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Here we are back with our Eucalyptus Newsletter plenty of fresh knowledge about the eucalyptus. I hope you enjoy this issue.

Up to a certain extent, I'm not been very successful to guarantee a regular frequency in these newsletter editions. This is due to the fact that this service is being completely voluntary from my side. Till now, we have not a single sponsorship or financial support to these services. Because of this, I need to dedicate also efforts in my consulting services. I hope that as soon as some organizations may decide to provide support to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter, I may be able to dedicate more time on writing what I have in mind and to offer these services more regularly to you, hopefully in a monthly basis.

In case your organization may wish to financially support this project, and to have its logo/banner associated to it in the different pages and products of our website , please, get in touch with me via the e-mail address

In this edition, I've tried to offer more information about Forest Management Plans from forest companies having business in Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Spain, New Zealand, South Africa and Portugal. These companies have their forests certified by some of the worldwide schemes in force today . The forest certification process requires that the companies have their plans for managing the forests available for public knowledge and comments. Transparency and communications are essential. Through these plans, it is possible to know more about the companies, the species they plant, the growth rates, the area they act, their management cares and practices, etc. Let me remind you that in the Eucalyptus Newsletter # 03, several forest management plans were presented. Now, we are complementing with information from other companies, mainly those planting eucalyptus, and/or some pine and acacia.

I'm also bringing a great number of Euca-Links. Some are about the conflicting situation between two countries: Argentina and Uruguay, originated from the construction of two modern new eucalyptus market pulp mills in Uruguay. There is a lot of information available, and we are able to learn a lot about the environmental issues involved in this controversial dispute. The great opportunity to all of us acting in the forest and pulp/paper business is to take contact with well-elaborated Environmental Impact Assessment Studies.

I have also decided to show links to very good technical material from events, such as the CORMA Forest Meetings in Chile and the Wood as Biorefinery Workshop. A very good link with an online book about the utilization of the wood for house construction has also been provided.

In case you like these Euca-Links, please download the files as soon as possible, since the web is very dynamic, and websites are always being changed, updated or restructured.

In this newsletter issue, my mini-article is about the polemic comparison between ECF and TCF bleaching sequences, and my viewpoint looking some years ahead.

Just in case you are not registered yet to receive the Newsletter, and the book chapters attached to it, when they are made available, do it immediately. There are no costs involved. Please, use the short cut Click here to register. Please, accept my most sincere thanks for supporting our work when accessing regularly our websites.

In case I may eventually count with your help, please, send a recommendation to your friends who have the same level of interest for the eucalyptus, suggesting them to register to receive these virtual publications. Thanks for this cooperation.

Remember, this is a no-cost service offered to you. What we want is to provide good benefits to the users.

Thanks for all

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Lots of Euca Links
Forest Management Plans (documents in Portuguese or Spanish)
Forest Management Plans (documents in English)
Forest Certification

Wood as a Raw Material for Houses and Furniture
Workshop and Articles about the Wood as a Biorefinery
Forest Meetings in Chile
Environmental Impact Assessment Studies of the New Market Pulp Mills (Botnia and ENCE) in Uruguay
Online Video about Pulp Manufacture

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
ECF and TCF Bleaching Sequences for Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

Lots of Euca Links
The websites we are suggesting as links are not ours. Their contents are not our responsibility. Our suggestion is based on the fact that they are offering good technical material that we feel could be valuable to you. In case you do not agree with their contents, please get in touch directly to their web addresses. Please, be patient when opening some of the suggested URLs. They may take some minutes due to the fact some files are very heavy. In case the URL does not open in your first attempt, try it again, one or more times. In case of heavy files, this is a common problem in the internet use. Since most of the URLs are contemplating pdf files, you are recommended to have Adobe Acrobat Reader in your computer. Please, give some minutes of your precious time for these links, you are not to feel sorry.

Forest Management Plans (documents in Portuguese or Spanish)

Back to the series of documents opening to the public the management plans for plantation forests, please, visit several plans from renowned forest companies, whose forests have already been certified. Know their cares about the environment and their thoughts and actions towards sustainability. Also, it is important to understand the procedures to mitigate and to monitor the environmental impacts of the forest plantations. In case you may wish to read more of these plans, visit the Eucalyptus Newsletter # 03, in the website

Handbooks for developing a forest management plan:

Forest management plans for several world companies (documents in Portuguese or Spanish):

Aracruz Barra do Riacho - Brazil (new edition)

Aracruz Guaiba - Brazil

CELBI - Portugal

CENIBRA - Brazil

COFOSA - Uruguay

Compania Forestal Uruguaya - Uruguay

ENCE Norte Forestal - Spain

EUFORES - Uruguay

Faber-Castell - Brazil

FIPLASTO - Argentina

Forestal Monte Aguila - Chile

Forestal San Gregorio - Uruguay

Mundial Forestacion - Uruguay

Satipel - Brazil

Seta - Acacia - Brazil


Souza Cruz - Brazil

Tanac - Acacia - Brazil

TILE Forestal - Uruguay

VCP Capao Bonito & Vale do Paraiba - Brazil

V&M Florestal - Brazil

Forest Management Plans (documents in English)

Handbook for developing a forest management plan:

Forest management plans for several world companies:

Aracruz Barra do Riacho - Brazil (new edition)

CAF Santa Barbara - Brazil

EUFORES - Uruguay

Faber-Castell - Brazil

Mondi - South Africa

SAFCOL - South Africa

Sappi - South Africa

Tiaki - New Zealand

V&M Florestal - Brazil

Forest Certification

Now, in continuation to our purposes to promote the knowledge about the sustainable forestry in eucalyptus plantations, we'd like to introduce some links with great literature. Please, visit the websites: IMAFLORA, FSC Brazil - Forest Stewardship Council & FSC International, INMETRO (CERFLOR - Brazilian certification system), SGS Forestry, SCS Forest Certification, Rainforest Alliance - Smartwood and PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, anteriormente denominado Pan European Forest Certification). In these websites, it is possible to obtain a very good explanation about the certifications of the forest management and chain of custody. The certification is a valid process to guarantee to consumers, in the form of a green label, that the woods used in the saleable products are from certified forests.

Beyond these processes for forest certification and green labeling, there is also the traditional ISO 14001 for certification of the environmental management system ( Some forest companies prefer to get certifications from one or several of these schemes. (excellent publications in Portuguese for download) (FSC Brazil) (Revision of the document about plantations, in Portuguese) (FSC Internacional) (Revision of the document about plantations, in English) (CERFLOR - Brazilian System for Forest Certification) (among several issues, the PEFC has the responsibility for comparing and to develop a system for mutual recognition of the many countries forest certification schemes) (SGS Qualifor - Forest Certification) (SCS Forestry) (Rainforest Alliance Smartwood)

It is also important to share the vision of the SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture about forest certification and sustainable forestry. Following, we have some speeches given by Mr. Rubens Garlipp, SBS superintendent.

Wood as a Raw Material for Houses and Furniture

Definitively, we have here a precious pearl of the online literature: a book in Spanish about Wooden Houses, edited by CORMA - Corporación Chilena de la Madera. The first chapter of this book is a masterpiece about the wood properties and derived products, with graphs and drawings to allow everybody to understand this matter.

We are also introducing two websites very good about the structural utilization of the wood, and among them, the wood from eucalyptus: CETEMO (Furniture Technological Center - SENAI) and LAMEM (Laboratory of Wood and Wooden Structures from the University of Sao Paulo) (Check the chapter about wood anatomy, wood quality and wood products in ) (See the chapter on wood structure at
) ( Access the available publications for sale in and the online journal Mobiliario e Madeira in )

Workshop and Articles about the Wood as a Biorefinery

Now-a-days, the concept of the "wood as a biorefinery" has had a stead growth in the Northern Hemisphere. The idea is to use the enormous potential of the wood biomass as source of valuable chemicals, including biofuels as ethanol and biodiesel. Today, the major utilizations of the wood are charcoal, firewood and pulp and paper. In all of them, a substantial amount of the wood is lost as low quality fuel or as pollution. Lignin, hemicelluloses and derivatives, carbohydrates, extractives, resins, turpentine, etc, are the new targets to be "extracted" from the wood and wood residues. The great opportunity is exactly in the pulping process, using the cellulose fibers to manufacture paper, and part of the remaining chemicals to generate other valuable products to the society. In the integrated production of ethanol and pulp, the initial phase of the kraft digestion would be a light hydrolysis to extract the loose fraction of hemicelluloses. It is well known that very easily, around 10 to 15 % of the wood may be removed by a mild water hydrolysis. These mannans and xylans may be fermented and converted to alcohol, and the refinery will be at work.

The literature is vast on this issue, although recent in the science. In 2005, a workshop was held in Washington, sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The speeches are freely available at:

Other valuable articles:

Forest Meetings in Chile

First of all, it is important to define Chile as a forest country, due to the competitiveness of its forest sector. To show this, there is a recent document presenting the magnitude of this country in this specific business. Access in:

Every year, CORMA - the Corporacion Chilena de la Madera promotes in Concepcion a series of workshops about forestry and forest products. The presentations from the years 2004 and 2005 are available to be downloaded. Go there to grab yours, they are rich on knowledge about forests, woods, forest products as pulp and paper, roundwood, sawtimber, wood panels, etc.

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies of the New Market Pulp Mills (Botnia and ENCE) in Uruguay

A great interest has been placed in the conflicting dispute between Argentina and Uruguay. Two modern and state-of-the-art mills are being built in Uruguay to use eucalyptus as raw material, but the Argentineans are strongly opposing them. Both mills are engineered according to the "BAT - Best Available Technologies" in the pulp segment. However, technical and environmental questions are being raised, since the mills are located in the left bank of Uruguay River, a borderline between the two countries. Both mills are located in the municipality of Fray Bentos, a few miles distant from each other. The cumulative effect had also to be evaluated, because the two mills environmental impacts are additive. This controversy has been also managed by IFC - International Finance Corporation, an organization from the World Bank. This is due to the fact that both pulp companies are requesting financing from the World Bank, and this entity is recognized to provide support only to environmentally sound projects.

To give maximum transparency to the process a public consultation framework was established with incentives to the participation of the society in both countries. Botnia and ENCE have placed the individual environmental impact assessment studies freely available in the web. The IFC requested an international environmental auditing company to perform a environmental cumulative impact assessment, evaluating the effects of the two mills together. This study is also available in the web.

To all of us, it is a great opportunity to take contact with well-elaborated documents about environmental impacts of the kraft pulping process, and the procedures to mitigate and to monitor them. This vast documentation is available in Spanish and in English, in the Botnia, ENCE and IFC websites.

The Botnia project is known as Orion mill in Uruguay, and the ENCE is named Celulosa de M'Bopicuá .

This valuable literature may be found in the following addresses:

Information about Botnia, ENCE and the individual environmental impact studies:;292;439;944;1116;960;208;231;1146,292,598,639

Informations about the cumulative environmental impact evaluation contracted by the IFC - World Bank:$FILE/CIS_AnnexE_ecoImpact.pdf

Online Video about Pulp Manufacture

(options for English and Spanish)

One of the main weaknesses of the forest industry is the lack of communication with the society. Although this segment is rich in good examples to show, the ability to introduce them to people is frequently very limited. I've recently found an interesting video about pulp manufacturing, available online. It is an edition of the Finish Botnia company. Have a look and tell your friends. A good example to be followed.;214;251;260&voucher=216602F1-2045-4C57-9676-D2C469E0246

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel

ECF and TCF Bleaching Sequences for Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

Along the 90’s, the debate about pulp bleaching sequences was very common. TCF or ECF, this was the key point. Today, these disputes have been weakened, but they usually regain force once and a while. When a pulp company has a decision to raise bleached pulp production in an existing mill, or to build a new greenfield mill, the discussions restarted again. Since the mill has to prove its environmental performance and cleanliness in an impact assessment study, the opposition against ECF sequences always comes to the scene, even considering they are renowned as “best available technology under the environmental viewpoint”. Pulp mills want to supply the market with a clean, bright and resistant product, obtained with the minimum production costs. The selection for the bleaching sequence has been, in most of the cases, an ECF sequence. This is due to the high efficiency and low chlorine dioxide production costs. On the other hand, the environmentalists claim for a TCF bleaching sequence. They imagine sequences like these have no impact at all to the environment, because they do not use chlorine compounds as oxidants. The real truth is that both types of bleaching sequences have environmental impacts: they need to be identified, measured, monitored and minimized. Both, an ECF sequence in the state-of-the-art technology, or a TCF sequence, have environmental impacts. There are many scientific articles proving that both types of sequences are equivalent in terms of toxicity or major impacts. If so, why the controversy? Part because the lack of technical knowledge by the people involved in the dispute, and part because the emotions involved usually overcome rationality. The truth, in a dispute like this, is located somewhere in between the two extreme positions. Truth is also not absolute, it is going to change position according to new scientific discoveries. Depending on the selection of chemicals, closures of water and filtrates, and available wastewater treatment plant, each bleaching sequence may have a lighter or heavier impact. Today’s targets are to build mills with minimum environmental impact. There is one thing that we may guarantee: today’s bleaching technologies are definitively better than those used about one decade ago. Surely, the technologies to be offered in a decade from now, are to be much better than today’s. It’s only a matter of timing.

The root cause to all this debate is the search for the whiter white by the pulp and paper industry. Using an ECF sequence, this is easier achieved and at a low operation cost in the kraft fiber line. We know that using chlorine dioxide in the sequence, the bleachability is greater and better than using other chemicals. This chemical has a great ability to oxidize and to bleach pulps. At the same time, a pollution in the form of chlorinated organics and chlorate ion is generated and discharged through the bleaching line effluents. There are very good ways to treat and to mitigate this pollution load, but they demand capital and operational costs. Wastewater treatment plants are forced to result in very good quality effluents, and this means more money in the total pulp costs. Thus, the total costs of ECF sequences are not only the costs in the chemicals and steam used in the bleaching line.

On the other hand, when a high brightness is targeted with a TCF sequence, to supply a standard kraft pulp market, more no chlorine chemicals are required. This happens because TCF sequences are less effective to bleach kraft pulps. Oxygen chemicals are less effective to provide high and stable brightness. The consequence is harmful to the environment in the form of higher chemical charges and residuals. The residuals of chemicals, in higher concentrations, are harmful to the microorganisms in the biological steps of the wastewater treatment plant. Remember that hydrogen peroxide is a powerful disinfectant and biocide, very used in medicine. The overcharged chemicals also overoxidize cellulose fibers. As a consequence, fibers become weaker and the pulp yield is lowered due to the dissolution of more fiber chemical components. More wood will be required to the manufacture of one ton of pulp, what is an additional environmental impact. Paper made with TCF pulps may be eventually weaker, and paper recycling impacted. The weaker TCF fibers will not resist as many recycling cycles in their use as wastepaper for paper manufacturing. The overall costs are also impacted due to chemical charges and losses in yields and pulp & paper qualities.

Today the best environmental option may be located somewhere in between ECF and TCF: an optimized combination of low chlorine dioxide charges, oxygen compounds (hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and ozone), caustic soda and acids. These combinations lead to what we call “ECF light” or “Light ECF” sequences. They are growing in importance and popularity. These light ECF sequences in general start with a double oxygen delignification, for maximum lignin removal from the unbleached pulp. The next step is the use of a stage to destroy and to hydrolyze the hexenuronic acids, very common in eucalyptus kraft pulps. These HexAc are fairly decomposed by either one of the following measures: hot acid (A), hot chlorine dioxide (Dhot) or ozone (Z). The resulting pulp has now low lignin content and it is not very demanding on oxidative compounds. The combined use of low charges of ClO2, NaOH, O2, and H2O2 allows to reach the required pulp brightness, strengths and cleanliness. The ECF light sequences are based on the utilization of recipes with low charges of each chemical, in an optimum use of each one. The responsibility for bleaching is shared among different chemicals. Some soup of letters very common now-a-days as ECF light sequences are: OODhotEoP ; OOADEopD; OOADEoP, OOZEoD; OOZEoDP. Sequences containing ozone have been recommended to situations where the water consumption and effluent color are very strict. Although more expensive in the bleaching line, the sequences containing ozone allow savings in the wastewater treatment plant. This is very eco-efficient. Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching technologies are to show a steady trend towards ECF light sequences. New sequences to come are to incorporate quelants and catalysts (molybdate, manganese complexes or polyoxomethalates) and efficient final stages to preserve brightness (hydrogen peroxide in adequate pH and temperature). Closer we walk towards TCF alike sequences, shorter becomes the distance to total water cycle closures in kraft pulp mills, without the use of end-of-pipe techniques (as nanofiltration, for example). Today, it is being possible to reach 10 m3 effluent/adt in an ECF light bleaching line. It’s clear that environmental impacts are being minimized and water consumption approaches to closure. In this particular, pulp washing between bleaching stages are playing important role. Wash presses have gained the status of the “best available technology” for this service.

However, an enormous jump on environmental performance would be obtained by a reduction on the final pulp and paper brightness and whiteness. A lot of more efficient than an environmental legislation, imposing strict controls in effluent quality, it would be a product legislation, limiting paper brightness. Tissue papers and most of printing and writing papers could fulfil market needs with a lower brightness level. To the consumer, these high brightness are not relevant, unless exceptionaly. To these cases, industry could manufacture specialty papers in specific runs, with higher brightness. Paper and pulp manufacturers and environmentalists are invited to join efforts towards this target. The overall environmental impact would be lower, the eco efficiency would be better, the pulp and paper production costs would decrease and final paper price in the markets could better favor the consumers. Why not to think more about this? Or, why not to act faster? Today, we are doing close to nothing in this direction, but this is an issue that is definitively to succeed in the future.

Eucalyptus Newsletter is a merely technical online bulletin, containing articles and information about eucalyptus forestry and industrial utilization
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
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