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Dear friends,

The Eucalyptus Newsletter number 05 is arriving. As usual, it is plenty of information and knowledge about the Eucalyptus. Fortunately, this is our mission. I hope you enjoy what we have brought to you.

In this issue, I have added a historical sequence about the Eucalyptus in Brazil. The purpose was not to exhaust the subject, since I have the idea to come back again with this theme. Also, due to the importance the Eucalyptus are gaining in Asia, as forest plantations and sources of wood raw material, I'm providing several references of euca-links for your navigation on top quality information about Eucalyptus in several Asian countries.

Now-a-days, another very important topic is the one related to the environmental aspects of plantations and pulp and paper mills performances. In this edition, I decided to offer to you the chance to read several Sustainability and Environmental Reports from pulp and paper mills that are planting Eucalyptus and/or using their woods and fibers for pulp and paper manufacture. These reports are very rich on information’s and images. Sure, they will be very helpful to you.

As important as, is the issue related to the fragility of the forest plantations to pests and diseases. These threats are gaining importance due to the raising percentage of cloned plantations. In these situations, many times, huge areas are planted with a single genome. Certainly, in such way, the potential risk for pests and diseases attacks are increased. In this newsletter we will provide references on books and links about the main diseases of the Eucalyptus. In next newsletter, we'll come with references about insects and other pests.

We are also bringing to you some statistical reports and eucalyptus guidebooks, as references for your access and downloading. They are freely available in the web. Remember, these basic information are very much needed in our daily technical life. Have a look on them.

In case you like these Euca-Links, please download the files as soon as possible, since the web is very dynamic, and websites are always being changed, updated or restructured.

My mini-article this time deals with the pioneering introduction and the successful history of Eucalyptus in Brazil. It consists in a part and adaptation of an article I've sent to be published in the Brazilian Visao Agricola magazine. This journal has a full issue dedicated to the plantation forests in Brazil. Amazing articles and a precious magazine published by the E.S.A."Luiz de Queiroz", from the University of Sao Paulo.

To the eucalyptus bleached pulp producers I'm bringing some fresh news. The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada - PAPRICAN is launching an inter-laboratory program for the evaluation of pulp quality (refining and strength properties). This type of comparative evaluations is welcome since it allows standardization and calibration of procedures.

Just in case you are not registered yet to receive the Newsletter, and the book chapters attached to it, when they are made available, do it immediately. There are no costs involved. Please, use the short cut Click here to register. Please, accept my most sincere thanks for supporting our work when accessing regularly our websites.

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Remember, this is a no-cost service offered to you. What we want is to provide good benefits to the users.

Thanks for everything

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Lots of Euca Links
The History of the Eucalyptus in Brazil
Pulp and Paper Manufacturers Sustainability and Environmental Reports
Eucalyptus Guidebook and Magazine about Plantations

Technical and Statistical Literature from ABRAF - The Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers
Eucalyptus in Asia
Eucalyptus Diseases
E-Monitor for the Eucalyptus Pulps

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus in Brazil

Lots of Euca Links
The websites we are suggesting as links are not ours. Their contents are not our responsibility. Our suggestion is based on the fact that they are offering good technical material that we feel could be valuable to you. In case you do not agree with their contents, please get in touch directly to their web addresses. Please, be patient when opening some of the suggested URLs. They may take some minutes due to the fact some files are very heavy. In case the URL does not open in your first attempt, try it again, one or more times. In case of heavy files, this is a common problem in the internet use. Since most of the URLs are contemplating pdf files, you are recommended to have Adobe Acrobat Reader in your computer. Please, give some minutes of your precious time for these links, you are not to feel sorry.

The History of the Eucalyptus in Brazil

The Eucalyptus were introduced in Brazil just a couple of years more than a century. In that country, these magic trees were received with a great favorable environment and with a lot of care and science for studies and researches. The result was fast: the Eucalyptus planted forests in Brazil are reaching the most impressive productivity rates in the entire world. Although timidly in the beginning, the Eucalyptus started being more used as ornamental trees, soon their abilities to become a source of valuable wood was discovered. The title of father of the Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil has been given to Mr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. His story of challenges and success (but also threats and barriers) has been published in several books and articles. The original plantations were oriented to the production of firewood, poles, fences, railway sleepers, and other utilization’s for the Paulista Railways Company, in the State of Sao Paulo / Brazil. Some decades ahead, the eucalyptus have been converted to the main source of wood to a number of different utilizations in the country: charcoal to the steel industry, pulp and paper, panels, veneers, furniture, saw-timber, fiber-boards, etc.

Have a look in this history through the following euca-links:

Master Thesis "O plantador de Eucalyptus: a questao da preservacao florestal no Brasil e o resgate documental do legado de Edmundo Navarro de Andrade", presented at the University of Sao Paulo by Mr. Augusto Jeronimo Martini (In Portuguese):,aj.pdf

Article "Sinopse historica da Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro" by Mr. Joao Baptista Soares de Faria Lago (In Portuguese):

Article "Navarro de Andrade" , a historical writing by friends of the Paulista Railways Company (In Portuguese, with amazing pictures):

Article "Um pouco mais sobre meio ambiente e Edmundo Navarro de Andrade"by Mr. Augusto Martini in the website of the digital newspaper "Canal Rio Claro" (In Portuguese):

Article "A introducao do eucalipto no Brasil completa 100 anos" by Mr. Augusto Martini in the website of the digital newspaper "Canal Rio Claro" (In Portuguese):

Website about the "Museu do Eucalipto" (Eucalyptus Museum), in Rio Claro/SP (In Portuguese):

Pulp and Paper Manufacturers Sustainability and Environmental Reports

The forest based companies that are utilizing the eucalyptus wood as source of raw materials are forest planters. They are using a renewable raw material to manufacture their products. The growth of these forests and the harvesting of the wood and forest production are performed under strict environmental parameters. The same happens in the mill operations. In recent decades, these companies have developed, together with the universities and research institutes, environmentally sound technologies to guarantee sustainability and environmental protection in these activities. Some of these achievements are showed in the sustainability and environmental reports they are used to publish every year. This is a way to open results, efficiencies and behavior to the society. These reports also provide company performances and targets in environmental and social issues, and financial results. All the pillars of the sustainable development. By the way, these companies are included in a business and they want and they need to be successful. Some companies have developed specific environmental and/or social reports. Some others prefer to include these data in the Annual Report oriented to inform the general stakeholders. As a rule, these reports are pieces of art, with amazing images and very comprehensive data. This time, we are providing references to the pulp and paper companies that are planting eucalyptus forests, and/or utilizing the wood and fibers in their industrial activities. Some of the reports are in Portuguese, Spanish and/or English. The order of presentation is merely alphabetic, no preferences and no ranking is aimed:

April - Sustainability Report 2004 ( 2.7 MB - English )

Aracruz - Sustainability Reports 2005 ( 2.8 MB - Portuguese / English ) (Portuguese) (English)

Aracruz - Annual Reports 2005 ( 1.17 MB - Portuguese / English ) (Portuguese) (English)

Aracruz - Sustainability Report 2004 ( 0.84 MB - English )

Arauco - Memoria Anual 2005 ( 39.9 MB - Spanish /English )

Botnia - Environmental Reports and Balance Sheets 2005 (English );215;270;272

Botnia - Annual Report 2005 ( 2.35 MB- English );208;210;380;1100;1198

CENIBRA - Annual and Sustainability Report 2005 ( 9.8 MB - Portuguese / English )

CMPC Chile - Memoria Anual 2005 ( about 3.70 MB - Spanish /English ) (Spanish) (English)

CMPC Chile - Memoria Social Ambiental 2003 ( Spanish /English) ( 3.5 MB - Spanish ) ( 1.4 MB English )

ENCE - Informe Anual 2004 ( 24.7 MB - Spanish /English)

ENCE - Memoria de Sostenibilidad 2003 ( 1.44 MB - Spanish )

ENCE - Environmental Report/Informe Medio Ambiental 2002 ( 2.8 MB - Spanish /English)

Fuji Xerox - Sustainability Report 2005 ( 8.56 MB - English )

Jari - Annual Reports from 1999 till 2004 ( Portuguese / English )

Klabin - Social & Environmental Report 2005 ( 2.94 MB - Portuguese / English)

MONDI Packaging - Sustainable Development Report 2004 ( 805 KB - English )

MONDI Business Paper - Business Performance & Sustainable Review ( 1.06 MB - English )

OJI Paper - Sustainable Report 2005 ( 484 KB - English )

Portucel / Soporcel - Annual Report 2005 ( 5.7 MB - English)

Portucel / Soporcel - Environmental Report 2004 ( Portuguese / English ) (Portuguese) (English)

SAPPI - Sustainability Report 2004 ( 1.66 MB - English )

Smurfit Carton de Colombia ( Indicadores de sostenibilidad 2005 - Spanish )

Stora Enso - Sustainability Report 2005 ( 7.13 MB - English ),,3877,00.pdf

Suzano - Annual & Sustainability Reports 2005 ( Portuguese / English) ( 9.7 MB - Portuguese ) ( 5.8 MB - English)

Torras Papel - Memoria de Medio Ambiente 2004 ( 4.86 MB - Spanish / English )

VERACEL - Relatorio de Sustentabilidade 2005 ( 4.17 MB - Portuguese )

VERACEL - Annual Report 2003 ( 2.22 MB - English )

Votorantim Celulose e Papel - VCP - Annual & Sustainability Reports from 2001 till 2004 and 2005 ( Portuguese / English ) (Portuguese) (English)

Eucalyptus Guidebook and Magazine about Plantations

Recently, several very nice publications about the Eucalyptus have been released. They contain beautiful images and practical data and scientific concepts. We are introducing some of them to you in this newsletter edition. Soon, we'll bring others, since the eucalyptus are motivating many viewpoints in different stakeholders, and we want to comment on all.

Please, have a look in a recent Eucalyptus Guidebook (In Portuguese), released by Suzano Bahia Sul, one of the Brazilian leaders on the utilization of eucalyptus fibers for pulp and paper manufacture.

Another important source of knowledge about plantation forests in Brazil was released as the number 04 of the "Visao Agricola" magazine, from the E.S.A."Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo. The content, in Portuguese, is a masterpiece. More than 30 articles, with incredible pictures and great writing, linking plantation forests and sustainability issues. Although the magazine is not electronic, and not available for downloading, I'm offering the link to you. There are instructions to the acquisition procedures:

Technical and Statistical Literature from ABRAF - The Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers

ABRAF is the Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers. It has as members the most important companies in Brazil planting Eucalyptus and Pinus species, among others. The forests are planted as sources of wood to move several type of businesses. The ABRAF headquarter is located in Brasilia, the country capital. However, an electronic address ( allows anyone to obtain valuable information about the plantations. In the website there are available for downloads very interesting materials, as the following:

Speeches of the event "100 Anos de Florestas Plantadas no Brasil" ("100 Years of Planted Forests in Brazil")

"Anuario Estatistico da ABRAF - 2005" ( ABRAF Statistics Yearbook - 2005 ) - In Portuguese:

Eucalyptus in Asia

It is being fantastic the growth on area and productivity in the forest plantations in Asia. This is an obvious need, as a result from the economic development in many countries in that region. Wood domestic consumption is growing for several purposes, and new plantations are being demanded and required. Forest technologies are also being adapted and created to promote fast growing in the new planted areas. Those, who are far from Asia, cannot imagine the boom of plantations and forest technological development over there. Several are the countries involved on this: India, China, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea, Nepal, and others. In this section of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, I'm placing several euca-links to help you to find valuable information about what is going on in Asia with the Eucalyptus.

First, to introduce the theme, we'll offer the opportunity to your visit to some general technical documents. These suggested websites are rich on information from different Asian countries, and the forest subjects are also very variable and generic.

The first recommendation is to read two virtual technical books edited by the FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. They are the Proceedings of the "FAO Regional Expert Consultation on Eucalyptus" . Volume I and Volume II. The event was sponsored by the FAO regional office to Asia and Pacific Region, and it was held in 1993. These books bring news about the eucalyptus in Asia under many aspects: statistics, growth rates, environmental and social issues, etc. Please, have a look:

Volume I:

Volume II:

Another virtual book about the Eucalyptus is also available in the web, and it is a very good one. The book corresponds to the proceedings of an important event which was held at the Popular Republic of China, in Zhanjiang / Guangdong, in the year 2003. This event was co-sponsored by the China Eucalyptus Research Centre and three Australian Research Institutes: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Forest Science Centre and Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The event was named "Eucalyptus in Asia". The technical document is about 1.45 MB, written in English and available through this address: att/JFRN-6BN9BD/$file/pr111.pdf

Another very good forestry workshop was held in South Africa, in 1998. Several papers were presented about plantations, and some of them about the eucalyptus. Since the event was global, there are many possibilities to compare data from Asia with data from South America, Europe, Africa, and other regions. The forest workshop was organized by the CIFOR - Center for International Forestry, an Indonesian organization. The event was titled "Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation Forests". The access is possible through the following direction:

Another interesting article was written by Mr. Henry Scheyvens and presented in the event "Sustainable Asia 2005 and Beyond". The paper comments about the forest management and forest trends in several Asia countries. Visit it at:

Offering information about tropical countries, including several Asian countries, is the technical report edited by the ITTO - International Tropical Timber Organization. The report title is "Status of Tropical Forest Management 2005". In this document, there are forestry reports about 33 countries, all ITTO members. The report has about 5 MB, and it is possible to be accessed at the following address:

Some individual analysis extracted from the ITTO report and from other sources are presented ahead, providing useful information about some important countries in Asia. In most of them, the eucalyptus are finding room for growth:

Asia & Pacific Region

(excellent images)$file/ias30.pdf (Eucalypt tree improvement in China)






Eucalyptus Diseases

Until some time ago, the Eucalyptus were renowned and admired by their strong resistance to pests and diseases. Today, the advance on the silvicultural practices and in tree breeding has enabled the plantation of cloned forests. The consequence is an enormous reduction on the genetic variability in the plantations. Few clones are planted, and most of the new forest parcels are based on monogenomic seedlings. Because of this fact, cloned plantations may become more fragile and more sensitive to pests and diseases. Even considering the emphasis given to the tree breeders, searching tree individuals that may show resistance to the known diseases, there is always a risk for a new or a modified pathogen.

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we are giving references of books and web literature about the most common eucalyptus diseases. The references are based on publications from Brazil, Asia & Australia. Next Eucalyptus Newsletter will be dedicated to the same kind of service, but with focus in insects attacks.

As book references, we would mention the following:

"Diagnose Visual e Controle de Doencas Abioticas e Bioticas do Eucalipto no Brasil" ( In Portuguese and with many illustrations)
Edited in 2003 by International Paper do Brasil, the authors are Mr. Doraci Milani & Mr. Francisco Alves Ferreira

"Clonagem e Doencas do Eucalipto" (in Portuguese, with many pictures)
Edited in 2004 by the UFV Press, the authors are Mr. Acelino Couto Alfenas, Mr. Edival A. Valverde Zauza, Mr. Reginaldo Goncalves Mafia, Mr. Teotonio Francisco de Assis

"Diseases and Pathogens of Eucalypts" ( in English, and well illustrated)
Edited by the CSIRO Publishing from Australia, the authors are P.J. Keane, G.A. Kile, F.D. Podger & B.N. Brown

In the following euca-links, please find available web literature about diseases of eucalyptus plants in several countries:

Australia ( Program for Australian Tree Health)

" Seja o Doutor do seu Eucalipto" (Be the Doctor to your Eucalyptus" - In Portuguese) - A Potafos publication- Associacao Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato:

" Doencas dos Eucaliptos" ("Eucalyptus Diseases" - In Portuguese) - A Potafos publication- Associacao Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato:

" Doencas do Eucalipto no Sul do Brasil" ("Eucalyptus Diseases in the South of Brazil" - In Portuguese) - An Embrapa Florestas publication:
Technical paper nº 45:



E-Monitor for the Eucalyptus Pulps

Among the many technical services provided by the Pulp & Paper Reasearch Institute of Canada - PAPRICAN to its members and customers, there are those related to the evaluation and standardization on pulp quality. Recently, the institute decided to include a special program about Eucalyptus worldwide bleached kraft pulps. The inter-laboratory evaluation program is named E-Monitor Eucalyptus. Under the guidance of Mr. Pierre Simon, the program aims to give reliability and trustness in the laboratoty evaluation of the eucalyptus pulp qualities.

More information are available at:

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus in Brazil

In the past decades, Brazil was capable to develop a fantastic technology to grow Eucalyptus planted forests. We are able to make them grow fast and to produce tailor-made wood, with properties adapted to different end-uses. The jump in productivity was also amazing: from average growth rates below 20 m³/ha.year in the 60’s to about 40 - 55 m³/ha.year in the first half of the 2000’s. The planted forests were improved for wood production (and other forest products) to several industrial businesses, and also to provide wood to the rural farmers. Thanks to the Eucalyptus plantations and to the quality of their products, Brazil is deserving admiration in the forestry world. Brazil is being seen as competitive and talented, having one of the most modern forestry technology in a world basis. This is very outstanding to us Brazilians, but it also gives us an enormous level of responsibility. We are having good success with the Eucalyptus and Pinus, but we also have other trees with a lot of potential: Acacia, Tectona, Mimosa, Araucaria, etc. In all cases, the generation of incomes and business results to those involved is being satisfactory. It’s known that plantation forests are responsible for an important generation of the country’s wealth. Recently, the ABRAF – Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers has ranked the plantation forest sector of Brazil as being responsible for 4% of the Brazilian GDP. This is very impressive, since this segment is relatively very young as a business in the country. The genus Eucalyptus has a fundamental role in this process. For this reason, this article aims to bring some historical information about its challenges and achievements. This is the first part of this story, the second will come in another issue of the Eucalyptus Newsletter.

The origins

Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, the father of the Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil, was able to write several and valuable books about the Eucalyptus. With a simple and easy-reading style, his books are still very useful. Unfortunately, they are not very much handled or used by the today’s generation of forest engineers in the country. I have the privilege to own one original from the first edition (1939) of the "O Eucalipto" (The Eucalyptus). I have also the second edition of this book (1961), which had a complementary revision by Armando Navarro Sampaio. Another of Edmundo’s books was "Manual do Plantador de Eucaliptos" (A handbook to the Eucalyptus planter), in 1911. I’m very fortunate to have all of them. Several of his books appeared in early 1900’s, except the second edition of the Eucalyptus bible "O Eucalipto". This revision of the original book was dedicated to the commemoration for the Second World Eucalyptus Conference, which took place in Sao Paulo, in 1961. We still have a lot to learn from these original knowledges, to be added to the today’s generation of scientific and technological production at the universities, institutes and forest companies. Thanks to this, we are being able to build our future in the plantation forestry business. According to Navarro de Andrade, the Eucalyptus arrived in South America in 1823, in Chile, thanks to some seedlings disembarked from a British sailing ship. It’s difficult to have the exact time the Eucalyptus first arrived in Brazil. This is a controversial issue. There are several possibilities: Rio de Janeiro in 1855 or 1865; Rio Grande do Sul, 1868, etc. In the Navarro de Andrade’s notes, he mentions that any of these possibilities are feasible to be true. However, there are no historical data to support them. There is also another earlier possibility, further before these already mentioned dates. In 1825, there is a chance that two Eucalyptus gigantea trees had been planted in the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. Navarro de Andrade had also other notes, indicating planted seedlings in the Sao Paulo state from 1861 to 1863. Independently when or where, the important fact is that the Eucalyptus arrived in Brazil sometime from 1825 to 1868. The initial trees were from the species E.globulus and E.gigantea. In the beginning, the trees had ornamental purposes, or used as wind barriers, or even oriented to the production of odorous essential oils. However, the planted trees soon proved to be vigorous, resistant and productive. For these reasons, Navarro de Andrade decided to consider and to recommend the Eucalyptus as potential wood resource to the Paulista Railways Company. The railways was demanding wood as fuel, and for poles, sleepers, fences, etc. And the demand was huge.

The economy of the planted forests: 1903 – 1960

Armando Navarro Sampaio was the substitute to continue the Edmundo’s work after his death. The introduction of the Eucalyptus for commercial purposes in Brazil was made possible thanks to a lot of determination, tenacity and enthusiasm coming from these two men.

Edmundo had had his graduation in agronomy in Coimbra/Portugal, in the year 1902. Just after been graduated, in 1903, he started with Paulista Railways, as director of the Jundiai Forest Garden, in the state of Sao Paulo. In December 1904, he started his studies planting collections of homogeneous stands of Eucalyptus in that Forest Garden. As a consequence of these first studies, he had no doubts: he recommended the Eucalyptus as the new source of wood raw material to the railways company. Paulista Co. decided to support him in this challenge. A larger area was bought in the Rio Claro municipality, oriented to the plantation trials with new species of the Eucalyptus. From 1910 to 1919, Edmundo was able to build a collection with 123 species of Eucalyptus in Rio Claro. Other additions of species and provenances continued to happen there, and in other places.

Navarro de Andrade was a simple and hardworking person. Although renowned today and acclaimed as the father of the Brazilian modern silviculture, he faced strong criticism, coming mainly from farmers and politicians. Despite the opposition, he continued his work. Paulista Co. bought new areas for plantations. The company’s purpose was to have the firewood available wherever it would be needed to fuel the locomotives. Sao Paulo state agricultural area and landscape started to be modified. Dispersed in the agricultural crops areas, the Eucalyptus plantations started to be noticed.

In 1941, the year of Edmundo’s death, there were estimates of about 24 million of Eucalyptus planted trees in Sao Paulo, only by Paulista Railways Co. In 1960, this number was 46.5 million. The success of the original task had been achieved, no doubt about. The plantations in Sao Paulo state were good examples to other Brazilian regions. Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais had also good experiences on growing plantations with the Eucalyptus. The initial species being intensively planted in Brazil were: E.saligna, E.botryoides, E.viminalis, E.tereticornis, E.robusta, E.alba, E.grandis, E.paniculata, Corymbia citriodora, Corymbia maculata, E.camaldulensis, E.pilularis, E.propinqua, E.microcoris, E.triantha, E.punctata, among others. Hybridization was also known, since that time. In Sao Paulo, there was a productive and vigorous hybrid known as Eucalyptus "paulistana", a natural hybrid between E.globulus and E.robusta.

Since the early stages of the Eucalyptus silviculture in Brazil, it was possible to notice the ability of the trees to provide wood for several purposes: firewood, charcoal, poles, structural and construction lumber, pulp, paper, wood panels, etc. The trees could also be source of essential oils, and flowers for the production of honey. Magic trees, surely. The knowledge about silviculture, genetics, soil fertilization, plant nutrition, appropriate weather and environmental conditions, etc, etc was being very fast raised. The foundations to the modern and competitive silviculture in Brazil were definitively launched.

The historical success for the growth of the plantation silviculture had several drivers. The first was the need for biomass fuel. After that, the need of fibers to supply the pulp and paper industry.

Navarro de Andrade had a vision some years ahead of his time. He was convinced that the Eucalyptus could pump the economy in many segments in Brazil. One of them, it was the paper manufacturing sector. In 1925, he took some samples and traveled to the Forest Products Laboratory - FPL, in Madison, USA. The purpose was to have the E.saligna and E.tereticornis wood samples tested for pulp and paper by that institute. Again in December, but now in the year 1925, the results arrived. Navarro de Andrade announced that a new era was coming to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. His calculations, based on the FPL evaluations, could project production costs reductions to half in the paper manufacturing. Amazing results, but not to bring fast enthusiasm to the papermakers. Although Edmundo had made several moves to convince the government and the paper businessmen to build new paper mills using Eucalyptus, the road of this success was paved little by little.

There are good reasons to believe that the first paper mill (10 tons/day) using Eucalyptus wood in Brazil was Gordinho, Braune & Co., in Jundiai, in the year 1927. Just reminding that Edmundo had started his career in Jundiai in 1903. Two euca-goals to this city. The manufactured paper had 75% Eucalyptus short fibers and 25% Araucaria angustifolia long fibers.

Since paper business depends a lot on proven technology, the initial utilization has brought incentive to other users: Matarazzo, Cicero Prado, Melhoramentos, Suzano, Simao, etc. In the 1960’s, a foreign company, Champion from USA, started up an astonishing paper mill making more than 100 tons a day of paper: a source of fibers was also the wood from Eucalyptus. Brazil had found its way. Eucalyptus had become an important driver for this business. In 1957, the Suzano company had the honor and privilege to pioneer the manufacture of bleached paper having only Eucalyptus fibers as fiber furnish. From late 50’s till now, Brazil started to win its world cups, both in football and in the Eucalyptus pulp and paper business.

( to be continued )


ANDRADE, E.N. - Manual do plantador de eucaliptos. Tipografia Brasil de Rothschild, 343 p., 1911

ANDRADE, E.N. – O eucalipto. Cia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. 667 p., 1961

MORA, A . L. ; GARCIA, C.H. – A cultura do eucalipto no Brasil. Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura, 112 p., 2000

Eucalyptus Newsletter is a merely technical online bulletin, containing articles and information about eucalyptus forestry and industrial utilization
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
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