 - FSC
- Forest Stewardship Council (English)
is one of the most well-known and reliable world forest certification
schemes. The process developed by FSC is based on the adherence
of the candidate to receive the certification on several criteria
and principles on the sound forest management for sustainability.
The principles are 10, and the principle number 10 is specific
for forest plantations. FSC has already certified over 7 million
hectares of plantations in the world. The principle 10 is being
reviewed since 2004. A task force has developed a draft document,
and this document is being submitted for stakeholders comments.
October 2006 document for comments to be submitted by interested
documents, comments, position papers, etc:
of the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps
kraft pulp bleaching technologies have substantially been
improved in the recent decades. Along the 70's, it was very
common to find six stage bleaching sequences, utilizing chemicals
as elemental chlorine, caustic soda, sodium hypochlorite
and chlorine dioxide. The uses of hydrogen peroxide, ozone
and oxygen were practically nil. Between 1985 and 1995, the
dominant trend was the introduction of oxygen delignification
and the search to reduce the generation of halogenated compounds
(AOX, furans and dioxins). The targets in that period were
to replace the use of elemental chlorine by chlorine dioxide,
hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, and to minimize the consumption
of water and chemicals. The minimum impact mill concept was
born. Pulp washing has deserved much attention, and good
results were accomplished by chemical consumption savings.
From 1975 till 1998, I was very much used to research eucalyptus
pulp bleaching. There are many of these papers available
from this phase of my professional life at:
Some of them were very innovative
for that time technological stage. I always had the cooperation
co-workers from the R&D teams in the mills and universities
I worked for: Cenibra, Riocell, UFV, ESALQ. Late 90's, a new
knowledge arrived: the discover of the presence of the hexenuronic
acids in the unbleached kraft pulps. The HexAc are hemicellulose-derived
chemicals, eager to consume oxidative chemicals in pulp bleaching.
The optimizations to reduce chemical consumption even further
soon arrived. Acid stages and high temperature were able to
change the HexAcs by hydrolysis or to destroy them. Pulp washing
received additional attention, being oriented to presses and
high consistency technologies. Chemical carry-overs reduced,
from one stage to another, and chemical consumption and effluent
quality improved. Kraft pulping conditions were also optimized
in a way to increase pulp yield and to impart better bleachability
to the resulting kraft pulps. The gains were significant: bleaching
costs, capital expenditures in shorter sequences, savings in
chemicals and water, better and more stable brightness, and
improved bleached quality pulp. All these gains have also reflected
in enormous improvements in environmental performance and water
system closures in the mills. In reality, environment was the
real driver for all these changes. New chemicals have appeared
and some have soon become winners: hydrogen peroxide, oxygen,
ozone, enzymes, chelants, etc. A new world to be discovered
by reading the selection of papers made available in this section.
They are really introducing the state-of-the-art technologies.
Enjoy the reading.
of Pulp Bleaching - A Review by Dr. Art Ragauskas (English)
the IPST website - Institute of Paper Science and Technology
- Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta/USA, we have an
excellent pulp bleaching class given by our dear friend Dr.
Art Ragauskas. Even in the case you are an expert on pulp
bleaching, have a look on this Art's presentation. It is
always good and healthy to learn with those who know.
Following, we have several papers showing the state-of-the-art
in eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching. Today, we have about six "schools" in
the world studying eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching: Federal
University of Vicosa, with our friend Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette
and his students; Degussa, with the competence of our dear
and charismatic speaker Hans Suess; the Ecole Francaise de
Papeterie e des Industries Graphiques, with our friends Dr.
Dominique Lachenal and Dr. Christine Chirat; the IPST - Institute
of Paper Science and Technology, with our dear Dr. Art Ragauskas
and Dr. Tom McDonough (even after retirement, Tom is still
working a lot); PAPRICAN - Canada , with our friends Dr. Richard
Berry and Dr. Barbara van Lierop; and the Escuela Tecnica Superior
de Ingenieria Industrial de Terrassa in Spain, with our friends
Dr. Jose Colom e Dr.Teresa Vidal.
have posted a very good and diversified selection of papers
for your navigation. For this, we received the cooperation
from ABTCP (Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper
- www.abtcp.org.br ).
ABTCP provided several papers from the O Papel Journal,
and from recent association Annual Congresses to be placed
for download at our website www.celso-foelkel.com.br.
Our partner ATCP Chile has also paid attention to our request,
and placed an important article for public download in the
association website. Thanks ABTCP Brazil and ATCP Chile,
on behalf of the technical people from the pulp and paper
superior no branqueamento de pasta kraft de eucalipto (High
brightness in eucalyptus pulp bleaching).
C.Leporini Filho; K.Schmidt. O Papel - March 2001: 78 – 86.
de diferentes tecnologias de branqueamento para obtencao
de polpa kraft de eucalipto (Evaluation of different bleaching
technologies for obtaining eucalyptus kraft pulp). Y.A.M.Roble;
L.C.Souza; C.Leporini Filho. O Papel - June 2006: 62 -
de polpa kraft de eucalipto: nivel atual
das tecnicas e novos desenvolvimentos (Eucalyptus kraft
pulp bleaching: state-of-the-art and new developments).
J.L.Colodette; C.M.Gomes; M.S.Rabelo; K.M.M.Eiras; A.F.Gomes;
K.M.Oliveira. O Papel – September 2006: 88 – 111.
otimizadas para o branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto
com sequencia Dht(P0)D
- Optimal conditions for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp with
three stage sequence Dht(PO)D.
A.F. Milanez; J.L.Colodette. O Papel – April 2006: 46 – 53.
and characteristics of modern hardwood pulp bleaching (Fundamentos
e caracteristicas do moderno branqueamento
de polpas de fibras curtas). T.Vuorinen;
A.S. Jaaskelainen; T.Lehtimaa; K.Toikka; Z.Zhou. 38th ABTCP
Annual Congress 2005. 6 pp. English
obtidos no branqueamento para se atingir alta alvura com
baixa reversao (Progress in bleaching to top brightness
with low reversion). H.U.Suess; C.Leporini
Filho. O Papel – February 2005: 59 – 67. Portuguese
comparative evaluation of low-AOX hardwood kraft pulp bleaching
sequences (Uma avaliacao comparativa de sequencias
de branqueamento de polpa kraft de fibra curta com baixa geracao
de AOX). T.McDonough; C.Courchene; A.Ragauskas;
B.Khandelwal; V.Magnotta. Institute of Paper Science and Technology.
1999. 11 pp. English
comparative evaluation of hardwood kraft pulp bleaching
sequences (Uma avaliacao comparativa de sequencias
de branqueamento de polpa kraft de fibra curta). A.Ragauskas;
C.Courchene; B.Khandelwal; V.Magnotta; T.McDonough; A.Shaket.
Institute of Paper Science and Technology. Powerpoint: 33 slides.
Avances en el blanqueo de pulpa kraft de eucaliptus
(Advances in the eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching). J.L.Colodette;
C.M.Gomes; M.Rabelo; K.M.M.Eiras. Celulosa y Papel ATCP Chile
22(3)- September 2006. 11 pp. Spanish
evolution in eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching from 4 to
2 stages – A comparison of options. (A evolucao
no branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto de 4 para 2 estagios
- Uma comparacao de opcoes). H.U.Suess; C.Moodley.
African Pulp and Paper Week, 2002. TAPPSA website. English
in eucalyptus pulp bleaching technology (Avancos
nas tecnologias de branqueamento de celulose de eucalipto). O.Pikka;
J.Vehmaa. III ICEP – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus
Pulp. 2007. 14 pp. English
in bleaching to top brightness with low reversion (Progressos
no branqueamento para altas alvuras
com baixa reversao). H.U.Suess;
C.Moodley. African Pulp and Paper Week, 2004. TAPPSA website.
in eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching (Progressos no branqueamento
de polpa kraft de eucalipto). J.L.Colodette;
C.M.Gomes; M.Rabelo; K.M.M.Eiras. II ICEF International Colloquium
on Eucalyptus Pulp. 2005. 18 pp. English
high brightness low impact bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp
(Moderno branqueamento de baixo
impacto e para alta
alvura em celulose kraft de eucalipto). J.L.Colodette;
C.M.Gomes; A. H.Mounteer; M.S.Rabelo; K.M.M.Eiras. Das Papier
IPW1/2006: 44 – 47. English
sequence bleaching without penalties. Options for eucalyptus
pulp (Branqueamento com seqüências curtas sem penalidades.
Opcoes para polpas de eucalipto). H.U.Suess;
K.Schmidt; B.Hopf. 59th Appita Conference. 2005. 13 pp. English
bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp - The selection of the right
sequence and the best conditions (Branqueamento
de polpa kraft de eucalipto - A selecao da sequencia
correta e das melhores condicoes). H.U.Suess;
N.Nimmerfroh; O.Mambrim Filho. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science
23(11): J517 – J521. 1997. English
of eucalyptus kraft pulp with low residual of halogenated compounds
- ECF Light. (Branqueamento
de celulose kraft de
eucalipto com baixo residual de compostos halogenados - ECF
Light). H.U.Suess; C.Leporini Filho; K.Schmidt.
32nd ABTCP Annual Congress. 1999. 8 pp. English
of eucalyptus kraft pulp to very high brightness (Branqueamento
de celulose kraft de eucalipto
para muito alta
alvura). H.U.Suess; C.Leporini Filho; K.Schmidt.
33rd ABTCP Annual Congress 2000. 11 pp. English
grandis kraft pulp using a short TCF bleaching sequence
(Branqueamento de celulose
kraft de Eucalyptus
grandis com sequencia TCF curta). M.C.Area;
F.E. Felissia. TAPPSA Technical Articles. English
Elucidating the formation and chemistry of chromophores during
kraft pulping (Elucidando a formacao e a quimica
dos cromoforos durante o processo kraft). T.J.Dyer.
Institute of Paper Science and Technology. PhD Dissertation.
2004. 2 volumes. 15,2 MB. English
avançadas para pre-branqueamento
de polpa kraft de eucalipto (Advanced technologies for eucalyptus
kraft pulp pre-bleaching). M.S.Rabelo. PhD
Thesis. Universidade Federal de Vicosa. 2006. 277 pp. Portuguese
of pulp colour on bleachability. Ways to improve the bleaching
response of alkaline pulp (Influencia da
cor da polpa em sua branqueabilidade. Meios para melhorar a
resposta ao branqueamento de polpas alcalinas). D.Lachenal;
C.Chirat; N.Benattar; Y.Hamzeh; N.Marlin; C.Mateo; B.Brocher.
ATIP 59(3).6 pp. 2005. English
challenges in chemical pulp bleaching (Desafios futuros para
o branqueamento de celulose quimica). D.Lachenal;
C.Chirat; Y.Hamzeh. ATIP 60(2). 6 pp. 2006. English
acid groups in pulping and bleaching (Os acidos
hexenuronicos na producao e branqueamento
da celulose). Z.H.Jiang;
B.v.Lierop; R.Berry. 35th ABTCP Annual Congress. 2002. 18 pp.
de la eficacia del blanqueo
com ozono de pastas de eucaliptos (Increasing the efficiency
kraft pulp bleaching with ozone). M.B.Roncero,
J.F.Colom; T.Vidal. CIADICYP 2000, 19 pp. Spanish
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis
guess most of our readers are familiar to our dear friend
Teo, the nickname who was adopted by the sector to identify
one of the most sincere eucalyptus' friends: the forest engineer
Teotonio Francisco de Assis. I know Teo since 1985. I met
him for the first time during an IPEF symposium in Piracicaba,
about "Trends in the Development of the Brazilian Forest
Sector". At that opportunity, Teotonio made a bright,
clear and outstanding speech about the hybridization and
cloning program in Acesita Energetica, the company he was
working for at that moment. From that time onwards, we had
a chance to meet each other in some forestry events in Brazil.
The sector was booming and Teo was giving his first important
contributions to this growth. In 1989, we started working
together in Riocell, a private market pulp manufacturer in
south of Brazil. During 10 years we were able to join efforts
in favor of the eucalyptus technologies, both forestry and
wood quality and utilization. In 1998, I decided to follow
my career by my own, and to leave Riocell, but we had a continuation
of our technical and personal friendship. We had several
papers published as co-workers, and Teo provided a lot of
support to my students from the Federal University of Santa
Maria, when I was teaching as professor there. His participation
in the eucalyptus forest breeding in Brazil has been decisive
and outstanding. However, Teo has also links and strong participation
in other countries eucalyptus improvement programs, as in
Chile, Uruguay and Argentina. Teotonio is also very popular
in Australia, Iberian countries, and in a number of international
forestry congresses. One of his strengths is innovation.
He is being very innovative in several areas of the eucalyptus
forestry. Thanks to his work, there are several very useful
knowledge fields developed to improve the forest productivity,
and the quality of the commercial eucalyptus plantation forests.
He knows very well the links between scientific new knowledge
and the potential application for them. Just to summarize
some areas that Teotonio has worked to promote optimizations
and to generate new technologies: introduction of new eucalyptus
genetic material, forest breeding, molecular genetics and
gene mapping, forest biotechnology, hybridization and cloning,
cuttings and micro-propagation in agamic seedling production,
seedling quality, eucalyptus diseases, wood quality for industrial
utilization, planted forest quality and productivity. His
scientific production is huge, and this may be proved by
the number of technical papers and speeches presented by
him in many journals and conferences in a world basis.
was born in 1952. He is from Goias state, a central state
in Brazil. He comes
from a family of 6 kids, and from
them, 4 have selected the forest engineering career. Teotonio
was the second. In 1995, his mother received an award from
the Minas Gerais State Society of Forest Engineers, in appreciation
for her contribution in favor of the Brazilian forestry development.
His beginning with the eucalyptus comes from the time he was
studying in the high school, in Vicosa. His elder brother Jose
Batuira de Assis was studying forest engineering at UFV. Teo
was frequently invited to attend the practical classes with
him. The growing interest for this theme directed him to the
same career as his brother. In 1973, he started his undergraduate
studies and in 1976 he got his degree as forest engineer. Along
the college period of his life, he was active in extra training.
During the vacation time, he was able to work as trainee at
Florestas Rio Doce, and in the Secretary of Agriculture of
the State of Goias. He also acted as trainee in PRODEPEF, a
very important Brazilian forest development program at that
time. In PRODEPEF he received the advising and guidance from
Dr. Lamberto Golfari, one of the most renowned experts on ecological
zoning for eucalyptus plantations. He participated in evaluations
of different species and provenance trials of eucalyptus
for introduction in several regions in Brazil. After the
graduation, Teotonio decided to go to further studies in
the same university. He
got his Master of Science degree in Genetics and Tree Breeding.
His major professor and adviser was Dr. Arno Brune. His MS
dissertation had as title "Heritability estimates and
correlations for young progenies of Eucalyptus grandis".
Although studying in the master course, he was able to grab
his first job at Acesita Energetica. In Acesita he worked during
11 years, mainly with forest breeding, hybridization and cloning.
His dedication to search highly productive hybrids for cloning
has been amazing. He was even able to obtain very difficult
hybrids, as the one obtained by controlled pollination of Corymbia
citriodora and Corymbia torelliana. At the late
period he had with Acesita, he was involved in a program for
It was a joint effort between Acesita and a specialized biotechnological
company called Bioplanta. In this partnership, Teotonio could
participate in developing the first protocols for micro-propagation
of Eucalyptus species, together with Dr. Linda Caldas and Dr.
Dario Grattapaglia. At that time, he started the first studies
about micro-propagation. Years later, he was able to develop
the pioneer micro-cutting technique in Riocell. This technique
is today the most widely used technology for cloning eucalyptus
in the world. In 1989, he received the invitation to join Riocell.
Our common friend and "almost brother" Jorge Vieira
Gonzaga convinced him to change job positions, and to move
from center Brazil to south. One of the attractions in Riocell
was the R&D orientation the company had at that time, being
one of the most famous companies in the world in this respect.
In Riocell he was able to work in the development of a good
number of very innovative technologies and forest tools. Most
of them are the predominant techniques being used in Brazil,
thanks to the interaction and cooperation among universities
and forest companies. His main achievements were related to
the following technologies:
of micro-propagation and micro-cutting,
of the concept about indoor crossing orchards,
of the controlled pollination technique: artificially induced
in the paclobutrazol precocious induced flowering in eucalyptus,
utilizing plants in containers,
of induced sprouting in standing eucalyptus trees,
of over 100 hybrid combinations among different eucalyptus species
and genetic materials,
of tree breeding in Acacia mearnsii,
of the E. globulus in controlled crossings to obtain selected
hybrids for improvements in the quality of the wood for pulping.
These new hybrids were able to change the potential of eucalyptus
wood quality in Brazil. The pulping performance of these woods
were improved due to better pulping yields, higher wood basic
density, lower specific wood consumption, lower lignin content,
and higher hemicellulose content.
his professional life, he had two important trips to
Australia for collecting seeds and genetic materials
for tree breeding. Because
of these two scientific trips, he is one the persons who has introduced
a very wide genetic basis for the future developments of the eucalyptus
in Brazil. The first scientific travel happened during the time
he worked for Acesita. He went to Australia together Mr. Rivelli,
another forest engineer. The orientation was to bring material
of species more feasible for charcoal manufacturing: E. camaldulensis,
E. tereticornis, E. pellita, E. pilularis, E. pyrocarpa, E. cloeziana,
Corymbia citriodora and Corymbia torelliana. The
second trip happened in 1990. The objective was to collect material
to the Riocell tree
breeding program. The selections were: E. saligna from New South
Wales, and E. grandis from Atherton area. Also, in this second
trip, several seeds from other Eucalyptus species were
obtained from CSIRO / Australia: E. globulus, E. dunnii and
other species suitable for planting in south Brazil.
Riocell, and according to the technology management
model we had in the company, Teotonio was able to
develop expertise and skills in consulting work.
This consulting service had as targets the own company,
the companies of the Klabin group, Riocell most important
shareholder, and other customers of the Riocell technological
center. Later, he performed as tree breeding expert
to the whole Klabin corporation. When Riocell was
bought by Aracruz, Teotonio had another change. He
stayed with Aracruz during 1,5 years, until the creation
of his own consulting company (Assistech). Today,
he acts as consultant for several forest based companies
in Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, in the pulp
and paper, charcoal and lumber industries.
academic life as supporter of forest engineering
courses always was one of his main features. In Riocell,
he was active on advising young students from the
local state college of forestry, and master students
on forestry. Today, he is visiting professor in a
North Carolina State University international course
on Forest Genetic Tree Breeding. His classes are
about vegetative propagation and controlled crossings
in Eucalyptus. In our talks, Teo told me one of his
future dreams. This dream includes his wife Marisa,
who is expert on pedagogy for high skilled children.
The plan is to develop eucalyptus wooden toys for
these kids education, in cooperation with specialized
part of the most important papers written by Teotonio
Francisco de Assis are brought to you by the following
status of clonal forestry in Brazil (Estado atual
da clonagem florestal
no Brasil). T.F.
Assis. 1 p. English
para produtividade e qualidade da celulose de fibra
curta (Breeding for productivity
in the hardwood pulp production). T.F.
Assis. 18 pp. Portuguese
de melhoramento para obtencao
de madeira de qualidade para laminacao
e serraria (Breeding strategies for obtaining high
quality wood for veneer and saw-timber).
T.F. Assis. 18 pp. Portuguese
development to the state of the art with propagation
of Eucalyptus sp. (Desenvolvimento
para o estado-da-arte na propagacao de Eucalyptus
Assis. 1 p. English
of forestry productivity and wood quality through
e qualidade da madeira atraves hibridacao).
T.F. Assis; G.D. Rezende; A.M. Aguiar. 1 p. English
status of breeding and deployment for clonal forestry
with tropical eucalypt hydrids
in Brazil (Estado
atual do melhoramento e mobilizacao para
a clonagem florestal com eucaliptos tropicais hibridos
no Brasil). T.F. Assis; G.D.S. Rezende;
A.M. Aguiar. 1 p. English
and the KISS principle in Eucalyptus breeding (Biotecnologia
e o princípio KISS no
melhoramento do eucalipto). T.F.
Assis. 1 p. English
genetico do eucalipto (Eucalyptus genetic breeding). T.F.
Assis. 35 pp. Portuguese
induced prothogyny: an advance in the controlled
pollination of Eucalyptus (Protogenia
induzida artificialmente: um avanço na polinizacao
controlada do Eucalyptus). T.F.
Assis; P. Warburton; C. Harwood. Australian Forestry
68(1): 26 – 32. 2005. English
of technology for cloning eucalyptus in large scale
(Evolucao na tecnologia para
clonagem de eucalipto em larga escala).
T.F. Assis. 16 pp. English
propulsores da produtividade dos eucaliptos (The
eucalypts forest productivity drivers). T.F.Assis.
Revista Opinioes. 2006 Portuguese
techniques and prospects for the clonal propagation
of hardwoods with emphasis
on Eucalyptus (Tecnicas
atuais e projecoes para a propagacao
clonal de folhosas com enfase no Eucalyptus). T.F.
Assis; A.G. Fett Neto; A.C. Alfenas. In "Plantation
Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century". 2004.
31 pp. English
comercial de propagacao
agamica de especies de Eucalyptus (Commercial
utilization of agamic propagation in Eucalypus). T.F.Assis.
XI Jornadas Forestales de Entre Rios. Argentina. 1996.
7 pp. Portuguese
alternativos de cruzamentos controlados em Eucalyptus (Alternative methods of controlled cross
breeding in Eucalyptus species). T.F.Assis;
N.S.Jardim; J.F.S.Bauer. IUFRO Congress about "Silviculture
and Breeding of Eucalyptus". 5 pp. Portuguese
encontra no E.globulus uma fonte de qualidade
de madeira para se tornar mais
finds in the E.globulus a new source of wood
quality to become more competitive). Celso
Foelkel interviews Teotonio Francisco de Assis. O Papel
- September 2004: 41 – 43. Portuguese
pulping technology and Eucalyptus wood:
the role of soil fertility, plant nutrition
and wood ion content
(Novas tecnologias de producao de celulose
e a madeira do eucalipto: o papel da fertilidade do
solo, da nutricao da planta e do teor
de ions na madeira). C.Foelkel, T.F.Assis.
IUFRO/CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry. 4 pp. 1995.
Available to public. English
de hibridos de Eucalyptus por cruzamentos
controlados (Eucalyptus hybrids synthesis
by controlled crossings). T.F.Assis;
J.F.S.Bauer; G.Tafarel. Ciencia Florestal 3(1): 161
- 171. 1993. Portuguese
operacionais que afetam a regeneracao
do Eucalyptus manejado por talhadia (Operational
factors affecting the sprouting of the Eucalyptus stumps
managed by clear cutting). J.E.M.Klein;
E.P.Bortolas; T.F.Assis; E.P.Perrando. Technical Series
IPEF 30(9): 95 - 104. 1997. Portuguese
and use of Eucalyptus hybrids for industrial
purposes (Producao e uso de hibridos
de eucaliptos para propositos industriais).
T.F.Assis. Proceedings of the QFRI/CRC/SPF Symposium "Hybrid
Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees": 63 - 74.
2000. Available to public. English
vegetativa de Eucalyptus por microestaquia
(Vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus by
micro-cuttings). T.F.Assis. IUFRO
Congress about "Silviculture and Breeding
of Eucalyptus". 1997. 5 pp. Portuguese
eucalypti - Um novo patogeno do
eucalipto no Brasil ( Sporothrix eucalypti -A new pathogen
of Eucalyptus in Brazil). A.C.Alfenas;
E.A.V.Zauza; O.P.P.Rosa; T.F.Assis. Revista Fitopatologia
Brasileira 26(2): 221. Portuguese
da celulose kraft antraquinona de Eucalyptus
dunnii plantado em cinco espacamentos em relacao
ao Eucalyptus grandis e E.saligna (
Kraft anthraquinone pulp properties of Eucalyptus
dunnii obtained within
5 tree plantation spacings and compared to commercially
planted E.grandis and E.saligna). G.W.Ferreira;
J.V.Gonzaga; C.E.B.Foelkel; T.F.Assis; E.Ratnieks;
M.C.M.Silva. Ciencia Florestal 7(1): 41 - 63. 1997.
da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus com
diferentes teores de lignina para producao
de celulose kraft (Kraft pulping behavior of Eucalyptus
globulus woods containing different lignin contents). C.A.B.Rosa;
G.V.Cardoso; S.M.B.Frizzo; C.E.B.Foelkel; T.F.Assis;
P.Oliveira. 35th ABTCP Annual Congress. 2002. 7 pp.
da densidade basica
da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus no sentido
longitudinal da arvore (Variability in the tree
height of the Eucalyptus globulus wood basic
density). G.V.Cardoso; S.M.B.Frizzo;
C.A.B.Rosa; C.E.B.Foelkel; T.F.Assis; P.Oliveira. 35th
ABTCP Annual Congress. 2002. 7 pp. Portuguese
do cozimento kraft de Eucalyptus globulus em
do teor de lignina da madeira (Kraft pulping optimization
of Eucalyptus globulus woods with different
lignin contents). G.V.Cardoso; S.M.B.Frizzo;
C.A.B.Rosa; C.E.B.Foelkel; T.F.Assis; P.Oliveira. 35th
ABTCP Annual Congress. 2002. 7 pp. Portuguese
e Doencas do Eucalipto (Cloning
and Diseases of Eucalypt) A.C.Alfenas;
E.A.V.Zauza; R.G.Mafia; T.F.Assis. Editora UFV. 2004.
442 pp. Portuguese
Florestal (Forest Biotechnology)
Aluizio Borem . Editora UFV. 2007. 387 pp. Portuguese
Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Manufacturing and
the Water Consumption
pulp and paper industry is a great water consumer. This
happens since paper manufacture was invented, more than
2000 years ago. The idea of making a paper sheet in a wire,
using a well-diluted fiber suspension is still the same.
At the same time that the pulp and paper mills are collecting
enormous flows of water from rivers, lakes or wells, when
this water is used in the mills, an important fraction
becomes contaminated. This contaminated water has to be
treated and discarded later as effluents. Another important
fraction of the collected water is lost , it does not return
back to the water courses. The losses are due to evaporation,
losses to the ground, water following solid wastes as moisture,
etc. The total water loss may vary from 10 to 20%, depending
on the water management and in the design of the installations,
mainly the conceptual project of the spills collecting
and recovery systems.
so long ago, around the 70's, pulp and paper mills were
used to be very open in their water cycles. Water consumption
per ton of bleached pulp was as high as 250 m³/adt,
an exaggeration, no doubts. Water has been till now an
inexpensive material to the industry. The total water cost
has only been calculated by the sum of the costs for collecting,
treating and distributing. The fresh water was a kind of
gift from Nature, it was only a question of taking it from
the rivers. It is obvious that this situation has to change,
and it is. The reason for high water consumption is simple:
more water a mill uses, cleaner are the pulp and the processes.
The water removes unwelcome contaminants, those that may
cause dirt in the pulp, difficulties in bleaching, and
incrustations and plugging in the process. Colloids, mineral
ions, chromophoric groups, wood extractives, organic radicals,
slime, stickies, and a lot more, may be eliminated from
the process through the water. Good to the process, bad
to the environment. When water systems are closed and water
consumption minimized, these contaminants may cause problems
as production and final product quality losses. For these
reasons, the pulp and paper mill technical personnel would
prefer to work in mills very open in terms of their water
cycles. That is the reason for water consumption as high
as 150 to 250 m³/adt of bleached pulp in recent past.
At that times, the water consumption to manufacture white
paper was about 25 to 40 m³ per ton of paper, also
an exaggeration. Something unacceptable according to today's
world has changed from the 70's till now. The pulp and
paper technologies are more modern, the mills have
closed as they could their water circuits, and they are
generating less effluents. Today, the bleached kraft pulp
manufacture is reporting values from 25 to 40 m³/adt
and the white paper manufacture from 7 to 15 m³/ton
of final paper. It is a substantial improvement, but I
cannot accept this as good, yet. Water is still very inexpensive,
from 0.05 to 0.12 US$/m³ (2 to 4 US$/adt), but the
cost to treat and to discard effluents is not that low
(from 7 to 15 US$/adt of bleached pulp, depending in the
type of treatment and quality of effluent). In all cases,
we are only talking about direct costs, not including investment
and depreciation costs.
is also a very interesting physics law applied to this
situation. More water a mill uses, more effluent it will
generate. This is very understandable. It is explained
by the well-known Lavoisier's law for the mass conservation
in the systems: "what comes in has to goes out".
It is then obvious that more water we use, higher are our
costs, both in water and in effluents.
What we are seeing today
are the pulp and paper mills spending enormous sums of
capital in the construction
of huge water and wastewater treatment plants (WTP & WWTP).
They could save a lot in these investments, since we are
plenty of availability for important improvements in the
water consumption. Reading what I'm writing, it will be simpler
to understand my points. I fully understand that we are not
so close to the "zero effluent mill", the mill
with the water cycle completely closed. Today, we are able
to find very interesting bleached kraft mills running with
the generation of about 20 m³ effluents/adt. In the
white paper manufacture we may see mills with 5 to 10 m³/ton.
I'm happy with this evolution, but not satisfied or satiated.
I've seen many improvements, but I'm not convinced that we
have reached the state-of-the-art. Most of the mills are
engineered to treat, treat and treat the effluents, using
end-of-pipe techniques. They are not designed to prevent,
to recycle, to segregate and to discipline. This is a conceptual
point of view, and it is created at the moment of the mill
conceptual design. When we have an existing pulp mill running
with 30 m³ effluents/adt because the design was for
doing this, it is difficult to this mill to have substantial
reductions. The mill, the equipment’s (pumps, tubes,
canals, streams, tanks, valves, reactors), all were designed
for this flow. Reducing the water consumption to half of
this, for example, it is not that simple. Remember that the
operators have the option to use more water, they do not
have limitations until 30 m³/adt or even more. The ideal
situation is to project and to build a pulp or paper mill
with limitations and new concepts in the water consumption.
First of all, the new designing should be based on water
segregation. The today's philosophy is to blend all residual
waters and to treat the "raw effluent" in a huge,
costly, and unnecessarily dinausaric WWTP - Waste Water Treatment
Plant. Pulp and paper mills have the mind hold down to the
economy of scale, to huge equipment’s, huge and simple
installations. Because of this judgement, very good quality
waters from the mills are blended with highly contaminated
waters. These clean waters also become contaminated and dirt.
Some of these clean waters are almost drinking waters, they
could very easily be used back in the process. Examples:
sealing waters, cooling waters, hydraulic system waters,
gasket lubricating waters, purged water from boilers, clean
condensates from pulp machine, rain waters, etc. Adding up
all these flows, we may reach 20% of the total water consumption
in the mill. Remember that we are also discarding water to
the atmosphere in the form of steam or mist (steam from pulp
and paper dryers, mist released by the cooling towers, moisture
in the smokes from boilers and lime kiln, etc.). Only the
cooling towers used to reduce the temperature of the industrial
water or raw effluent through away 1.5 to 2 m³/adt of
mist to the atmosphere. It is difficult to accept that cooling
towers in the wastewater treatment plant may be discarding
raw effluent to the air. Raw effluent is no good to the river,
but goes in part to the air due to the cooling towers. Better
to use indirect contact heat exchangers or condensers to
depress this mist.
important issue is to make a distinction between the numbers
when we talk about them. Water consumption is one thing,
generation of effluents another one. Both are very different.
Almost all mills are used to measure the flow of final
generated effluent. It is simpler, one single point, and
also legislated by law. Water consumption and water losses
by sectors are seldom or unusual. Whole mill water balances
are simple to be made, but they are not common. It is very
important to discover all points in the process where we
are losing water, and to quantify these losses.
do we have water losses in a pulp mill? There are many
points, some are so evident and clear:
the surface evaporation of enormous ponds (aeration, emergency,
the evaporated mist in cooling towers;
the evaporation from the floors and pavements;
the wood logs and wood chips drying (wood chips, depending on their
moisture, are bringing about 1 to 1.5 m³/adt of water to the
process). This water is always forgotten to be measured.
the steam, smoke or mist from sheet dryers, boilers, etc;
in the water that leaves the mill
with solid wastes as moisture. Few attention is placed to this
water loss. A solid
waste with 20% consistency carries 4 m³ of water per each dry
ton of waste.
in the steam losses and steam trap purges;
a lot of points more.
in summary, there are many points for water losses in a mill. For
these reasons we have the 10 to 20% difference between what is
taken from the river, and the returning effluent. This percentage
may be higher or lower, depending on the technological advances
of the mill, and on the water management developed among the mill
Another problem is the lack of distinction between the different
waters, in terms of their qualities. The pulp and paper sector has
become used to utilize clean and close to drinking water as industrial
water. There are many points where this quality is not needed at
all: sealing waters, cooling waters, log washing water, floor and
pavement washing water, etc. All these waters could be recovered
waters from other sources in the pulp and paper process. Even treated
or partially treated effluents could be appropriate for many practical
utilization, where clean fresh water is not required.
In a very detailed evaluation of all water flows that are running
in a pulp mill, we may notice that about 70 to 80% of them do get
really dirt due to a noticed contamination level. However, something
between 20 to 30% of the waters have a mild contamination or only
get warmer or hot due to heat exchanging. I cannot understand why
someone designing wastewater flows and WWTPs wants to mix such clean
waters to the dirt ones! Why to send clean waters to the biological
secondary treatment, since they do not have organic matter to be
decomposed? Since they don't have food to feed the microorganisms,
then, why to send them to the activated sludge system? Just to the
need to increase the reactor dimensions? We should evaluate very
well from the beginning the drawing of water circuits in order to
segregate the waters avoiding by this way to spend extra money we
don't need to waste. Clean, hot or recovered waters may be recycled
in the process, depending on finding the right place. The same water
may be recycled several times a day, and the savings are possibly
very significant. For example, the cooling towers to reduce the clean
and hot industrial waters temperature have a flow that corresponds
to 100 to 200 m³/adt. This because the same water recycles more
than once a day in the cooling system.
usual problem in mills is the lack of balance in the water and
effluent flows in different mill sectors. In one area the water
is missing, in another one we have an excess of water or effluent.
In the place we have an excess, surely we have drainage to the effluent.
A possible solution could be one large tank or a large pond to regulate
and to compensate flows, and to balance them in the mill. I'm definitively
in favor to have a large pond to receive all these good quality waters
I have mentioned till now. From this pond, the water could be reused
as such in some points of the mill, or sent to the water treatment
plant (WTP), replacing some fresh water from the river intake. We
would save capital at the end-of-the-pipe by adding some investment
in the beginning-of-the-pipe.
historical issue that is very harmful to the water consumption
in pulp and paper mills, is the way the pulp is transferred from
one area to another. Usually, in most (or all situations), the
pulp is transferred by low consistency pumping (2.5 to 3.5%).
is the vehicle to carry the pulp in the mills. This means that
for each dry ton of pulp, we are also pumping 30 m³ of water
(unbelievable this figure, isn't it?). This vehicle is not clean.
The water has several contaminants that follow to the other area
together with the pulp. We know that we may find colloids, ions,
fines, pitch, chromophoric groups, sand, volatile odorous compounds
(VOCs), toxic compounds (AOX), etc., etc. We are transferring pulp,
water and dirt materials. We should move to other concepts, this
is essential for improving our processes. Today we have magnificent
washing presses or other high consistency washers. The technology
exists. Raising consistency to around 30%, and transferring the
pulp by the use of belt conveyors, we could be transferring only
2.5 m³ of water for each dry ton of pulp. It is surely another
concept. Instead of 30 m³/ton, we would be transferring only
2.5 m³. A goal in favor of the rationality. Fortunately, I'm
seeing some medium sized mills utilizing belt conveyors to the
transference of pulp using medium or high consistency: great to
the environment, and to the pulp and paper processes. However,
the large new fiberline projects are not including this concept,
yet. But, I know that it is the right way, and it will come soon.
Let’s wait or make some pressure for.
The utilization of water in the pulp and paper mills is still vital.
Our technologies are based on the water use. Without water, we need
to find other technological roads. However, we are good enough to
reduce substantially the water consumption in the today's existing
and new mills. We need to develop, to understand and to practice
new concepts and methods. Some barriers need to be overcome. We have
also old paradigms to be destroyed. What we need is to change the
way of engineering the new fiberlines, not keeping the method of
Following these introductory remarks, I'm bringing to you some strategies
for reflections and to be considered in this new age for water savings
and optimization in the pulp and paper industry:
Identify very well the qualities of all water flows (contaminated,
clean and hot, with suspended solids, etc., etc.);
Segregate very well the different types of waters, according to
their qualities. Avoid mixing good and clean waters with contaminated
Have separate systems for collecting, treating and storing the
different waters. The consequences are better water use and recovery
and smaller wastewater treatment plant. And also, lower water and
Today, the overall technology is
based on sending all waters to the WWTP – Waste Water Treatment
Plant. All residual water follows to primary, secondary and tertiary
(in some cases)
treatments. All water or raw effluent flows through a good-looking,
pompous, costly, and somewhat unnecessarily large WWTP. Waters could
be treated according to their needs. There are many effluents that
could be treated locally, in the area where they are generated. And
recovered in the same area.
really believe that small wastewater treatment facilities, appropriate
to each situation, could be used, instead a single, gigantic and
dinosauric WWTP. These simple treatments would be complementary
to a smaller, but efficient, wastewater treatment plant, for the
remaining and more contaminated effluents. There are several potential
facilities to be used in such way: indirect heat exchangers, condensers,
evaporators, distillers, incinerators, filters, reverse osmosis
membranes, constructed wetlands, demisters, etc.
recent times, I've seen with interest and curiosity the utilization
of membranes (reverse osmosis or ultra-filtration) as a kidney
to treat the final effluent. The technology is fantastic, the results
excellent, but the position for the membranes sometimes is not
very wise. This expensive treatment is to be used in selected positions,
and not to treat
the whole blended effluent. Segregation again is needed, do you
In the sector a local and small waste water treatment be installed,
the treated water may be reused again in the same area. For example:
a constructed wetland is perfect to treat the water from the wood yard
and wood preparation room. The effluents in these areas are rich in
organic compounds from the bark, leaves, wood, and contains sand, clay,
etc. A constructed wetland would be very appropriate to treat this
type of waters. It would be very natural, since the contaminated waters
contains completely natural chemicals from the trees. The biomass generated
in the wetland could be harvested from time to time, and burnt in the
power boiler (as biomass).
4. Avoid the concentration of ions, wood extractives, fines, slime,
colloids, etc., by an appropriate water management (diagnosis, evaluation
of options, decisions, actions).
5. Reuse clean residual waters or recovered waters in all places
that it would be feasible and convenient. Replace fresh clean industrial
water as much as possible.
Recycle within the mill fences part of the industrial treated
or partially treated effluent.
Many times, I've listened the following exultation coming from
proud mill personnel or executives: "our effluent quality
is better than the river water quality" . Well, in case
this is true, why not to recycle at least a portion of this flow
back to the mill? I understand the problems of chlorides and
potassium accumulation, but I'm quite sure that some sound percentage
of the mill effluent could be internally recycled. There are
new roads to remove non process elements from the mill systems.
Part of this well-treated effluent could be directed to the Water
Treatment Plant, in substitution of some fresh water taken from
the river. We may also find good uses for partially treated effluents
or mill filtrates: to rewet the chips in the chip piles, to wash
the logs in the wood preparation area, etc.
7. Work for reducing the consumption of water in the points the
water is needed. One simple way to discipline this is not to offer
the possibility to send the effluent to the WWTP. This means, plug
all effluent pipes from areas this is possible to be done: causticising,
chemical plant, recovery boiler, digester, lime kiln, etc. Don’t
8. Improve the concept of the spill collecting system, by including
also the words segregation, recycling and reuse.
9. Close to the maximum possible the water cycle in the pulp machine
area. In case the pulp could be transferred from bleaching line
to pulp machine at 30% consistency, the water would not be excessive
in this area. The pulp machine is well-known for generating a clean
and acid effluent, that could be easily recycled. However, we always
have excess of this water going to the waste water treatment plant,
another example of clean water running away to the sewer. The only
point in the pulp machine area that may generate a dirt effluent
are the centricleaners. The final stage of the centricleaners gives
a "dirt and contaminated effluent". But the contaminants
are fibers, some pitch and sand, nothing difficult to be segregated
also. For this reason, do not blend the final drain from the cleaners
the white acid water. It is a "candour" attitude or decision.
The centricleaner residual water has in general a consistency about
1%. The mills have fiber losses of about 0.1% via this system purge.
This means that for each ton of dry solids purged by the centricleaners,
we are discarding 100 m³ of water. Both, fibers and waters
could be easily recycled.
10. Have a clear and transparent talk with the environmental control
authorities proposing reasons why it is better to have the environment
control limits based on daily loads (for example: kg COD/day) than
concentrations (ppm of COD). The control by concentrations do not
offer incentives to the mills to close the systems of water, since
dilution is favorable to reach the legislated concentrations. However,
be open to accept concentrations in situations the fragility of
the receiving water stream demands this for some specific pollutant.
Well friends, I have just brought to you many points for deep
reflections. A great part of my professional career I've been involved
in improving the environmental performance of forest plantations
and pulp and paper mills. I'm used to pay attention to the future,
to keep an eye in the trends, and finding ways to reach a better
future. I don't like to stay accommodated to the today's situation,
even if it is confortable. Also, the exultation of our present
and past achievements are important, but we cannot stop because
these accomplishments. We need more, we need better. We had fantastic
gains in terms of environmental performance in the pulp and paper
sector. However and fortunately, we are plenty of room for additional
and substantial improvements. I believe very much that in near
future we may reach the specific generation of 10 to 15 m³/adt
of effluents in the eucalyptus bleached kraft manufacture. In papermaking,
why not to dream with 3 to 5 m³/ton? Today, the best figures
I know for bleached kraft pulp mills are 17 to 23 m³ effluents/adt.
To reduce this to 10 to 15 it is not that far and difficult, do
you agree? Step by step we are closing the water cycles, and approaching
the minimum impact mill concept. This will come, even with the
use of some water and generating some effluent. We all will be
very happy, proud and pleased with this. The environment will thank.
Newsletter consists of technical information texts written
and made available to all people involved with the forestry
and utilization of the eucalyptus
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2005-2007
Eucalyptus Newsletter is a Celsius
and it was made possible through sponsoring support provided
by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and
Paper, Botnia and Aracruz. The opinions expressed in
the texts are those of the author or coming from the
referenced technical literature or websites suggested
as euca-links. They do not necessarily reflect the views
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