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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends,

Here we are again, with the 21st issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. We hope that this information may be useful to you and to the Eucalyptus. Remember that most of this knowledge we are sharing is being brought to our Society for a better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The aim is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to Human Society. Our goal is clear: to help our stakeholders to better understand the benefits that Eucalyptus offer to humans, since planted in proper conditions of Sustainability (and with personal and corporate responsibility). For this to happen in ever increased intensity, we always provide many suggestions, information and knowledge. The purpose is to raise the level of understanding and knowledge about the Eucalyptus, something absolutely necessary for the importance they play to humans.

In this edition, we are bringing some news to you. One is a section we have prepared about "weed competition and control in Eucalyptus forest plantations". The control of competing vegetation has been one of the keys to the success of the high productivity is obtained in Brazil with the Eucalyptus planted forests. The theme will continue in the mini-article of this edition, when we will discuss "the Eucalyptus plantations and the use of pesticides". The goal is to help clarifying this issue of agrochemicals in forestry because modern agriculture and forestry depend on the use of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, ant killers, fungicides, etc. and how they can be used safely and effectively, bringing benefits and no problems as some opponents argue with great energy.

In the "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" section, I am introducing to you someone I have a great admiration for his technical competence, teaching abilities and his enormous dedication to education, researching and the generation and dissemination of knowledge in the field of pulp and paper production. I'm talking about "Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini", a great Argentinean friend of the Eucalyptus, through his innovative research in the impregnation of wood chips by cooking liquor.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she tells us this time about the "Eucalyptus and its disinfectant and antiseptic properties". One more of the so many uses of Eucalyptus that many people even notice or perceive, although they are always in contact in their day-to-day life with these products, very abundant in markets and homes.

In time, we are also introducing to you in this newsletter issue another chapter (in Portuguese) of the Eucalyptus Online Book that has the title: "O Processo de Impregnacao dos Cavacos de Madeira de Eucalipto pelo Licor Kraft de Cozimento - The Process of Eucalyptus Wood Chips Impregnation by the Kraft Cooking Liquor".

Also there is much value to you browse within our traditional sections such as: Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner, Euca-Links, References about Events and Courses and Online Technical References.

I hope you may enjoy and like this edition selected themes.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal and INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:

Thank you all for the support to our work. We have already exceeded our target of registered readers, when about 11,000 people are getting monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Now, our goal for this year is to always keep that number above 10,000 readers actually receiving, opening and reading our publications. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 15 (in Portuguese)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini

Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

Weed Competition and Control in Eucalyptus Forest Plantations

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: The Disinfectant and Antiseptic Properties of the Eucalyptus- (by Ester Foelkel)

Online Technical References

References about Events and Courses


Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Pesticides

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 15 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 5.7 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer directories. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"O Processo de Impregnacao dos Cavacos de Madeira de Eucalipto pelo Licor Kraft de Cozimento" - The Process of Eucalyptus Wood Chips Impregnation by the Kraft Cooking Liquor

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am most pleased to introduce another one of my greatest friends and outstanding researcher and educator, Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini, from the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina

Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini is definitely one of the most renowned scientists in the pulp and paper sector in Latin American countries. This position of prominence he has achieved with simplicity, friendliness, competence, hard work and motivation in favor of the sector science and technology. For me, it's an honor to introduce him to you with more details about his professional and life profiles, bringing many of his achievements for public knowledge. From what you see of his academic research, it is easy to understand why Dr. Miguel Zanuttini is receiving this simple homage from the Eucalyptus Newsletter n º 21, receiving the title of "Friend of the Eucalyptus".

Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini is native of Argentina, born in 1957. He is currently a professor at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral (coast of the Parana River, he explained to me once - since Santa Fe is an Argentinean province far from the sea). At UNL he accumulates the role of director of ITC - Institute of Cellulose Technology at the FIQ - College of Chemical Engineering ( This position has a strong involvement with research projects of national interest, through the CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - a National Council for Technical and Scientific Researches). At UNL Dr. Miguel Zanuttini teaches classes in both undergraduate and post-graduate courses in chemical engineering. His main educational subjects are: pulping chemistry, pulp and paper properties, paper as material for food contact and statistical quality. He has also academic partnerships with other universities to teach and advise graduate students: UNAM - Universidad Nacional de Misiones - Argentina and UFPR - Federal University of Parana - Brazil.

With regard to his professional training and back-ground, professor Zanuttini was graduated as chemical engineer in 1981 by UNL, where he was strongly motivated by the renowned engineer Aldo Lossada, who was then the director of ITC. The guidance received from Aldo in his early studies, turned out to be a motivation to take up the study of raw materials and processes for production of pulp and paper. Aldo Lossada had also a strong expertise on sugar cane bagasse. This was a key factor for the selection of this residue of sugar cane industry for the production of fiber and paper. The sugar cane bagasse researching was driving force for attaining his title of Doctor, which was obtained from UNL in 1986. Then, Dr. Zanuttini had post-doctorate studies at the University of Technology in Trondheim (, Norway, under the guidance of the great masters Dr. Hans Giertz and Dr. Per Koch Christensen. Later, between 2001 and 2002, also he had post-graduate studies at IPST - Institute of Paper Science and Technology ( in Atlanta, USA, with Dr. Thomas McDonough and Dr. Charles Courchene .

In his not very long academic career, Dr. Zanuttini has had an exemplary and quite outstanding scientific and educational production, both in classrooms and in research laboratories, with the support and help of a competent staff and students of the ITC / FIQ.
In short, his main lines of research are related to:

• semi-chemical and high yield pulping ;
• recycling of unbleached paper;
• alkaline kraft pulping;
• ligno-cellulosic byproducts;
• eco-efficiency and minimum environmental impacts in the production of pulp and paper;
• statistical quality management;
• scientific studies of papermaking raw materials.

These studies have resulted in a good number of papers in very prestigious magazines and in conference proceedings in several countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Australia, Romania, Germany, Spain, Portugal, USA, etc. He also has a book published in partnership with Charles Pieck on statistical quality management and a chapter on the properties of the paper in the recently published book "Panorama de la Industria de Celulosa y Papel en Iberoamerica 2008", edited by RIADICYP (

Interestingly, his involvement with the Eucalyptus is more recent, from the year 2000. Before that, his studies have focused on CTMP and semi-chemical pulping for bagasse and poplar, important processes and raw materials for his country. Argentina depends very much on these raw materials for the manufacture of printing and writing papers and newsprint. Prior to 2000, there was a strong influence of the research lines of the ITC in his selection of themes for researching. The aim was always to clarify questions and to increase the competitiveness of Argentinean pulp and paper industry. It turns out that the Eucalyptus also started to show great importance to the country, due to large planted areas and because the use of this type of wood by some Argentinean companies manufacturing kraft, cold soda and NSSC pulps. Then, Dr. Zanuttini and his team have also started to research alkaline kraft pulping with the woods of Eucalyptus. This new field led to numerous technical papers at ITC with the fibers of Eucalyptus wood, as a complement to what was being evaluated. Fortunately, from 2000 onwards, these publications are being made available on the web. This fact allowed us to rescue many of them for our readers, as far the links can promptly be provided and accessed. Some of the papers which were not available in the web, our friend Zanuttini has provided permission to post them at - with links in this section.

Dr. Zanuttini great scientific achievements and his future plans are focused on:
• Optimization of alkaline liquor impregnation of wood, because it offers excellent opportunities for improving the kraft pulping;
• Improvements on paper recycling, to give more quality and efficiency to this industrial activities;
• Minimization of the environmental impacts of pulp and paper processes and industry.

Currently, Professor Zanuttini and his team are part of a world selected and small number of researchers with deep knowledge about the process of impregnation of wood chips by the alkaline solution in the kraft cooking. They surely can contribute much towards optimization of kraft pulping. For these very reasons my friends, we should continue to support their studies for additional improvements in the production of Eucalyptus kraft pulp.

It is frequent the participation of Professor Zanuttini in conferences and congresses in Brazil (ABTCP Congresses and Eucalyptus Colloquium) and in other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, etc.). The outstanding quality of his papers always result in awards such as the best technical papers presented at some of these events. Congratulations Miguel and team: you all well deserve these achievements.

Two other extremely important activities in Miguel Zanuttini's career have been allocated on the development of two networks of researchers in IberoAmerica. One is dedicated to the education and research in pulp and paper (RIADICYP), and the other to the revaluation of the recycled pulp fibers (RIARREC):
• RIADICYP - Red Iberoamericana de Docencia e Investigacion en Celulosa y Papel (
• RIARREC - Red IberoAmericana para la Revalorizacion del Reciclado Celulosico (

The participation of Miguel Zanuttini in terms of clarification of doubts arising from the Argentinean Society is also happening through his personal blog CELUDABLE, which was created to provide a credible knowledge about the pulp and paper industry to the Argentineans. It has become imperative for professionals in the pulp and paper career in Argentina. They now have their careers questioned in connection with the conflict between the countries of Argentina and Uruguay due the construction and operation of the Botnia bleached kraft market pulp mill in Fray Bentos - Uruguay. Dr. Zanuttini has made several insightful statements about the level of this modern industry in interviews with newspapers and television and through his blog.

Please, kmow more about:

• Dr. Miguel Zanuttini's personal blog:

• ITC - Institute of Cellulose Technology at FIQ/UNL: (About the ITC scientific and technical researches and researchers - in English)

• FIQ - College of Chemical Engineering and UNL - Universidad Nacional del Litoral: (FIQ) and (UNL)

Finally, as a privilege for us to download technical learning materials, his team have created a captive website for the pulp and paper career and a link to the course "Fundamentals of the pulp production" in the FIQ / UNL. It is a good option to know teachers, students, projects and all materials of practical and theoretical classes: (Course "Fundamentals of the pulp production") (Learning materials)

On the back of a successful professional career there is always a devoted family plenty of understanding: Miguel strengthens the relevant role of Titina his wife and their two daughters, Maria Fernanda and Maria Soledad.

Know more about the academic and scientific career of Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini in the links below:

Curriculum vitae - LAC System - Argentina - Prof. Dr. Miguel Zanuttini
Curriculum vitae - CONICET System - Argentina - Prof. Dr. Miguel Zanuttini
Curriculum vitae - Blog Celudable - Argentina - Prof. Dr. Miguel Zanuttini

Know more about the scientific and technological production of Professor Miguel Angel Zanuttini and his fantastic team of studies on pulp and paper at UNL - Argentina browsing some of their published papers:

In this issue we are presenting to you some of the many papers that are available online and written by professor Zanuttini and his students and frequent co-workers from several institution's, especially from the College of Chemical Engineering at UNL. Please, find the appropriate links to great publications that can be accessed and downloaded through the web. We had to make a selection, so many that are this group publications in journals, conferences, courses and books. We tried to focus on papers published on the impregnation of wood chips by the kraft cooking liquor, recycling and paper quality and environmental issues. We also attached some theses at UNL and for which we had the strong involvement of Professor Miguel Zanuttini as advisor. Learn with Miguel Zanuttini and a great number of his qualified research colleagues: Maria Cristina Inalbon, Paulina Mocchiutti, Pio Aguirre, Miguel Mussato, Miguel Citroni, Juan Bernal, Victorio Marzocchi, Maria Galvan, Vincent Costanza, among many others. In addition to these partnerships, Zanuttini has published papers with researchers from many other worldwide universities: in Brazil (Federal University of Vicosa, Federal University of Parana, University of Sao Paulo), Argentina (Universidad Nacional de Misiones), the United States of America (Georgia Tech & Institute of Paper Science and Technology).

Following a selection of about 35 papers and speeches for your reading:

Dinamica de la impregnacion en el pulpado kraft de eucalipto.
M.C. Inalbon; J.I. Bernal; M.C. Mussati; M.A. Citroni; M.A. Zanuttini. IV ICEP – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. 08 pp. (2009)

Dinamica de la impregnacion en el pulpado kraft de eucalipto. M.C. Inalbon; J.I. Bernal; M.C. Mussati; M.A. Citroni; M.A. Zanuttini. IV ICEP – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint presentation: 76 slides. (2009)

Abstract: Experimental and theoretical analysis of the alkali impregnation of Eucalyptus wood. M.C. Inalbon; M.C. Mussati; M.A. Zanuttini. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 48(10): 4791–4795. (2009)

Abstract: The deacetylation reaction in Eucalyptus wood: kinetics and effects on the effective diffusion. M.C. Inalbon; P. Mocchiutti; M.A. Zanuttini. Bioresource Technology 100(7): 2254 – 2258. (2009)

Abstract: Improvement of the fiber-bonding capacity of unbleached recycled pulp by the laccase/mediator treatment. P. Mocchiutti; M. Zanuttini; K. Kuus; A. Suurnäkki. TAPPI Journal 7(10): 17 - 22. (2008)

Mecanismo y velocidad de impregnacion de maderas. M.C. Inalbon. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. (2008). Available in parts at:
(Introduction – 10 pp.) (Chapters 1 to 4 - 90 pp.) (Chapters 5 to 8 - 117 pp.)

Abstract: Dynamics of the effective capillary cross-sectional area during alkaline impregnation of Eucalyptus wood. M.C. Inalbon; M. Zanuttini. Holzforschung 62(4): 397 – 401. (2008)

Impregnacion alcalina de latifoliadas en el pulpado kraft. M.C. Inalbon; M. Mussati; V.A. Marzocchi; M.A. Zanuttini. V CIADICYP. 10 pp. (2008)

Efectos de los radicales libres sobre pulpas recicladas no blanqueadas. P. Mocchiutti; M.V. Galvan; M.A. Zanuttini. V CIADICYP. 11 pp. (2008)

Modelling of the alkaline impregnation of Eucalyptus chips. Reactions and ion transport. M.C. Inalbon; M. Zanuttini; M. Mussati; V. Marzocchi. III ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint presentation: 68 slides. (2007)

Modelado de la impregnacion alcalina de chip de eucalipto. Reacciones y transporte ionico. M.C. Inalbon; M. Zanuttini; M. Mussati; V. Marzocchi. III ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. 09 pp. (2007)

Abstract: OCC Ozone treatment. Upgrading OCC and recycled liner pulps by medium-consistency ozone treatment. M. Zanuttini; T. McDonough; C. Courchene; P. Mocchiutti. TAPPI TechLink. 01 p. (2007)

Mejora de propiedades papeleras de pulpas celulosicas lignificadas de reciclo. Aplicacion de tratamientos oxidativos enzimaticos y quimicos. P. Mocchiutti. Ph.D. Thesis. UNL. (2007)

Chemical characterization of pulp components in unbleached softwood kraft fibers recycled with the assistance of a laccase/HBT system. T.A. Silva; P. Mocchiutti; M. Zanuttini; L.P. Ramos. Bioresources 2(4): 616 - 629. (2007)

Modelado de la impregnacion alcalina de astillas de madera de alamo y Eucalyptus. M.C. Inalbon; M. Mussati; M. Zanuttini. IV CIADICYP. 08 pp. (2006)

Limites en las emisiones y monitoreo en la produccion pulpa kraft blanqueada. M. Zanuttini. IV CIADICYP - Taller RIADICYP Valdivia. PowerPoint presentation: 47 slides. (2006)

Deacetylation consequences in pulping processes. M. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi; P. Mocchiutti; M. Inalbon. Holz als Roh - und Werkstoff 63(2): 149-153. (2005)

Impregnacao de madeiras de eucalipto e pinho em processos de polpacao alcalina. Efeitos da pre-vaporizacao e da impregnacao pressurizada. M.C. Inalbon; M. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi; M. Citroni; C. Pieck. O Papel 66(4): 77 – 82. (2005)

A useful equation for estimating the surface charge of pulp fibers. P. Mocchiutti; M. Zanuttini. TAPPI Journal 4(5):18-22. (2005)

Alkali impregnation of hardwood chips. M. Zanuttini; M. Citroni; V. Marzocchi; M. C. Inalbon. TAPPI Journal 4(2): 28 – 30. (2005)

Estudio de impregnacion de madera de eucalipto con agentes naturales para la preservacion de colmenas apicolas. M.C. Inalbon; M.A. Zanuttini; R. Casal. III Congreso Forestal Argentino y Latinoamericano. 10 pp. (2005)

Impregnation of Eucalyptus and pine wood in alkaline pulping processes. Effects of steaming and pressurized impregnation. M.C. Inalbon; M. Citroni; V. Marzocchi; C. Pieck; M. Zanuttini. 37th ABTCP Annual Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. (2004)

Estudos sobre a impregnacao de cavacos de Eucalyptus spp. M.M. Costa; J.L. Gomide; M. Zanuttini; E. Souza; M. Brum Neto. 37th ABTCP Annual Congress. 11 pp. (2004)

Estudos sobre a impregnacao de cavacos de Eucalyptus spp. M.M. Costa; J.L. Gomide; M. Zanuttini; E. Souza; M. Brum Neto. 37th ABTCP Annual Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 45 slides. (2004)

Mecanismo de impregnacao alcalina dos cavacos de Eucalyptus spp. M.M. Costa; J.L. Gomide; M. Zanuttini; E. Souza; M. Brum Neto. 37th ABTCP Annual Congress. 11 pp. (2004)

Rol de la difusion en la impregnacion alcalina de latifoliadas. M.C. Inalbon; M.A. Zanuttini. III CIADICYP. 08 pp. (2004)

Optimal operating points in alkaline pulping. V. Costanza; M.A. Zanuttini. Latin American Applied Research 34: 155 – 164. (2004)

Abstract: Alkali impregnation of hardwoods. Part I: Moderate treatment of poplar wood. M. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi; M. Citroni; P. Mocchiutti. JPPS – Journal of Pulp and Paper Science 29(9): 313 – 317. (2003)

Tratamiento oxidativo de pulpas kraft de reciclo no blanqueadas. M. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi; M. Citroni; P. Mocchiutti. II CIADICYP. 09 pp. (2002)

Carga superficial de las fibras determinada por adsorcion polielectrolitica. P. Mocchiutti; M. Zanuttini. II CIADICYP. 17 pp. (2002)

Abstract: Diffusion and reaction in isothermal pulping digesters. V. Costanza; F.M. Rossi; P. Costanza; M. Zanuttini. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 40(18): 3965 – 3972. (2001)

Pulpa quimimecanica alcalina de alamo. Relacion entre su estado quimico, su hinchamiento y sus propiedades. M. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi. 12 pp. I CIADICYP. (2000)

Mecanismo y velocidad de impregnacion alcalina de madera de alamo. M.A. Zanuttini; V. Marzocchi; M. Citroni; D. Espinos. I CIADICYP. 16 pp. (2000)

Desarrollo de procesos anaerobicos para el tratamiento de efluentes papeleros. M. Mussati; P. Aguirre; N. Scenna; O. Soto; M.A. Zanuttini. I CIADICYP. 24 pp. (2000)

Pattern of alkali impregnation of poplar wood at moderate conditions. M. Zanuttini; M. Citroni; V. Marzocchi. Holzforschung 54(6): 631–636. (2000)

Patron de la impregnacion alcalina de madera de alamo en condiciones moderadas. M. Zanuttini; M. Citroni; V. Marzocchi. 32nd ABTCP Annual Congress. 11 pp. (1999)

Thank you my dear friend Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini for what you have done and will do for the Eucalyptus and for the pulp and paper science and technology. As always, with the highest quality as a function of your expertise and knowledge and innovative research with your team. We from Celsius Degree, your many admirers and readers of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we all present to you a huge thank you for your dedication in favor of the Eucalyptus and its utilization for pulp and paper. Congratulations, my dear and ever "Friend of the Eucalyptus".

Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

The mission of this section is to guide you to news about eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness, cleaner production and sustainability with regard to our forest sector based on the utilization of the Eucalyptus, highlighting more sustainable ways to accomplish our business success, generate consumer goods for Society while minimizing the environmental and social impacts of the production activities. For achieving this target the section brings articles, theses, websites, courses and what we consider interesting to you under these perspectives of socio-environmental improvements and economic results in our companies and businesses.

In this edition, you will be introduced to four important sources of clean technologies and more sustainable products for this kind of manufacturing industry, with outstanding performances in the forestry and wood products segments: "CNTL - National Cleaner Production Center", "CEBDS - Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development", "IBPS - Brazilian Institute for Sustainable Production and Environmental Law" and "Metafore".

Please, visit our suggested organizations and know more about their activities:

CNTL - National Cleaner Production Center.
(Brazil) - (in Portuguese)
The CNTL is a project created in 1995 through the actions of FIERGS - Federation of Industries of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and SENAI - National Service of Industrial Education. The expertise to CNTL consultants and staff in cleaner production was initially provided thanks to a partnership arrangement with UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). The methodology on eco-efficiency and cleaner production implementations has been transferred by Stenum (, an Austrian company with outstanding competence in procedures for deployment of these types of programs. The CNTL has relevant performance in Brazil through structuring a Brazilian Network of Cleaner Production with SEBRAE and CEBDS, involving several Brazilian states. CNTL also offers courses, organizes events, programs of CP deployments in enterprises of all types, environmental auditing, publishes technical manuals, etc. The CNTL has the leadership of our dear friend Mr. Paulo Rosa, a great master executive on CP in Brazil, and our dear engineer Mrs. Rosele Neetzow, who heads the technical activities of the Center. One of the most important services provided by CNTL to the pulp and paper sector was the implementation of international environmental audits in two market pulp mills in Chile: Valdivia and Nueva Aldea mills, both belonging to the business group Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion - CELCO. The auditing program has been performed by engineers Dr. Celso Foelkel (leader auditor), MSc Rosele Neetzow and Dr. Wagner Gerber. Some auditing reports have been made available by the Chilean Environmental Authorities (CONAMA) for public consultation in the web. I suggest you to navigate in some of the highlights in the CNTL website and related services, through the links: (CNTL general website) (CNTL publications, including the technical newsletters)
(Cleaner Production guidebooks)
(Implementing Cleaner Production programs)
(Timber and Furniture segment: case studies on Cleaner Production)
(Printing segment: case studies on Cleaner Production) (First report of the international environmental auditing at Valdivia bleached kraft pulp mill - Arauco - Phase 01 - May 2005, in Spanish) (Second report of the international environmental auditing at Valdivia bleached kraft pulp mill - Arauco - Phase 02 - May 2006, in Spanish)

CEBDS - Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development. (Brazil) - (in Portuguese)
The CEBDES is the Brazilian branch of the WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development (, an institution whose driving force has been the determination of companies (of various types: industrial, banking, cosmetics, mining, etc.) to lead the sustainable development in a global scale. CEBDS in Brazil has had the determination and competence of its director Mr. Fernando Almeida, who more than an executive is a renowned author of texts and reflections about sustainability ( We could nominate several CEBDS initiatives, including leadership programs in eco-efficiency and cleaner production, events and dissemination of information via the website and a remarkable virtual magazine titled Brasil Sustentavel - "Sustainable Brazil". (CEBDS general website) (Brasil Sustentavel magazine)
(Brazilian Cleaner Production Network)
(CP publications)
(Case studies on sustainability, with reports about the companies - Aracruz Celulose, Souza Cruz, Alcoa and Vale, all associated to trees and forests)

IBPS - Brazilian Institute for Sustainable Production and Environmental Law. (Brazil) - (in Portuguese)
The IBPS is a kind of NGO which has the charisma of my dear friend Dr. Carlos Adilio Nascimento in disseminating the concepts of eco-efficiency, cleaner production and sustainable development. It was created in 2001 for the purpose of training and empowering people and businesses in the paradigms of sustainability. There is a huge amount of news and technical material available in the format of articles, interviews and technical answers on the IBPS website. (IBPS general website)
(An interview with Celso Foelkel about environmental management in the Brazilian pulp and paper sector)
(An interview with our dear friend Dr. Gerda Horn Caleffi about POPs - Persistent Organic Pollutants)
(Special studies)

Metafore. (USA) - (in English)
Metafore is an organization that is dedicated to work for the implementation of innovations aimed at developing the most appropriate environment and sustainable manufacturing in the wood and paper industry. As ways to achieve these goals, Metafore seeks to facilitate the understanding of what are companies with outstanding environmental performance and best practices, seeks to promote forest and forest products chain-of-custody certifications, encourages the exchange of relevant information and knowledge and implements action changes through some of the specifically developed tools ("Environmental Paper Assessment Tool", "Paper Fiber Life Cycle Research" and "Environmental Performance Audit").
Learn more about these tools and Metafore reports browsing this website: (Metafore general website) ("Forest Certification Resource Center") ("EPAT -Environmental Paper Assessment Tool") ("Paper Fiber Life Cycle Research")
(Speech about paper life cycle oriented to Canada and USA)
(Executive report about paper life cycle)
(Publications) ("Environmentally Preferable Paper")

Weed Competition and Control in Eucalyptus Forest Plantations

One of the main reasons for the great technological success the plantation forests have reached in Brazil, has been the understanding of the role of weed competition, its monitoring and effective control. The term weed competition is relatively recent in forestry. In fact, it is the result of some conceptual issues that were semantically confused in forest science. In agriculture, the traditional terms that are adopted for plants that compete with commercial crops are both "weeds" and "damaging herbs". Weeds are plants growing where they are unwanted, competing for water, light and nutrients with the crop which has been planted in the area. It turns out that for the forest sector, nor the word "weed" and either "damaging herbs" are well-suited. This is because as soon as the forest planting operation ends and the first year after planting is reached, these plants are no longer considered weeds. They now form a rich understorey that is part of biodiversity and is also used for grazing of animals (cattle) in conjunction with the planted forest growth. At some point, some authors began to call these plants as "complementary vegetation", but it was a name that has not succeeded. In Brazil, the term "bush" is given to all these no-commercial plants, serving to define exactly the plants that grow vigorously in an area without having a commercial destination. In English, the term for "bush" or "competing vegetation" is just "weed". In Australia, the birthplace of most species of Eucalyptus, the plants of this genus are born naturally and are also regarded as "bush" by the population.

At the place where the forest is planted, the vegetation that compete with it may have different degrees of infestation. Much depends on the previous use of the land, before planting of Eucalyptus. The forest plantations are generally placed to grow on land previously used as pastures (natural or man-made grass fields) or degraded land after intense agricultural utilization. Grasses can be extremely aggressive and competitive, such as the Brachiaria grass, guinea grass, Eragrostis grass, etc. On the other hand, the shrubby vegetation includes a wide range of natural and exotic species (agricultural and forestry). This corresponds to the ecosystem where the new plantation forest will be located. As in general we have a wide variety of broad-leaved plants (angiosperms dicotyledons) and grasses (monocotyledons), the way and intensity of the weed control need to be studied and defined case by case.

The weeds that will compete with the Eucalyptus forests also bring other problems to the commercial plantations: they disturb the silvicultural and harvesting operations, increase the risk of forest fires, raise the cost of operations, may have allelopathic plants, may have aggressive species causing mechanical damage and covering the Eucalyptus tree branches and leaves (lianas and vines), etc. A "weed" species or even called "damaging herb" is so named because: it has high adaptability, it is aggressive and competitive in the area, it has a high quantity and ease dispersing seeds, it may have intense vegetative propagation (grasses) and also has seed longevity very large.

The weed control is required in some important stages of forest activities: pre-planting to cleaning up the area; along the period of planting seedlings and along the early maintenance services after planting. Monitoring and controlling are needed until the new forest has grown high enough to beat the bush because the trees have well-formed crowns and are positioned over the weeds. This means that the bush is a problem from the pre-planting period until about at least one year after planting. That will depend on forest growth and intensity of weed infestation.

There are companies that extend the control of weed competition throughout the forest rotation. They want to keep the forest area "clean from weeds and bushes", to facilitate the harvesting operations and also because their studies proved that the understorey reduces significantly the productivity due to competition for water and nutrients. This is most common in forests with irregular trees (seedlings produced from seeds) and less common in clonal forestry. This happen because their uniformity and speed of growth (cloned), so they are naturally "cleaner".

Other forest companies, due to distinct ecological conditions, allow free growth of the understorey as a way to enrich the biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. The important thing is to consider very carefully the benefits and sustainability of each model. It should be remembered that it is important to have a rich soil seed bank of native species, but not so healthy to have a seed bank of aggressive exotic grasses. In case the company chooses to keep planted forests in areas of poor seed stocks of natural vegetation, we recommend that they compensate for that with a higher proportion of natural conservation areas than those recommended by law (the sum of areas of permanent preserved areas and legal reserves).

Besides weed control at planting and after planting the Eucalyptus forest, there are other situations where weed control is required:

• in the maintenance and cleaning of firebreaks (areas kept clean to prevent the spread of the fire in case of a fire). One important point is to do the weed control at firebreaks(chemical or mechanical) during the rainy season to allow timing to the dead vegetation to get naturally decomposed. When the dry season starts later, all these organic matter will be decomposed and incorporated into the soil organic carbon content.
• in the reestablishment of forest plantations, when the Eucalyptus stumps tend to sprout and the new formed sprouts are undesirable and classified as another type of weeds.

There are several ways to control the weed competition, but today's most frequently used is the application of herbicides (chemical weed control). For many years, forest companies have controlled the forest weeds by hand hoeing and mechanical trimmers or other machinery engaged to tractors. These types of mechanical control have gradually lost ground to chemical weed control for several reasons: high demand for a workforce increasingly scarce in the field, high costs and low efficiency.

Herbicides in forestry began shy around the late 70's, but today are the dominant methods for the following reasons:

• low cost and high efficiency;
• relatively low ecotoxicity and low effect on non-target organisms;
• low migration to the soil and groundwater;
• high selectivity to the target plants;
• application equipment designed for minimal harm to people, forest plants and neighboring crops due reduced "drift" (migration to other areas).

The following actions and precautions are recommended when using herbicides in forest plantations and in permanent preservation areas:

• special care in handling and storage;
• appropriate application equipment and always in sound calibration stage and in good maintenance conditions;
• adoption of techniques regulated by law;
ditto for the protection of the worker and the workplace;
• awareness development and ongoing training for operational workers;
• efficient weed management (monitoring, degree of infestation, biodiversity detection, application plans, utilization of selected and more appropriate molecules, etc.);
• planning in relation to other silvicultural activities;
• planning for the future use of the site for cattle grazing, etc.;
• protection of natural ecosystems and neighboring crops;
• monitoring the effects and environmental impacts (soil, air, water and plants) and social issues involved in the herbicides utilization;
• keeping stakeholders informed (neighbors, etc.).
• have contingency plans easily implemented;
• etc.

The most common compounds (molecules) being applied to forest plantations are: glyphosate, oxyfluorfen, imazetapyr, imazapic, imazapyr, among many others. Herbicides can be applied pre- or post-emergence, this meaning before or after the plant or bush birth. In general, the chemical cleaning of the areas before planting are done with post-emergence herbicides, to kill the vigorous weeds in the site (total area or only at the range of planting). On the other hand, the applications of herbicides during the planting of Eucalyptus seedlings are made with pre-emergence ones. The chemical weed control (weeding) along the period of forest stand maintenance is made with post-emergence herbicides.

Herbicides are often still used in removing undesirable species in areas of permanent preservation or legal reserve, in order to prevent the growth of aggressive species (grasses and exotic) that may compete with native vegetation of slower growth rates.

At the reestablishments of Eucalyptus forests, the shoots or sprouts that are born from the still alive stumps must be eliminated or avoided. This elimination is done by the application of pre-emergence herbicides on the stump (sapwood and bark), just immediately after cutting the tree at harvesting; or else, by applying to the actual sprout leaves after they became more abundant (via post-emergence molecules). Herbicides commonly used for this are glyphosate (over the sprouts/twigs) and imazapyr (right on the stump prior to sprouting).

Anyway, we must understand that to use herbicides there are no fixed rules: there are cases and cases, depending on various regions and seasons and also because of the kind of bush or weed to be controlled For this very reason, it is very good to grab sound and reliable information about these processes and products, before venturing to make investments without due care and knowledge.

Following I'm bringing to you a selection of excellent references available in the virtual literature on this topic. Check it out and learn with the recommended authors:

Controle da matocompeticao na cultura do eucalipto. L.R. Ferreira; F.A. Ferreira; A.F.L. Machado. III Workshop SIF about Eucalyptus Cultivation. PowerPoint presentation: 83 slides. (2009)

Manejo integrado de plantas daninhas em povoamentos florestais. P.J. Christoffoleti. Revista Opinioes. (Dec 2008-Feb 2009). Available on 10.06.2009:

Manejo integrado de plantas daninhas em povoamentos florestais. P.J. Christoffoleti. Brazilian Silviculture Meeting - Encontro Brasileiro de Silvicultura. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. (2008)

Utilizacao de insumos quimicos em APPs
. C. Cruz. Water & Forest Meeting -Encontro Agua & Floresta. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides. (2008)

Efeito de subdoses dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla. E.N. Takahashi. Master Dissertation. UNESP. 53 pp. (2007),en.pdf

Efeitos do capim-coloniao sobre o crescimento inicial de clones de eucalipto. M.B. Cruz. Master Dissertation. UNESP. 46 pp. (2007)

Efeitos diretos e indiretos do glyphosate em eucalipto. L.D.T. Santos. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV. 90 pp. (2006)

Dissipacao e mobilidade dos herbicidas glifosato e oxifluorfen em um solo manejado no sistema de cultivo minimo e florestado com Eucalyptus grandis. R.E. Cassamassimo. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 63 pp. (2005)

Periodos de controle de Brachiaria sp. e seus reflexos na produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis. R.E.B. Toledo; R. Victoria Filho; A. J. Bezutte; R. A. Pitelli; P. L.C.A. Alves; C. F. Valle; S.F. Alvarenga. Scientia Forestalis 63: 221- 232. (2003)

Faixas e periodos de controle de plantas daninhas e seus reflexos no crescimento do eucalipto. R.E.B. Toledo. Ph.D. Thesis. ESALQ/USP. 146 pp. (2002)

Ao eucalipto, com carinho. C. Foelkel. View Points. Celsius Degree. 08 pp. (2002)

Aplicacao de herbicidas em cepas, na erradicacao da brotacao de eucalipto, em areas de reforma. J.L.A. Silva; A.J.P. Freitas. VIII Congresso Florestal Estadual de Nova Prata - Nova Prata RS State Forest Congress. p. 393 - 400. (2000)

Tipos de herbicidas para usos em florestas. R. Victoria Filho. IPEF Technical Series 4(12): 36 – 44. (1987)

Influencia da matocompeticao em plantios de Eucalyptus grandis. S. Zen. IPEF Technical Series 4(12): 25 - 35. (1987)

Plantas daninhas e matocompeticao. H.G. Blanco. IPEF - Boletim Informativo Especial - Special Informative Bulletin Nº 15 Part 1. 145 pp. (1977)

Herbicidas em florestas. Volume II. IPEF - Boletim Informativo Especial - Special Informative Bulletin Nº 15 Part 2. 123 pp. (1977)

Tratos culturais - Controle de ervas daninhas. IPEF Technical Circular Letter nº 17. 05 pp. (1976)

Efeito de herbicidas de pre-emergencia sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de especies arboreas. R. A. Ferreira; A.C. Davide; E.N. Alcantara; M.S. Motta. Revista Brasileira de Herbicidas. 13 pp. (Undated)

Visit some selected websites describing commercial brands of herbicides
(not to be regarded as commercial recommendations, but just as technical references) (Chopper) (Glifosato)
(Goal) (Herbicidas) (Herbicidas Dow)
(Herbicidas Monsanto)
(Herbicidas orgânicos) (Imazapic) (Imazapyr) (Round-up) (Scout) (Trop)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The Disinfectant and Antiseptic Properties of the Eucalyptus

Hygienic cleaning products are frequently used in humans and animal circulation areas. This is considered an universal practice nowadays. Some of the main cleansing products are called disinfectants. These products may have many formulations and different components, but they all must be capable to kill the targeted microorganisms. However, disinfectants are unable to eliminate or to kill some esporulated strains of microrganisms (Wikipedia, 2009; ANVISA, 2008). One of the most common ways to prevent human illness is by good cleaning. By doing such we can avoid the dissemination of the most pathogenic agents. Disinfectants receive also the names antiseptics or bactericides, when they are used to reduce bacterial proliferation on living tissues, especially on medicine or on veterinary works (Wikipedia, 2009). The ANVISA (Brazilian National Sanitary Control Agency) presents the prime technical definitions and suitable utilization areas for each one of the most common disinfectants available in Brazil. Disinfectants may be general in terms of many types of utilization's; or specifics (proper for each segment or area, such as pool utilization, food industries, hospitals, and many others). Pharmaceuticals and disinfectants manufacturing industries are always studying new chemical groups aiming to develop new cleansing products with lower human and environment toxicity and with better selectivity. The final objective is controlling only the target microorganisms without any other impact. So, many natural components extracted from plants are getting stronger in the markets, since there is the belief they are less harmful to Nature (Motta et al. 2008).

The essential oils of various Eucalyptus species are some of these natural products and some of them have scientifically proved disinfectant and antiseptics properties. These plant origin organic complex components are commonly named phyto-pharmaceuticals or phyto-chemicals. The high dissemination potential of pathogenic agents through several parts of the world is another relevant reason for new pharmaceuticals and disinfectants studies. For these reasons, the knowledge about disinfectant properties of Eucalyptus leaves can help very much in terms of disease prevention. This is particularly true on distant population areas that have restrict access on commercial markets. The Eucalyptus can help manufacturing excellent home made disinfectants.

One of the main activities observed on Eucalyptus oils is the anti-microbial effect. Kumar et al. apud Schuch (2008) related that this effect differs according to the species. They evaluated 24 species of the Eucalyptus genus and each of them had different anti-microbial activities. Some had excellent performance, and others, not that much. Takihashi and contributors mentioned by Schuch (2008) also evaluated some Eucalyptus species extracts with respect to their effects against bacterias. The species with better results were Eucalyptus globulus, Corymbia maculata and E. botryoides, controlling mainly gram-positive bacterias as Pseudomonas putida and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The same authors confirmed that the same oils on 0.2% concentrations inhibited Streptococcus mutans in 30 seconds.

Many Eucalyptus leaves components that provide disinfectant properties have already been identified and studied. They are monoterpenes, like 1,8-cineol, alpha e beta-terpinene, 4-terpineol, and others, and some tannins (Wikipedia, 2009; Hou et al. apud Schuch, 2008). Researching E. citriodora (Corymbia citriodora) oil components, Chagas et al. cited by Schuch (2008), observed that the citronelal was the most abundant one, followed by 1,8-cineol and alpha-pinene. The citriodora oil is the most used as commercial disinfectant in Brazil. Besides it, other Eucalyptus oils are used for house cleaning on bathrooms and kitchens. Some also can have a topic utilization (antiseptical) against Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria responsible for some skin infections.

Estanislau et al. (2001) evaluated the anti-bacterial activity associated to extracts from dried and ground leaves of E. cloeziana, E. microcorys, C. citriodora, E. saligna and E. grandis against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis microbiological activities. The extracts with better bactericide performance were found to be the C. citriodora and E. grandis ones.
Motta et al. (2008) pointed out the increasing botanical components utilization on human medicine and also for antiseptic uses on domestic animals treatments. This is specially due to their lower intoxication risks and minimum environmental damages. That’s why different leaves extracts from four distinct plants geni were tested by these authors. This study objective was to prevent or control two contagious bovine mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae). All leaves extracts had anti-bacteria activities and the compounds derived from fresh Eucalyptus sp. leaves were the most efficient ones. Schuch at al. (2008) also observed bovine mastitis bacteria inhibition caused by plant extracts. The results showed that hydro-alcoholic Eucalyptus leaves extracts had good performances as bactericides for all bovine mastitis agents tested.

Some anti-fungus Eucalyptus oil properties have also been proved. Pattnaik et al. apud Schuch (2008) related Eucalyptus extracts anti-fungal activities on eleven from the twelve species of fungi observed and tested. Somda et al. (2007) evaluated some plant extracts inhibitory activity on a common fungus that attack Sorghum seeds. The extracts were obtained from Cymbopogon (lemongrass), neen (Azadirachta indica), and Eucalyptus. The results indicated the lemongrass potential as fungicide. However Eucalyptus and neen extracts didn’t show significant effectiveness on this fungus control, but there was noticed an increasing seed germination rate with the treatment.

Plant essential oils are the main home-made disinfectant components, as well as some Eucalyptus species leaves. One of the most common and simple home-made disinfectant recipes is made with water, ethanol and Eucalyptus leaves blends (WikiBook, 2009); although, there are some more complex recipes. Some of them require special care about the resulting toxicity and also some components are not very easy to be found.

On the other hand, commercial disinfectants and bactericides containing Eucalyptus oil can be found in almost all Brazilian supermarkets and in many other countries too. There are two basic reasons for the success of these products as domestic disinfectants: the proper and effective Eucalyptus oil disinfectant activity and its excellent fragrance, associated as cleanliness by people.

Observe a lot more about the main disinfectant and antiseptic Eucalyptus properties on the selection of references we have prepared for your browsing. See also some recommended articles available on the web about this important issue and find out some Eucalyptus disinfectant products available on world markets.

Conceitos Desinfetante / Anti-sepsia.
Wikipedia. Available on 13.05.2009: (Disinfectants) (Antiseptics)

Desinfetante de eucalipto caseiro. WikiBook. Recipes book. Available on 12.05.2009:

Como fazer desinfetante (receita)? R. Slonik. Available on 12.05.2009:

Desinfetante (de eucalipto). Mix das Essencias. Available on 12.05.2009:

Desinfeccao e desinfetantes. P. F. Domingues. UNESP - Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Aula 5 Graduacao. 19 pp. Available on 12.05.2009:

Desinfetante de eucalipto para banheiro. Portal Marcivan. Available on 12.05.2009:

How to make natural disinfectant room spray. Eucalyptus disinfectant room spray. How Home & Garden Editor. Available on 12.05.2009:

ANVISA – Saneantes – Conceitos tecnicos. Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian National Sanitary Control Agency. Available on 02.12.2008:

Selected scientific and technical articles:

Desinfetantes, eficacia e custo. D. S.Tozzetti; L. M. Santos; J. F. Maia Jr.; C. Eduardo;D. D. Negri; D. M. Pereira. Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Medicina Veterinaria 12. (2009)

Cinetica da atividade antibacteriana in vitro de extratos naturais frente a microorganismos relacionados a mastite bovina. L. F. D. Schuch; J. M. Wiest; H. S. Coimbra; L. S. Prestes; L. Toni; J. S. Lemos. Ciencia Animal Brasileira 9(1): 161-169. (2008)

Perfis industriais. Fabricas de detergentes e desinfetantes. INDI/MG. PowerPoint presentation: 17 slides. (2008)

Comparacao de diferentes extracoes hidroalcoolicas de plantas com indicativo etnografico anti-septico / desinfetante. F. V. Motta; L. F. D. Schuch; L. S. Prestes; M.E.B. Oyarzabal; H. S. Coimbra; C. L. Goncalves. COMBRAVET 2008. Proceedings of Summaries. (2008)

Plantas medicinais em atencao primaria veterinaria: atividade antimicrobiana frente a bacterias relacionadas com mastite bovina e a dermatofitos. L. F. D. Schuch. Ph.D. Thesis. UFRGS. 206 pp. (2008)

Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. B. R. Ghalem; B. Mohamed. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2(10):211-215. (2008)

Evaluation of lemongrass, Eucalyptus and Neem aqueous extracts for controlling seed-borne fungi of Sorghum grown in Burkina Faso. I. Somda; V. Leth; P. Sereme. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(2):218-223. (2007)

O uso comercial e popular do eucalipto Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae. M.E.N. Rocha; C.L. Santos. Saude e Ambiente em Revista 2(2): 23 - 34. (2007)

O uso de oleos essenciais na terapeutica. M.G.F. de La Cruz. ETNOPLAN/UFMT. 22 pp. (2002)

Composicao quimica e atividade antimicrobiana dos oleos essenciais de cinco especies de Eucalyptus cultivadas em Goias. A. A. Estanislau; F. A. S. Barros; A. P. Pena; S. C. Santos; P. H. Ferri; J. R. Paula. Revista Brasileira de Farmacologia 13: 95-100. (2001)

Coeficiente fenolico na avaliacao microbiologica de desinfetantes de uso hospitalar e domestico. J. Timenetsky; F. Alterthum. Revista Saude Publica 23(2):170-174. (1989)

Visit some selected websites describing commercial brands of Eucalyptus disinfectants (not to be regarded as commercial recommendations, but just as technical references)
(in Portuguese) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese)
(in English)
(in English) (in English) (in English)

Online Technical References

In this section, we are as usual offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees, forests and products.

To prevent that this section may become too long, we are in this specific newsletter edition limiting the number of referenced and relevant literatures to 12. We hope you may enjoy them.

Does certification makes a difference: Impact assessment study on FSC/SAN certification in Brazil. IMAFLORA. 96 pp. (2009)

Producao de florestas com qualidade: Preparo do solo. R.M.M.Sixel. Website IPEF. (2009). Available on 06.06.2009:

Intensively managed planted forests. Toward best practice. P. Kanowski; H. Murray. The Forest Dialogue. 64 pp. (2008)

O horizonte florestal do Mercosul. S. Palacios. Movimento de Solidariedade Ibero-Americano. 24 pp. (2008)

Pos-tratamento e re-uso de efluente sanitario: Irrigacao em eucalipto. R. Stefanutti. III Seminario sobre Rotas Tecnologicas da Biotecnologia no Brasil. PowerPoint presentation: 56 slides. (2007)

Are forests making a comeback? R. Sedjo; P. Kauppi; J. H. Ausubel. Resources. An Interview. 03 pp. (2007)

Madeira - Uso e conservacao. A.L. Gonzaga. Technical Notebooks nº 6. Programa Monumenta. 247 pp. (2006)

Guia WWF - Seja legal - Boas praticas para manter a madeira ilegal fora de seus negocios. F. Miller; R.Taylor; S. Safe; A.C. Guazzelli; A. Arruda; B. Taitson. WWF - World Wildlife Fund. 80 pp. (2006)

Estudo dos constituintes quimicos de oleos volateis de plantas medicinais do Rio Grande do Sul: Isolamento, determinacao e modificacao estrutural e atividade biologica. E. Simionatto. Ph.D. Thesis. UFSM - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. 232 pp. (2004)

Plantations and water use: A review. R.J. Keenan; M. Parsons; A. Gerrand; E. O’Loughlin; R.J. Keenan; S. Beavis; D. Gunawardana; M. Gavran; A. Bugg. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation. 94 pp. (2004)

Gerenciamento da rotina visando a melhoria da qualidade na empresa florestal. A.R.C. Almeida. Master Dissertation. UNICAMP. 121 pp. (1998)

Uruguay - Alternativas para la transformacion industrial del recurso forestal. Organizacao dos Estados Americanos. Organization of American States. (1996). Available on 06.06.2009:

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the topics discussed. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge for our readers.

We hope you may enjoy our selection of events and courses presented in this edition:

PriceWaterhouse&Coopers Annual Global Forest and Paper Industry Conference.(Global Home)
Every year, the consulting firm Price Waterhouse&Coopers organizes this important event for the forestry and pulp and paper segment, aimed at issues of competitiveness and market analyses. In 2009, they have reached the conference number 22. However, thanks to their open-minded philosophy, we are able to introduce to you the four most recent ones. All these past four conferences have all technical material kindly provided by PriceWaterhouse&Coopers in its corporate website. Each of these conferences has a main theme. You may learn about them, by browsing the suggested websites to know more about what was presented there and to download the speakers' presentations. To do this, and to find the most interesting articles and issues to you, please, use the information of existing signs in the left frame for each of the conference webpages.
2009 - 22nd Conference - Re-energizing the forest & paper industry
2008 - 21st Conference - Challenging times- winning strategies
2007 - 20th Conference - 20 years of change: looking back/moving forward
2006 - 19th Conference - (without a main theme)

Jornadas de Salicaceas. Salicaceae Journee. (Argentina)
The Salicaceae family (poplars, cottonwoods, willows, aspen, etc.) comprises important forest raw materials to Argentina. In some regions, they are the main wood supply to Argentinean timber and forest products industry, including pulp and paper. The Salix and Populus trees have light woods and low to medium basic densities. They are also regular sources of biomass energy in several countries. In view of this importance, this event occurs regularly in Argentina for the exchange of scientific and technical information on these species of hardwoods. Poplars are also important in other countries (Spain, Chile, Uruguay and even Brazil). They perform a complementary supply of wood in these countries where Eucalyptus wood supplies are relevant to the same kind of industries. For this reason, we bring this knowledge, for considering it interesting and almost unique. (Papers presented at the 2009 Salicaceae Journee) (Papers presented at the 2006 Salicaceae Journee)

INMETRO Sectorial Forum - Forest Certification and the Biotechnology. (Brazil)
Forum of discussions on the subject forest biotechnology and its impacts on the forest certification system. Event organized by INMETRO - National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality, which is responsible for the Brazilian forest certification system with the name of CERFLOR. The event occurred in 2009 in Rio de Janeiro. (Forum Program) (Speech by Francisco Aragao about Biosafety) (Speech by Dario Grattapaglia about the Genolyptus project)

IV Simposio Latino-Americano sobre Manejo Florestal. Latin American Symposium on Forest Management
. (Brazil)
Traditional event organized by the Post-Graduate course in Forestry at UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria, which in its fourth edition took place on the campus of the same university, in 2008. The event had the cooperation of the Universitat fur Bodenkultur from Vienna, with several presentations and mini-courses offered by Austrian university professors. We should featuring the ever-enthusiastic coordination and participation of UFSM professors Dr. Paulo Renato Schneider, Dr. Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger and Dr. Miguel Durlo. (Event website ) (Event proceedings) (PowerPoint presentations) (Articles and presentations) (Mini-courses in PowerPoint) (Business panel speeches)

Seminario sobre Certificacao Florestal. Forest Certification Seminar. (Brazil)
Another event also organized by INMETRO - National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality, which is responsible for providing the Brazilian forest certification system through CERFLOR label. The event occurred in 2007 in Rio de Janeiro. The presentations and the program are presented in the following euca-links offered to you for navigation. (Speeches) (CERFLOR - the INMETRO Brazilian Forest Certification Scheme)

III Seminario sobre Rotas Tecnologicas da Biotecnologia no Brasil. Seminar on Technological Routes of Biotechnoly in Brazil. (Brazil)
The Third Seminar on Technological Routes of Biotechnology in Brazil, has been carried out by FIPASE - Fundacao Instituto Polo Avancado de Saude - Foundation for Advanced Health in Ribeirao Preto, in June 2007. The event aimed at discussing issues of using biotechnology in the following areas: Biotechnology and Human Health, Agriculture, Industrial Biotechnology, Biotechnology and Environment, Biotechnology Policy, Regulatory Frameworks and Incentives, Business Experiences in Biotechnology. Other previous editions of this seminar are also able to be accessed on the web. Both program and the third seminar lectures are available below, as well as access pages of the previous seminars: (III Seminar program) (Speeches available and organized according to speakers names) ( I Seminar webpage) (II Seminar webpage)

2007 Genomics Workshop. (Brazil)
This event was held in 2007 at ESALQ / USP in cooperation with the University of Illinois / USA and organized by Scaint - ESALQ Section of International Activities. We have selected for you some of the presentations that may be of interest: (Plant genomics - example of sugar cane - speech by Helaine Carrer) (Prospecting genes of interest in agriculture – speech by Luis Felipe Prada e Silva)

II Seminario Nacional de Florestas Plantadas. National Planted Forests Seminar.(Brazil)
Event organized by AMDA - Minas Gerais Association for Environmental Protection, headed by our esteemed Maria Dalce Ricas. This event, held in Belo Horizonte in 2003, continued the purpose of AMDA association to bring together the main stakeholders in forest plantations to stimulate dialogue and information exchange. Visit the website to read the transcripts of the presentations.

I Seminario Cultivo Minimo do Solo em Florestas. Seminar about Minimum Soil Preparation in Forestry. (Brazil)
This event was held in June 1995 in Curitiba/PR and it was organized by IPEF - Institute of Forestry Research and Studies. Although it is a not so recent event, the presentations and articles are always of the utmost value to those who plant Eucalyptus forests, because they bring several different views from forest companies and scientific university researchers.


Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

We hope you may enjoy our selection of Euca-Links presented in this edition:

The Kraft Pulping Course. (USA)
Definitely, this is an interesting website created to promote a course on "kraft pulping" given by our enthusiastic and competent friends Bill Fuller, Martin MacLeod and David Lebel. All teachers have extensive experience in the areas of wood chips preparation and kraft pulping science and technology. A similar course has been offered for years through TAPPI (USA) and PAPTAC (Canada). The website has some technical articles written by the speakers as "bonus to internet users" and also a fun game of questions and answers for beginners in this technology (Kraft Jeopardy). (Course website) (Game - Kraft Jeopardy) (Bonus of articles)

Blog BLRBAC - Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Advisory Committee. (USA)
BLRBAC is an association that is focused on developing procedures and technologies for increased safety and performance of recovery systems applied to kraft process liquor, in particular recovery boilers, lime kilns, etc. The BLRBAC headquarters is located in Atlanta, and this committee has numerous members, the majority are companies based in the United States and Canada, but several members are from other relevant kraft pulp countries, including Brazil. (Best practices in kraft liquor recovery) (Studies and reports about incidents and accidents) (Draft documents in revision stage)

Blog The Paper Planet (associated to the NGO Environmental Paper Network - EPN). (USA)
The Environmental Paper Network is an NGO that takes care of publicizing and promoting their concepts for manufacturing and trading of papers with minimum environmental impact. They have preference for recycled fibers or virgin fibers certified through chain of custody by FSC - Forest Stewardship Council. There are a lot of information's on the website, for this reason, it should be navigated, even if you have some disagreements on what they promote. It's always good to know the different viewpoints coming from stakeholders in the Society, mainly if they are talking about paper. There are several videos and links to other similar organizations. (Blog address) (Facts and myths about paper recycling) (Options to manufacture paper in sounder environmental ways, as suggested by EPN) (Toolkit to paper buyers to decide about the mostly correct papers) (Video "Paper Calculator")

LANAQM - Wood Anatomy and Quality Laboratory - Federal University of Parana. (Brazil)
This is a valuable website for all those who are interested in quality and anatomy of woods for industrial purposes, both of native trees and exotic species. From the materials provided by the creators of the website - professors of Forestry and Wood Products Engineering at Federal University of Parana - I emphasize to you to visit the excellent articles section. In it you are to find basic texts of almost all the wood anatomy, with good illustrations and explanations. A course for all who want to know more about the wood: botanical aspects, taxonomy, formation, defects, cell walls, tree bark, xylem, phloem, sap transportation, etc. Visit and download what you may have interest, composing with these documents a great digital library of nearly all relevant information about wood anatomy and quality. (Website) (Articles)

ICB - UFMG - Institute of Biological Sciences - Federal University of Minas Gerais. (Brazil)
The Botany Department of the UFMG makes available to all of us excellent learning materials on the taxonomy of our friends, the trees, with magnificent illustrations, thanks to the initiative of professors Eduardo Leite Borda and Joao Renato Stehmann. I recommend visiting the available class materials. I'm also taking the chance to thank both teachers for this cooperation to interested parties of the Society. (Fundamentals of Botany - Part 1 - for downloading) (Parts of the plants - Roots and stem) (Parts of the plants - Leaves) (Gymnosperms) (Monocotyledons)

INFOBIBOS. Technological Information's.
(Brazil) is a website that aims to disseminate knowledge, methods and technologies generated from scientific research or successful practices in agriculture and related sciences. It addresses issues about supply chains in the field of agriculture, cattle growing, forestry, natural resources and principles for quality management. It pays to browse through the website sections, which provide interesting knowledge, such as presentations, lectures, fact sheets on flora with many photos. You are to discover good articles, with great quality texts, sometimes about Eucalyptus plantations and riparian forests. (Infobibos website) (2008 and 2009 articles) (2007 articles) (2006 articles) (Soil zoning for Eucalyptus) (Eucalyptus new pests)

EcoLiterario Blog - Planting Trees and Books. (Brazil)
An interesting and well-visited blog designed and maintained by Mr. Bruno Resende Ramos, aimed at spreading environmental information and to promote a book about Eucalyptus planting.

Madeira Legal. Legal Wood. (Brazil)
The mission of the Madeira Legal website is defined as to show the positive things that the woods offer to Society. They accomplish this target in didactic, entertaining and instructive ways, on the basis of the scientific knowledge. There are modules oriented to children, adults and teachers. Definitely, something that the forestry sector was in need. Do not miss, it is of your best interest, no doubts about. (Facts about woods and timber) (To children) (To teachers)

Projeto Madeira e Legal. "Wood is Legal" project. (Brazil)
Website developed to promote the use of wood in the most correct way by the Brazilians, especially in construction industry, furniture manufacturing, etc. The project is endorsed by several public institution's, NGOs and associations. The website offers good articles, textbooks, books, presentations, etc. to promote the sustainable use of timber. (Hotsite Madeira e legal - Wood is "cool")
(Project members) (Speeches) (Articles and virtual books)

MAMCYP - Website of the Master Course on Wood, Pulp and Paper. UNaM - Universidad Nacional de Misiones. (Argentina)
Our dear "Friend of the Eucalyptus" professor Maria Cristina Area and our esteemed professor Fernando Felissia are two of the many enthusiastic teachers of the master's course and career in wood, pulp and paper at FCEQYN - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Quimicas y Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina. Initially, the program started as a Specialization in Pulp and Paper in 1988, becoming a Master Degree Program in 1995. The website MAMCYP is rich in knowledge, such as the classes learning materials and the most recent digital theses. (UNaM Master program in pulp and paper) (FCEQYN website - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Quimicas y Naturales) (Full text theses for downloading) (Theses abstracts for downloading)
(Virtual classes on chemical engineering - You are required to register a password to download the classes materials) (Virtual classes on pulp and paper - You are required to register a password to download the classes materials)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Pesticides

According to the Brazilian legislation, the term pesticide (preferably agrotoxic chemical or agrotoxin) refers to products used to combat undesirable organisms, as well in agriculture, cattle raising, and silviculture, as in the urban society itself. It concerns to substances used to combat/kill pests and diseases (like insects, larvae, fungi, bacteria, ticks, mites, virus, termites, etc.) and to control the growth of vegetation (weeds), among other functions. The term "agrotoxins" came by law to replace the expression "agricultural defensives", which was more frequently used in agriculture. This was the fruit of a mobilization on some segments of the organized civil society, who wanted to associate such products with their toxic effects on the remaining living beings and ecosystems. Agrotoxins have several synonyms, such as "pesticides", "plant remedies", "poisons", and even "agricultural defensives". As a function of their specific use, pesticides can be unfolded into other more selective names as: ant poisons, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, tick poisons, raticides, acaricides, nematicides, larvicides, etc., etc.

As a matter of fact, my friends, the technological world is rather dynamic: many innovations are being developed at global level, especially in biotechnology, agro-ecology, biological pest control, plant resistance to diseases and pests, etc. There are also efforts concerned with developing molecules of lower levels of toxicity and even organic molecules extracted from plants for weed and pest/diseases control. Considering all this, we hope that within some decades more the terminology "agrotoxic chemicals" will become obsolescent, since other ways of combating these undesirable organisms may have appeared. By way of example, we cite: use of pheromones, hormones, microbiological pesticides, insect repellents, products for pest sexual castration, etc.

Brazil, considering its vocation for the agribusiness, is a huge market for the sale of pesticides. Our country has a ongoing dispute with the United States of America for the first position in the ranking of the greatest worldwide consumers of pesticides. Among the dozens of products formulated in Brazil, the majority are destined for herbicides (44%), followed by insecticides and fungicides (about 28% each). It is definitely a very important market and a very important economic activity: just considering the Brazilian case, it represents approximately 6 billion dollars per annum, one billion corresponding to imported products. The Brazilian agricultural crops presenting the highest consumption of pesticides are as follows: soybean, sugar cane, corn, cotton, coffee, and citrus plants. This is due to the fact that they have the largest planted areas, as well as management for annual harvesting.

Although the forest plantations represent a planted area similar to that of sugar cane, the planted forest consumes much lower amounts of pesticides per hectare.year, because the planted forest is only submitted to application of pesticides in its initial planting stage (in the nursery for seedling preparation, in the preliminary planting for cleaning the area, in the forest planting and maintenance in the first or until the second year of growth). Thereafter, until the harvesting age (Eucalyptus = 6 to 8 years and Pinus = 15 to 22 years), the use of pesticides is close to nil. It only occurs in leaf-cutter ant control, or in some localized infestation of some pest or disease, or for weed competition control. For this reason, the initial applications are diluted along these years in which the forests are not submitted to any application of pesticides (or just to a small extent). At some forest companies, the application of herbicides is extended for the whole forest rotation, in order to keep the "forest clean" from understorey vegetation; at all of them there occurs constant leaf-cutter ant control and all of them monitor the eventual appearance of some pest or disease, whether known or not. It is very difficult to apply pesticides to already established forests, due to crown dimensions and tree heights. Applications by airplanes are complicated and little efficient. Therefore, the whole attention is given to find the initial focuses and to eliminate the problem at its origin. When the pest scatters around, the preferred alternative is the use of biological predators (biological control).

In general, about 600 thousand hectares per year of new plantation forests are being planted at present in Brazil, while the total planted area amounts to 6.5 million hectares. This means that only 10 to a maximum of 20% of the total planted area is receiving a more intensive application of pesticides, while the remaining planted area is growing and is submitted to some pesticide application just in case of some localized attack by ants, caterpillars, or some other "harmful organism". Just by way of comparison, the soybean, corn, and sugar cane crops are annual and represent intensively farmed areas of 22, 9.5, and 6 million hectares, respectively. Thus, it can be felt that the plantation forest sector contribution to the pesticide related theme is not so significant, but this is no reason for being minimized.

Although the amount of active ingredients of pesticides applied per hectare.year to the planted forests is relatively low with regard to the annual agricultural crops, there are always complaints on the part of environmental NGOs. Among their fragile arguments, they claim that the human society "does not feed wood" and for this reason they criticize the forest plantations and the use of pesticides in them. By so doing, perhaps they want to show that "they forgive or accept" the use of pesticides in agriculture for food production, but not in the planted forests. They forget that people’s happiness and welfare do not depend just on food, but on a large amount of other goods, such as: housing, furniture, books, medicines, disinfectants, transporting vehicles, etc. In all these items and a great deal of other ones we will find the products of the planted forests serving as raw material or even as final goods.

Manufacturing and using pesticides will be always questioned, as to this point there are no doubts. This is healthful as drivers for technological changes. The environmentalists argue that there are many researches showing problems related to illnesses in human beings resulting from the use of pesticides. This does not only refer to the problems connected with burns or intoxication's presented by people applying the pesticides. It also refers to the consumption of pesticides present in food, leading to serious illnesses like cancer, Parkinson and other diseases of the central nervous system. The most enthusiastic environmental NGOs come to suspect that there is a sort of a "pesticide mafia". They argue that the same companies manufacturing the agrotoxic chemicals to kill pests and diseases also produce the agricultural seeds. As a result of it, they suggest that the varieties are developed for high dependency upon these chemical products, which means an interminable vicious cycle in their opinion. In conclusion, there are concerns and oppositions – this is good when they are well-dosed and well-argued, as they help improve the today's ongoing model. We know that it is not the ideal one, but it is what we have available for the high productivity rates required in agriculture, cattle growing, and silviculture. As a matter of fact, things are also happening in this sector of the chemical industry. Let’s remember that some years ago several more dangerous molecules were used: BHC, DDT, dodecachlorine, pentachlorphenol, etc. At present, large percentages of the pesticide formulations are classified in Brazil either as class III (blue or low-risk label) or class IV (green label, meaning minimum risk to human beings).

The greatest unhappiness resulting from the use of pesticides may be its indiscriminate and excessive use. A philosophy of preventive applications was developed in agriculture, that is, the "poison" is applied even without the pest being present. It is enough to have favorable weather conditions for the appearance of the pest, for preventive applications to be made at once. Sometimes these applications are made on the basis of an application calendar, even without having harmful organisms molesting the crops. It becomes more expensive, more aggressive to the environment, and very little sustainable to act in this way. For these and other reasons, the present technologies for pest, weed, and disease control are questioned. Many people believe that the methodologies are only directed towards trying to eliminate the pests chemically and nothing else. We will speak a little more about this farther on.

Both agriculture and silviculture are working at present in the search of sustainable and certified models. Sustainable management, as it is considered at present, accepts the use of pesticides in agriculture and silviculture, provided that applications are made according to the legal requirements, guaranteeing safety for the worker and the neighboring population, as well as within that recommended by the effective criteria of the certifying entities. However, to all those wanting to have certifications and labeling of sustainable companies, it is suggested to always look for other less impacting alternatives than the today's available pesticides, as for instance: biological control, genetic improvement searching for resistant or tolerant varieties, etc.

As a matter of fact, the environmentalists’ most serious concerns are also concerns directing the actions of managers and technicians working for the forest-based companies. It is enough to evaluate the targets of these companies with regard to pesticides, to perceive this fact. Have a look at what at present is being aimed at in the researches and operations of the Brazilian leading companies in terms of forest plantations (Eucalyptus, Pinus, black wattle, etc.):

• reduction in the specific consumption of pesticides per hectare of effectively planted area;
• prevention and reduction of risks and impacts on the health of people, non-target organisms, and ecosystems;
• extremely advanced safety procedures in handling, storage and applications;
• constant search for molecules of lower toxicity for forest applications;
• search for new alternative models, to prevent weed competition, pests, and diseases from appearing;
• soil microlife evaluation, in order to understand the effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms of the soils (mycorrhizae, rhizobia, etc.);
• constant monitoring of the degree of infestation with weeds, pests, and pathogens, for application of the correct dosage at the right moment;
• monitoring of the degree of resistance of the pathogens, in order to understand the eventual gain on resistance of these organisms with regard to the pesticides in use;
• quality control in all types of pesticide applications, always aiming to optimize the operations;
• constant search for new plant varieties (or clones) capable of presenting higher resistance or tolerance to pests and diseases (Examples of successes: control of Eucalyptus rust and canker diseases);
• availability of quick measures for developing predatory organisms for pests and diseases biological control (Examples: control of Pinus wood wasp by using the Deladenus siricidicola nematode; control of Eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars by using the Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria);
• maintenance of healthy forests with minimum presence of stressed and fragilized trees (to thin them, as required), since they are more sensitive to pests and diseases, becoming doors of entrance for them;
• search for mechanisms favoring reduction in the life span of pesticides after their application, making them more biodegradable in the soil or even in the target plants;
• etc., etc.

Belonging to the forest sector, we know and understand the risks and threats of pesticides, which should be controlled and minimized by efficient mechanisms for environmental and quality management. However, in the present technological stage, the high forest productivity rates must be reached, otherwise the environmental impact may be even more significant. The highly productive forests are more eco-efficient: they consume less water, fewer nutrients, and fewer pesticides per ton or cubic meter of produced wood. In case the forest yields decrease, larger plantation areas would be required to meet the present human demand for wood. As a result of it, the environmental impacts would even be more significant, and larger areas would be required. The same applies to agriculture. Just imagine that about 35 years ago the corn productivity was 50% lower per hectare and the Brazilian population half the present one. Had the gains in productivity of this culture not been achieved, the corn area we use today would have to be at least twice as large, in order to meet the present Brazilian requirements of this type of grain.

The preferred mechanisms by forest planters to combat pests and diseases are as follows: incorporation of plant resistance to diseases and pests, and biological control. However, there are other technological options that can and must be further studied by the forest-based sector and by agriculture.

I will present some of them to you for your reflection and possible actions. I have no doubts that it is necessary to know more about all these issues as related to our dear friends, the Eucalypti.

Use of the covering power of after-harvesting residues for choking and allelopathic effects on the competitive vegetation that would tend to germinate

This type of practice has already gained importance in the planted forest sector, but still lacks on deeper studies with respect to weed competition combat and allelopathic effects. The emphasis has been placed on nutrient cycling rather than other advantages of this organic cover to reduce the use of pesticides.

Molecules of allelopathic compounds to replace or supplement the use of chemical herbicides

Allelopathy is generally defined as the effect of a plant species on (an)other one(s), through the inhibition of germination, disturbance in growth, and even causing its (their) death. This is a result of the release of chemical substances produced by that plant, in general in its leaves, roots, and/or bark. The allelopathic compounds may act by altering the absorption of nutrients, regulation of growth, photosynthesis, respiration, permeability of the cellular membrane, etc. The production of allelochemicals by plants depends on a large number of factors, among which genetics, soil fertility, plant density, age and metabolic stage, drought, exposure to light, etc. To discover allelopathic plants and to identify the allelochemical compounds may be a fantastic new tool for new and definitely natural herbicides, is it not so? Instead of keeping worried about allelochemicals, we should search for them, as soon as possible.

Organic molecules obtained from plant extracts for use in repellency or phytochemical control of pests and diseases

Well-known are the antifungal and insect repellency effects of many extracts from plants growing in Brazil, such as: jurubeba (Solanum cordifolium); basil (Ocimum basilicum); lemon grass (Cymbopongon citratus); lemon Eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora), "stone-breaker" (Phyllanthus niruri); ginger grass (Lippia alba); and neen, or Indian neen (Azadirachta indica). Just imagine, my friends, considering the power we have in terms of biodiversity of our Brazilian natural forests, how many molecules should be waiting for their turn to be found! An immense ground to be explored, in order to discover more natural ways of attacking phyto-pathogens.

Alternatives in forest eco-mosaic management

It is well-known that the diversified and permanent natural systems are sustainable and that the monocultures are much more fragile as to pest and diseases attacks. The monoculture areas may yield extremely high productivity rates, but it is correct to imagine that they will demand higher and higher costs with agrochemicals and prevention and controlling of resulting environmental impacts. It is up to the forest researcher to work in the search of other alternatives leading to high productivity rates of wood, but in more diversified models, such as: culture rotation, agro-forest systems, agro-ecological systems, product diversification in the same system, etc.

Alternatives offered by biomimesis and by the phyto-chemical ecology

The purpose of biomimesis is to study Nature so as to learn with it (not about it). By knowing how Nature solves, in its natural ecosystems, the problems of competition between plants, pests and diseases attacks, biomimesis might help developing new ways of agricultural and forest cultivation. Biomimesis is based on the study of biological systems to develop or improve new engineering solutions, since the problems faced by both Nature and technologies created by man are similar.

Now, as to phyto-chemical ecology, it would supplement with the studies of phyto-chemicals present in the plants at natural ecosystems, trying to understand the phenomena found on the basis of the chemical molecules present in these ecosystems. Thus, through the knowledge of physiology and ecology, it will be possible to know the roles of the chemicals used by Nature to keep sustainable these ecosystems. All this might lead to new ways of controlling pests and diseases of agricultural and silvicultural crops: instead of annihilating pathogens or weeds, the idea is to make the planted crops physiologically capable of coexisting with them.

Safe use of forest biotechnology

The identification of genes offering tolerance or resistance to pests, diseases, and even to the pesticides themselves, has helped increasing agricultural and forest productivity rates and contributed to reduce pesticide requirements in planting areas. It is up to the geneticists to safely transfer these genes to other commercial plants and varieties. This is already being done with regard to the Eucalyptus, in the same way as it is already done for many years in cultures such as that of coffee, citrus plants, etc. However, it should be emphasized that up to recent past moment, this gene transfer occurred either by controlled crossings or by hybrid production. At present, there is also the tool of the genetic engineering and production of genetically modified organisms (GM trees). This presently existing new technology, still pregnant with high expectation levels for commercial application in forestry, deserves studies and maximum responsibility on the part of researchers and undertakers of the Brazilian agribusiness.

Taking advantage of the concepts of Francis Chaboussou’s theory of trophobiosis

The theory of trophobiosis ( was developed by the famous researcher Dr. Francis Chaboussou to explain for which reason there are plants that are not attacked by pests and diseases in an agricultural or forest plantation infested with them. The plants are there as "available food", but they will only be attacked by insects, nematodes, fungi, or bacteria when they have in their saps precisely the food needed by these pathogens. This "food" mainly contains free amino acids, which are simple substances, quickly taken advantage of. In other words, a healthy, well-fed plant, having well-balanced sap in terms of proteins (composed of amino acids), will be hardly attacked by pests and diseases. Pathogens would starve in a healthy plant, or else, they would immediately look for a plant presenting nutritional unbalance. According to Chaboussou, soluble chemical fertilizers and pesticides are factors causing unbalance in plant metabolism, causing the plant to have in its sap a larger amount of free amino acids and a smaller content of complex proteins. The more intense the synthesis of proteins, the smaller would be the surplus of free amino acids, sugars, and soluble minerals that insects and microorganisms need to feed. Pests have a very small variety of digestive enzymes, which reduces their possibility of taking complete advantage of large and complex molecules as those of proteins. Furthermore, the efficient formation of proteins increases the level of respiration and photosynthesis by the plant, improving the whole plant metabolism. Plants receiving unbalanced nutrition will probably require an application of pesticides – closing this dependent cycle on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

The new Science & Technology frontiers with regard to pesticides

If we had the ability to visualize, just for a moment, the future technological roads for the Eucalyptus planted forests, we would see that there are very good and even very simple things waiting for us. Definitely, man’s ability to innovate is fabulous and it is happening in a surprisingly fast rate.

Just have a look at some things I myself succeeded in visualizing, even needing to wear glasses, in my quick glimpse of the future:

• with the development of the ethanol production based on cellulosic raw materials, the weeds that at present must be annihilated by herbicides in agricultural and forest cultivation will become raw materials for alcohol production. Instead of applying "plant killing poisons", in the future this organic matter will be harvested and sent to biofuel production. Soil nutrients will be exported, there are no doubts about it, but this will be another problem to be solved by science. After all, a technological solution always results in other researches being required: an endless road.
• With a better knowledge about the nutritive value of the bodies and constituents of the pests (ants, caterpillars, wasps, moths, etc.), instead of being destroyed and killed, they might be attracted and transformed into raw materials for some industrial (animal food, for instance) or even handicraft use (if on a small scale). For example, the Chinese are at present researching the food utilization and nutritive value of caterpillars and pupae of the silkworm, since this insect has in its body constitution more proteins than milk and eggs ( Moreover, its excrements are at present used and disputed as valuable organic fertilizer. Up to the present days, our paradigm has been the following: to solve the problems of pests and agricultural diseases we need to combat and annihilate them. The use of pesticides has been a remarkable tool for this purpose. However, pests will always go on existing and new ones will appear and multiply. I wonder whether we will have to keep killing them up to the end of our days. An alternative would be to find uses for their little bodies and constituents. Would this not be more eco-efficient and natural? From undesirable, they would become desirable: just consider what fantastic change of technological status!

By way of conclusion of this not so mini-article, I would like to leave here a final reflection: how will we be able to avoid the damages caused by pests and diseases attacks on commercial plants without using pesticides? We have already projected an alternative way for weed competition: the weeds will become raw material for biofuel production. As far as pests and diseases of plants are concerned, the solution is somewhat more difficult. Maybe we should have to look at ourselves, human beings, in a mirror, in order to try to find a solution. After all, we are the greatest predators of living beings on this planet, the worst of all pests from this eco-environmental perspective.

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

This knowledge oriented service was made possible through sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper and by Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano and VCP. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the authors or coming from the referenced technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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