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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 32 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations and interests, allowing that readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the benefit of our society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

This one is a special edition, since it has the mission of bringing to you a condensation of everything that was most relevant and posted so far through our digital publications Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter. These retrospect's are being offered in the "Archives of the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter", that intend to show a consolidation of most of our editorial efforts since these publications origins in 2005 till December 2010. Remember that our mission is to be one of the best and most comprehensive sources of good quality information about the Eucalyptus in a global basis. Enjoy looking what has been brought to you in past issues via the available links.

We are not to have the traditional Celso Foelkel's technical mini-article in this edition, but instead, a very elaborated article written by the "Friend of the Eucalyptus" forester engineer Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp and myself - I was very fortunate to be Garlipp's co-author on this text. This paper was previously submitted and presented at the recent XIII World Forestry Congress in Argentina - October 2009. This is a very rich text about the benefits of planted forests - it was reviewed and the missing English version has been created to make it more global, since it was one of our faults not having it. The article came to be part of a new section in our newsletter and we decided to call this section as "Having the Floor... the Friends of the Eucalyptus". We hope you enjoy what we have written and, in case you feel it valuable, please, help to disseminate the text to those who believe and also for those who do not believe in the benefits of the planted forests, whether of Eucalyptus, pines, etc. Perhaps, this reading may modify or help to consolidate concepts and thoughts, fostering a better understanding about these fantastic fast-growing forests we have in Brazil and many other countries, as well. Please, take a little time and read our article "The Role of Planted Forests for Meeting the Future Demands from World Society", we are very grateful for.

However, this is not all we are bringing to you in this edition. In another one of my "Life Reports", I will tell a very interesting story: the way as emerged and has been consolidated the technical course in pulp and paper in the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim", one initiative of former Riocell pulp and paper company, today CMPC Celulose Riograndense, which continues to support the course and making the most to students and graduates at Guaiba-RS, Brazil. It is worth knowing what can be done for the forest-based sector with little money and lots of dedication, enthusiasm and faith. After all, the social benefits and career advantages are such that once created, the course has been supported by Riocell, Klabin Riocell, Aracruz Celulose, Fibria, and finally, CMPC Celulose Riograndense, the different shareholders of the former Riocell. Undoubtedly, an investment with high social returns and which comes very well to be as an excellent indicator of sustainability and corporate social responsibility. I hope people reading this story, may motivate some others in our industry to create something similar.

We are also creating another new section, which will follow you for at least 10 issues of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. The section "Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases" in this edition honors Dr. Celso Garcia Auer. Other major Brazilian researchers, working on Eucalyptus forest plantations health will be introduced to you with a brief biographical coverage and a few dozen of their most relevant publications related to pests and diseases of Eucalyptus. We hope this new section may become useful to you - after all, the problems of attacks by predators are powerful causes for losing productivity and economic results in commercial plantations of Eucalyptus in Brazil or in other parts of the world.

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you who honor us with your reading.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology and Blog do Papeleiro. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, International Paper do Brasil and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Archives - Eucalyptus Newsletter & Eucalyptus Online Book - A 2005/2010 Retrospective

Celso Foelkel's Life Reports -Technical Course in Pulp and Paper - State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" at Guaiba-RS

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases: Dr. Celso Garcia Auer

Having the Floor... The Friends of the Eucalyptus
The Role of Planted Forests for Meeting the Future Demands from World Society - Article by Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp & Celso Foelkel

Archives Eucalyptus Newsletter & Eucalyptus Online Book

A 2005/2010 Retrospective

In this section, we are bringing to you a consolidation of most of our efforts and writing creation in the period 2005 to 2010, offering the opportunity to remind you about our most important sections made available in the 31 previous editions of our Eucalyptus Newsletters & 21 chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, published since their origins till December 2010. We intend to make this kind of retrospective at the beginning of each calendar year, always updating this long list file for your easier browsing.

Each one of our newsletter editions is organized in sections, some of which are covered at all issues. Various others come in the format of texts, tutorials, reviews or compilations, etc. The sections "References about Events and Courses" and "Euca-Links" occur on almost all issues. At them, we try to present interesting websites to be navigated and browsed, always containing good quality literature, lectures, teaching materials from courses, books, events, photos, charts, figures, tables, etc. Certainly, they are always related to the Eucalyptus. Other sections are less frequent, such as the "Online Digital Magazines"; "A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers"; "Ecoefficiency and Sustainability Corner" and "A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation". Moreover, we have a section called "Online Technical References" whose contents vary in each edition, but with the goal to bring good literature about the Eucalyptus to our readers.

Two sections of amazing success among our readers and for which we place a lot of attention and efforts are: "The World of the Eucalyptus" and "The Friends of the Eucalyptus". They focus mainly on regions and people who are world leaders in terms of Eucalyptus. Many researchers have been so far honored and their scientific and technical production shared with our readers. Similarly, several countries and Brazilian states have deserved wide coverage in relation to what they are developing in forestry and forest-based industry.

In 2010, we have introduced some new sections to cover other relevant issues related to the forest-based sector and to diversify our technological line, opening up new windows to provide more knowledge about the Eucalyptus: "Ecological, Economic and Forestry Zoning in Brazil"; "Online Technical Videos" and "Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus". Through them, we seek to bring the state-of-the-art to the forest-based segment, both environmentally and technologically speaking.

The Ester Foelkel's mini-articles on "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" cover an interesting variety of titles and situations, seeking to elucidate and to clarify the general public about the many uses of Eucalyptus for the benefit of the World Society. On the other hand, our section "Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel" has had the mission to increase the knowledge and to clarify readers about conceptual or technical issues that for some reasons have different levels of understanding by people in our Society, and therefore, ultimately result in conflicting and misunderstanding situations. Finally, randomly and often due to suggestions from readers, we have several special sections, such compilations, reviews or tutorial texts, dealing with topics of great interest about the Eucalyptus.

Ultimately, our Eucalyptus Newsletter is also oriented to offer, free-of-charge and to all interested people, the "Eucalyptus Online Book" chapters, launched as a digital book about the many aspects of the Eucalyptus, written by Celso Foelkel.

We invite you all to visit our 2005/2010 archives and to access our technical production, according to the interest of each one. Please, use the following links:

Section - "The World of the Eucalyptus"

The Eucalyptus in Portugal

State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

South Africa


Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (just in Portuguese till now)

State of Piaui - Brazil

Updates about the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

State of Tocantins - Brazil

Section - "The Friends of the Eucalyptus"

Dr. Herbert Sixta

Forest engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis

Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite

Dr. Laercio Couto

Dra. Maria Cristina Area

Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo

Dr. Jose Luiz Stape

Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado

Professor Jose Paz Pena

Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza

Professor Paulo Renato Schneider

Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini

Dr. Dario Grattapaglia (just in Portuguese till now)

Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica

Professor Dr. Jose Livio Gomide

Professor Dr. Jose Otavio Brito (just in Portuguese till now)

Professor Dr. Dan Binkley

Forest engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp

Mr. Dave Hillman

Forest engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga († In memoriam )

Section "Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus"

Brazil's Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins the World Pulp Markets Over - by Dave Hillman

Section "Online Technical References" - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Technical References about South Africa

Technical References about Uruguay

Ph.D. Theses, Master Dissertations and Monographs from Chilean Universities

Technical References about Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul

"O Papel" Magazine Cover Stories (Just in Portuguese till now)

Historical Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

Some More Historical and Classic Books about the Eucalyptus

A Selection of some Master of Science and Ph.D. Theses from UFV - Federal University of Vicosa... under Dr. Jose Livio Gomide Guidance and Advising

Technical References about the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical References about the Charcoal made from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical References about the state of Piaui - Brazil

Technical References about the state of Tocantins - Brazil

Section "Euca-Links" - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Euca-Links about South Africa

Euca-Links about Uruguay

Euca-Links about the State of Sao Paulo

Euca-Links about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Euca-Links about the State of Piaui - Brazil

Academic Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology

Euca-Links about the State of Tocantins - Brazil

Section "References about Events and Courses"
- Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Events and Courses in South Africa

Events and Courses in Uruguay

Events and Courses in Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul

Events and Courses in Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Events and Courses about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section "Online Digital Magazines" - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Digital Magazines in South Africa

Digital Magazines in Uruguay

Digital Magazines in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

Digital Magazines in the State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section "Online Technical Videos"

Technical Videos about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section "A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation" - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

ABTCP Articles (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technological Roadmaps

Strategic Technological Plan from IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies - and Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance

Section "Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner" - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

ABTCP Articles (Just in Portuguese till now)

Eco-Labelling and Forest Certification

Section "Ecological, Economic and Forestry Zoning in Brazil"

Forest Survey and Ecologial Economic Zoning of the State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section "A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus"

A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers

Decor Papers

Texts, Tutorials and Relevant Selected Topics about the Eucalyptus

Australia Plants - The genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora

Forest Certification

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies of the New Market Pulp Mills (Botnia and ENCE) in Uruguay

Eucalyptus in Asia

Eucalyptus Diseases

The Graduate Course in Pulp and Paper Technology at the Federal Universiy of Vicosa

The Graduate Course in Forest Engineering - Forest Products Technology - UFSM Federal University of Santa Maria

Wood Anatomy - A Tutorial - A Photo Gallery on Images and Wood Anatomy Sceneries

Wood Anatomy: A Complement to our Previous Tutorial

Insect Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus Essential Oils

Honey Production from Eucalyptus

Genomics in Eucalyptus

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies for Modern Pulp Fiberlines

Environmental Legislation for Modern Pulp Fiberlines: a Study Made Available by the Tasmania Government

Bleaching of the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

Best Available Techniques to the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Pulp (a continuation on this topic)

Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice / Clear Cutting Forest Management

Eucalyptus Photo Gallery

A Field Guide to the Eucalyptus and Plantation Forest Trees

Planting and Growing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests

Albany resources (Western Australia) pay off for forward thinking

Eucalyptus: Doubts, Creeds, Myths, Facts e Realities. Part 01: The opinion of the "contrary interested parties"

Eucalyptus: Doubts, Creeds, Myths, Facts e Realities. Part 02: The opinion of the "favorable interested parties"

RISI Top 50 Power List

Eucalyptus Global Map 2008

Eucalyptus World Map

Tributes to the Eucalyptus: in the Music and in the Literature

Weed Competition and Control in Eucalyptus Forest Plantations

Five Years of The Section "Ask the Euca Expert" (Just in Portuguese till now)

Eucalyptus Wooden Poles (Just in Portuguese till now)

FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest

Eucalyptus Museum

Prices of Forest Products

Costs of Forest Operations with Eucalyptus

Virtual Herbaria

Lignotuber: what is and serves for...

Virtual Xylotheques or Wood Collections

The First Annual Congress or Convention of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper - in 1968

Section - "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" by Ester Foelkel

The Eucalyptus and its Artcraft

The Eucalyptus Inspiring Arts

The Eucalyptus used in Landscape Designing and Gardening

The Eucalyptus being used to the Production of Bonsais

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Insect Repellents

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Honey - A top quality apiculture

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Soaps & Detergents

The Production of Shiitake Mushroom based on Eucalyptus Logs

The Association of the Eucalyptus to Human Allergies

The Disinfectant and Antiseptic Properties of the Eucalyptus

The Eucalyptus and the Production of Tannins (Just in Portuguese till now)

Railway Sleepers made from Eucalyptus Woods

Eucalyptus Wood Flooring

Obtaining Pyroligneous Acid from the Wood of Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Obtaining Tar/Creosote from the Wood of Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems

Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus

Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus

Small Diameter Roundwood Obtained from the Eucalyptus and its Utilization in the Construction Industry

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapters by Celso Foelkel

Bark of the Eucalyptus Trees: Morphological, Physiological, Forestry, Ecological and Industrial Aspects Oriented to the Pulp and Paper Production (Just in Portuguese till now)

Minerals and Nutrients on Eucalyptus Trees: Environmental, Physiological, Silvicultural and Industrial Aspects about the Inorganic Elements Present on Trees (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Eucalyptus Fibers and the Kraft Pulp Quality Requirements for Paper Manufacturing

Vessel Elements and Eucalyptus Pulps

Industrial Solid Wastes from Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Production. Part 01: Fibrous Organic Residues

Eco-Efficiency in Managing the Pulp Fiber Losses and the Broke Generated in Paper Manufacturing

Eco-efficient Management of Woody Forest Residues from the Eucalyptus Plantation Forestry

The Eucalyptus and the Leguminosae. Part 01: Acacia mearnsii

Eco-efficiency and Cleaner Production for the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Industry

Opportunities for Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency and Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Production of Eucalyptus Plantation Forests from the Perspective of Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency, and Cleaner Production

One Thousand and One Ways to Make your Pulp and/or Paper Mill and your Planted Forest more Eco-Effective and Eco-Efficient (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes from Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Production. Part 02: Success Factors for Management (Just in Portuguese till now)

Papermaking Properties of Eucalyptus Trees, Woods, and Pulp Fibers

The Process of Eucalyptus Wood Chips Inpregnation by the Kraft Pulping Liquor (Just in Portuguese till now)

Individualizing Eucalyptus Woody Fibers for the Production of Kraft Pulp (Just in Portuguese till now)

Differentiating Eucalyptus Market Pulps and Papers through Pulp Fines Management (Just in Portuguese till now)

Production of Charcoal using the Wood from Eucalyptus Planted Forests (Just in Portuguese till now)

A Reference Guide about Energy Eco-Efficiency to the Brazilian Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 03: Sludges & Sludges (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 04: Dirt Bark (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical Mini-Articles by Celso Foelkel

Flash Drying as a Process to Differentiate Market Pulps

Eucalyptus: the Tallest and most Productive Trees on Earth...

Washing and Cleaning Eucalyptus Pulps

ECF and TCF Bleaching Sequences for Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

The Eucalyptus in Brazil

The Eucalyptus in Brazil - Second part

Modern Bleached Kraft Eucalyptus Pulp Fiberlines

Best Available Technologies and Best Environmental Practices to the Production of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulps

The Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Manufacturing and the Water Consumption

Closing Water Cycle for Further Reductions on Water Consumption in the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp

Eucalyptus Planted Forests and Water Consumption

Eucalyptus Planted Forests and the Biodiversity

The Eucalyptus and the Eco-labels

The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Environment

The Eucalyptus Planted Forests and the Sustainability

Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector

Treating the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills

Managing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests for Enhanced Sustainability

The Eucalyptus Planted Forests, Land Use and the Production of Food in Brazil

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Pesticides

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Fertilizers (Just in Portuguese till now)

About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

Eucalyptus Plantations and Genetically Modified Trees

Pruning Eucalyptus Trees

Recycled and Virgin Fiber Papers: A Required Complement for both Technological and Environmental Reasons (Just in Portuguese till now)

Paper as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human Society

Environmental Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mills

Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills

Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies

Celso Foelkel's Life Reports

Technical Course in Pulp and Paper - State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" at Guaiba-RS

In August 1979, on my first working week in the former Riocell in Rio Grande do Sul, shortly after my professional transference from CENIBRA - Minas Gerais, I received a request from my dear friend Dr. Aldo Sani, who was the Riocell's CEO, to cooperate teaching lectures in the newly created Technical Course in Pulp and Paper in Guaiba. The course had been created and legalized, but teachers were still missing for some disciplines/courses, including one that always delights me, it was exactly about the fibrous raw materials for pulping and papermaking. It was my first introduction to this amazing course, one of the many Dr. Aldo's creations, one of those he has helped to build. I always admired him for the enthusiasm and willingness to promote professional education. He had helped to set up a technical course in pulp and paper at post-secondary education in Telemaco Borba - PR, while he was working at Klabin. He had also given all the required support for the rise and maintenance of the major course of graduate level in pulp and paper in Brazil, at UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, a partnership between CENIBRA and UFV, which began in 1977 ( These two courses have been extraordinary examples of success in the Brazilian professional education for the pulp and paper sector, and this course which was born in 1979 in Guaíba followed the same pattern. So, it came as no surprise for me to receive this request from Aldo Sani. He was investing once more, now through Riocell - Rio Grande Companhia de Celulose do Sul, in creating a new pulp and paper course for Brazil. I felt myself very proud to work helping the project - these issues in teaching and education always fall on fertile ground when demanded to me.

Shortly before, in 1978, Riocell shareholders had agreed to make a large investment to complete the Eucalyptus pulp mill in Guaiba, which was incomplete at the time because the company was obliged to utilize a bleach plant overseas in Sarpsborg - Norway - in a Borregaard AG facility. A new state-of-the-art bleaching line would be built in Guaiba, with other auxiliary units, such as wastewater treatment plant, coal-fired power boiler, chemical plants for production of chlorine-caustic soda and chlorine dioxide, etc. To operate the new units, there was the need for qualified people, increasingly scarce in Brazil at that time due to labor competition from other projects in pulp and paper, such as Aracruz Celulose, Suzano, Ripasa, Jari, Klabin, CENIBRA, etc. The training of middle level technicians to work as process operators was vital to the success of the Riocell's project with the required technological complementation. If the course would be created immediately (1979), the 3 years course term would be just enough for forming the first graduated class in 1982, just before the starting up of the new industrial units, which would occur in 1983. The seeds for the creation of the technical course in pulp and paper in Guaiba were been thrown; and today, more than three decades later, the proof of its success is unquestionable.

I had the honor of having taught in the first class of students accepted to this course. This started to occur in August 1979, when I could taught to them two disciplines on fibrous raw materials, beginning with silvicultural aspects of plantations for wood formation oriented to supply to pulp mills and complementing on the main properties of wood for pulp and paper manufacturing. Imagine that with me, we had teachers such as nothing more, nothing less, that the engineers: Antonio Waldomiro Petrik, Carlos Alberto Busnardo and Luiz Renato Chagas Figueiredo, among others. It was a highly qualified group of teachers, whose goals were not just teaching contents, but to help consolidating the personal and professional progress of motivate students, mostly originated from Guaiba.

Along these more than 30 years since the foundation, the P&P course has not only survived but grew and it has consolidated. Today, it is a benchmark of professional education in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, with an astonishing demand for its vacancies (an average of 30 candidates from all parts of the state and other regions for each of 40 annual open vacancies). The candidate screening became a requirement from 1993 onwards, when the course gained a projection beyond the borders of Guaiba. It can now be said that about 700 students have graduated since the first prom, which occurred in 1982. Many of these students have been and are being hired by the pulp and paper mills that exist in Guaiba and in the surroundings of Porto Alegre. However, many of them are working for other kinds of industrial sectors or for pulp and paper mills located in other Brazilian states. Other students, when they complete the technical course, continue the career, studying engineering, business administration, etc. and they become aggregated to other types of professional activities within or outside the P&P sector. It is also common to have trained technicians working in pulp and paper suppliers.

The course had several students who distinguished themselves because successful careers, including one who has received the award "Young Scientist", an award provided by CNPq - National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, our good friend Dr. Wagner Gerber. Others, such as Mr. Elton Constantin, reached top technical managerial positions in industrial mills in the P&P segment.

Several former students, after graduating from university courses, come back to "Gomes Jardim" as teachers of the course. In short, a kind of "perpetual motion", each one giving a share of contribution to the perpetuity of the course and career. To list all students and teachers of the course would be very difficult, I surely would miss some of them and the list would be a very long one. I just want to report some of my former students from the first graduating class, those who most marked my memories. I'll do this shortly after. However, I would like to thank and to congratulate the many teachers, who have helped the course along its life and send my gratitude and appreciation to my friend and current course coordinator, the engineer Mr. Francisco Giacobbo (, a talented professional working at CMPC Celulose Riograndense. I would also like to emphasize the important role of the board of "Gomes Jardim" institute of education, in the person of Professor Mrs. Nara Marly Zeilmann Moraes - and the supervisor of education and traineeships/internships - Professor Mr. Rudi Medeiros. My warmest greetings to you all, who made and/or are making this history of success. My compliments and appreciation also to all companies that have succeeded Riocell when stock controls have changed for the same company. All, without exception, have supported the course and maintained the partnership with the educational institute. We're talking about: Klabin Riocell, Aracruz Celulose, Fibria and currently CMPC Celulose Riograndense.

The technical course in pulp and paper of the current State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" was founded in 1979, through a partnership between Riocell - Rio Grande Companhia de Celulose do Sul and the 12th Office of Education from the RS State Secretariat of Education and Culture. At that time, the institute was called State High School "Gomes Jardim". The school principal at the time the course was founded was professor Mrs. Graciana Uranga da Rocha. By Riocell acted as drivers, our great friend Dr. Aldo Sani and the person responsible for the training department, the administrator Marco Aurelio Kihs. Since that time, the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper was the best professional course in the city of Guaiba, soon gaining recognition and popularity in the entire state. This was due to: qualifications of teachers, opportunities offered to students, training periods in Riocell or even in other companies in the region; opportunities for immediate employment after graduation.

Riocell and the companies that have followed in its history, always offered their facilities, libraries, laboratories, teaching resources, teachers, technical visits and traineeships/internships. Technical disciplines of the whole course are as follows: Raw Materials, Pulp Production, Paper Production, Applied Physics, Applied Analytical Chemistry, Technical Drawing, General Mechanics, Basic Instrumentation and Automation, Technical English and Organization and Rules.

In 1979, as part of the agreement, the 12th Office of Education also offered the possibility of recruiting two teachers through the public education system. They were admitted in this part-time function (without prejudice to their professional activities in Riocell, because the course was night-time) two engineers from Riocell: Carlos Alberto Busnardo, and few years later, Jorge Vieira Gonzaga. Our dear friend Carlos Busnardo was the teacher with greater longevity in the history of the course. For this reason, I asked him some help with data for this life report, for which I thank very much. Carlos worked as a teacher for several disciplines and classes, from 1979 until 1998, when he left Rio Grande do Sul to move to the Parana state. Carlos was honored several times by graduating classes. In 1984, he was honored as patron and one of the key speakers for that specific graduating class. In his speech, Carlos paid homage to the students with a remarkable phrase: "Until yesterday you were the raw materials; and now you all are first-class finished products,...". Nothing more appropriate for these young people, most still emerging from adolescence, but who turned out to be excellent professionals to the industry.

The course has always been a high school level course. The students have their P&P activities in two years of lectures and one vocational training period at a mill. They are admitted to the course after completing the first year of the basic secondary education (corresponding to the upper levels of the high-school). In 1979, the course started with 20 students - lasting three years; now it has two-year of technical classes and are admitted 40 students per year. The selection of students is very crowded, as mentioned before. Students mobilize themselves for a differentiated learning, including activities to obtain funds to go participating in the annual congress and technical exhibition organized every year by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, in Sao Paulo. A huge achievement for these motivated kids.

Speaking about motivated young people, I remember a lot of my lectures to the first class of the course, exactly in 1979. I had absolutely amazing students, both for the enthusiasm and the competence. I had just left the graduate course on pulp and paper at UFV-Vicosa, where I had taught in the first half of 1979. Suddenly, I found myself in the second half of the year with a group of young students, not graduated in engineering, but having the high school level of education. Believe it or not, but I had some students in Guaiba who were able to solve my difficult problems in an easier way than several of the students I had in the graduate course at UFV. Imagine the surprise and excitement of a teacher who meets a group of children with 15-18 years of age giving a "show of talent". Several of them were hired by Riocell, others by Celupa and Cia Pedras Brancas, other pulp and paper mills in the city of Guaiba. With much affection and specific characteristics of a professor (always feeling a father to his students), I remember very well several students as: Cladismar Schmidt; Loremi Gomes Lesina; Ivana Teresinha Villanova; Lauro Soares; Luiz Antonio da Luz; Iema Rocha; Isabel Cristina Vieira; Marco Aurelio Andriotti; Nilzo Andriotti; Vania Schuch; Celso Polcharski; Carmen Lucia Diddio da Silva; Sandra Rejane de Oliveira, among so many others.

Probably, you have noticed the large presence of women as students, at that time. The course was attractive to young people looking for a career in Guaiba, no matter the sex. Right at the graduation of the first group of students, we faced a real problem - how to hire women as far most of the operation work in the Riocell mill was happening under alternate shifts. The protective Brazilian legislation of that time was in favor of men, by preventing women for working in shifts. We had then, myself, the engineer Mr. Antonio Waldomiro Petrik and Mr. Hissashi Umezu (Riocell's human resources manager), a serious talk to find ways to build opportunities in the mill operations to the female human resources. We decided to risk - the labor penalty was small, and the risk was proved to worth to be taken. If we had done nothing at that time, we would lose most of the female students, because the labor functions on the mill daytime were limited in number. Then, we hired the first female worker, just graduated from our course, to perform in the level of manufacturing operations and working in alternate shift - I remember very well the historic day in which Ms. Loremi Lesina, one for our best students from the first group, began performing very successfully in the areas of causticizing and lime kiln at the mill. One risk that well worth to be taken.

I have the best of my memories from this period. I was professor just to the first group of students in 1979, because soon after we have created another graduate course with the usual support from Dr. Aldo Sani. This new graduate course was created at USP - University of Sao Paulo, which made me go every week to Piracicaba-SP and to the city for Sao Paulo, too. But this is another one for my life reports, I will tell on another occasion.

I am also very happy that the Guaiba P&P course has been consolidated along the years, and that the students/professors have always struggled to make this course an example from Rio Grande do Sul to the pulp and paper sector in Brazil. Even away from the classrooms, since 1980, I always did my best to support the course, especially getting dozens of students as trainees at the Riocell Technological Center, of which I was responsible for the management till 1998. By "meeting again the course", in a recent speech I made at the Fifth Technical Seminar of Pulp and Paper 2010, organized by the ATCP-RS, I realized how important was my modest contribution to it. For this reason, I decided to report this fact with the aim to promote this kind of idea that has worked out by the efforts of many.

There is even an association of the technicians graduated from this course in Guaiba, called ATCP - RS - Association of the Pulp and Paper Technicians in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Please, visit the ATCP-RS website to understand the reasons for my enthusiasm for the course.

I hope that this life report may serve as an incentive to other companies in the pulp and paper sector to realize how it is possible to build a better future for themselves and for people working in this sector. So, let me end this report with a phrase that was sent to me by professor Carlos Alberto Busnardo, another enthusiastic supporter of this course - "Guaiba Technical Course in Pulp and Paper: excellence in people's development and the result of a dream turned into reality through activities well-designed and implemented".

Suggestions for complementary reading and browsing about the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper - State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim":

State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim". Accessed on 29.12.2010:
Traditional elementary, secondary and vocational education school from the RS State Secretariat of Education and Culture, located in Guaiba. The institute has been founded on July 5th, 1926 under the name of Primary School of Guaiba. In 1979, the institute began offering a Technical Course in Pulp and Paper, thanks to an agreement firmed between Riocell - Rio Grande Companhia de Celulose do Sul, and the 12th Office of Education, from the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. (Home page of the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" - in Portuguese) (Fundamental courses and professional career - in Portuguese)

Blog ATCP- RS - Association of the Pulp and Paper Technicians in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Accessed on 29.12.2010:
ATCP-RS aims to bring together the Pulp and Paper Technicians who successfully accomplished the course in the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim", regardless of the graduation time, in order to improve the technical, educational and cultural skills, and to integrate the technicians to industrial companies in this sector, through news, events and newsletters. The association organizes seminars, technical visits, lectures, and trainings also oriented to other industrial sectors. It also aims to promote the quality of the Pulp and Paper Technician to the the job markets. The blog is rather diverse, has many technical sections on forestry and pulp and paper, but it is surprising and welcome the concerns of the ATCP-RS team with activities of valuing people and community integration. (Home page - in Portuguese) (History of the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" - in Portuguese) (ATCP-RS makes presence at the 2009 ABTCP Congress in Sao Paulo) - in Portuguese) (ATCP-RS makes presence at the 2009 ABTCP Exhibition in Sao Paulo - in Portuguese) (About the 5th Technical Seminar in Pulp and Paper - 2010 - in Portuguese)

Photographic sequence about Celso Foelkel and the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper at the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim". C. Foelkel. PowerPoint presentation: 08 slides. Accessed on 29.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Technical Course in Pulp and Paper. Social actions by Celulose Riograndense.
Accessed on 29.1.2010:
Celulose Riograndense mentions on its website that the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper was created in 1979, aiming at the formation of skilled labor to work for the pulp and paper industry. It refers that the Technical Course is a partnership between CMPC Celulose Riograndense and the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The theoretical lectures are taught at the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" in Guaiba. The practical lectures are carried out in the CMPC Celulose Riograndense pulp and paper mill and laboratories. The course lasts two years, covering a workload of 1,710 hours of teaching, plus 350 hours of mandatory internship, admitting about 40 students each year. Teachers in the technological area of the course are connected to the company, whether as employees or as service providers. (Celulose Riograndense Website - in Portuguese) (Celulose Riograndense social actions - in Portuguese)

Some evaluations (quizzes) applied from 1979 to 1981 to the the first groups of students of the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper at the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim ". C. Foelkel; C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Quadruplicacao da Aracruz em Guaiba (RS) aumenta procura por curso tecnico. (Quadrupling of Aracruz in Guaiba-RS increases demand for technical courses). D. Cruz. Jornal Ja. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Curso tecnico de celulose em Guaiba supera expectativa. (Technical course about pulp and paper in Guaiba exceeds expectations). N. Santos. RS State House of Representatives. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Curso tecnico de Guaiba. Parceria governo-empresa: Klabin Riocell presente no ensino tecnico de escola estadual do Rio Grande do Sul. (Technical course in Guaiba. Government-business partnership: Klabin Riocell is present in technical education school in the state of Rio Grande do Sul). R.M. Savastano. O Papel (December): 65-66. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Celulose e papel e o curso preferido por secundaristas. (Pulp and paper is the preferred course by high school students). Riocell S.A. A Garca nº XII. 01 pp. (1992) (in Portuguese)

Google Images on the Technical Course in Pulp and Paper at the State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" - Guaiba-RS:
(in Portuguese)

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases

Dr. Celso Garcia Auer

One of the most important topics to be studied for the success of forest plantations is exactly the one connected to Plant Health, sometimes, also referred as Forest Protection. This area of science aims ensuring that the man-made forests, planted in large areas with the same species or clone, may grow and develop as expected by those who planted them, without their physiological processes being affected by predators. The leading causes of diseases or predation attacks on planted forests of Eucalyptus trees are insects (pests) and fungi, bacteria's and viruses (diseases). To prevent the emergence of these predators, surveillance and monitoring should be constant, as well as scientific studies to mitigate damage and to control the populations of undesirable biological components in the forest ecosystem. These predation attacks may occur in both living trees as well as in timber and other products obtained from planted forests (e.g.: the case of termites and fungi attacks on wood in use).

In Brazil, we have several eminent people who have researched or are still researching the health of forest plantations, assisting in identifying pests and diseases as well as working in prevention and control. From this edition onwards, we will make a simple tribute to some of them, referencing in some editions of the Eucalyptus Newsletter several of their major publications and a brief report of their scientific careers.

We will start this new section featuring a renowned researcher from EMBRAPA, who has added a huge scientific basis on diseases of various tree species that are commercially important in Brazil, including those of the genera Eucalyptus and Pinus. This researcher is Dr. Celso Garcia Auer. Recently, Dr. Auer was honored by our other digital information newsletter, the PinusLetter, more specifically targeted to the species of Pinus and other conifers of importance to the countries located in Latin America and in the Iberian Peninsula.

It turns out that most of our great authors about Pinus, are also major researchers on the Eucalyptus. So, it was natural for us to supplement our tribute to them, offering you to read some of their publications with the Eucalyptus that have been published along their careers. These articles, with much certainty, will be very useful at any time you face problems in the Eucalyptus plantations related to Plant Health.

Stay tuned for next newsletter editions, since at least a dozen of great Brazilian authors and their most relevant publications would be offered for browsing and reading.

Dr. Celso Garcia Auer

Celso Garcia Auer was born in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on June 15th, 1961. Celso graduated as a forest engineer at the Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo, ESALQ/USP, in 1983; he completed his master's degree in Agronomy-Plant Pathology in 1986, studying the impact of the presence of thermophilic fungi in self-heated piles of wood chips at Champion Papel e Celulose mill. Later, he completed his Ph.D. at ESALQ/USP, in 1991, studying the impact of canker in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Sao Paulo. From 1986 to 1990, he was professor of UNIFENAS, Alfenas, Brazil, teaching lectures on Microbiology and Forest Pathology. In 1989, he was hired by the CNPF - National Forestry Research Center, today EMBRAPA Florestas, to act in researching the etiology, epidemiology and control of forest diseases, especially those of Eucalyptus and Pinus. In 1990 and 1991, he assisted the College of Forestry, Sao Paulo State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho, in Botucatu, SP, lecturing Forest Pathology, until the hiring of an effective teacher. Today, he also participates as a professor of the Graduate Course in Forestry, at the UFPR - Federal University of Parana, lecturing Forest Pathology and advising masters and doctoral students about diseases in Eucalyptus, Pinus, black wattle and mate. Celso takes part in various EMBRAPA projects in partnership with universities, research institutes and forestry companies. Among his main lines of research with microorganisms in Eucalyptus are highlighted several studies on the decomposition of wood by the action of thermophilic fungi in pulp mill wood chip piles. In the team of researchers from EMBRAPA Florestas who are dedicated to study the diseases of Eucalyptus, we can also mention Dr. Albino Grigoletti Junior and Dr. Alvaro Figueiredo dos Santos, who have several joint projects and co-authorship on research papers with Dr. Celso Garcia Auer. To this fantastic team working on forestry health in Brazil, our greetings and thanks.

Know Dr. Celso Garcia Auer's complete curriculum vitae at: (CNPQ Lattes Platform of Curriculum Vitae)

Know a more detailed Dr. Celso Garcia Auer's biography, given when he had his career disclosed at PinusLetter number 28:

Selection of articles, theses and speeches written by Dr. Celso Garcia Auer and co-workers from EMBRAPA Florestas team, covering issues on plant health, wood decomposition and forest protection, all related to the Eucalyptus:

Podridao de cerne do eucalipto em arvores vivas: etiologia e danos ocasionados. (Eucalyptus heartwood decay in living trees: etiology and damage). C.G. Auer. 16th PROTEF/IPEF Technical Meeting - Management of Forest Pests and Diseases. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Morte de arvores resultante de praticas inadequadas durante a implantacao florestal. (Death of trees due to inadequate silvicultural practices during forest establishment). A.F. Santos; C.G. Auer; R.A. Dedecek; P.E.T. Santos; H.D. Silva. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Sheet 158. 05 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Produtos alternativos no controle do oidio em mudas de eucalipto. (Alternative products to control powdery mildew on Eucalyptus seedlings). R.M. Bizi; A. Grigoletti Jr.; C.G. Auer; L.L. May-de-Mio. Summa Phytophatologica 34(2): 144-148. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Armillaria luteobubalina: praga florestal exotica. (Armillaria luteobubalina: an exotic forest pest). C.G. Auer; A.F. Santos. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Communication 195. 08 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Growth and germination of some thermophilic fungi isolated from eucalypt wood chips. C.G. Auer. EMBRAPA Florestas Scientific News. 04 pp. (2007) (in English)

ABSTRACT: Crescimento e germinacao de alguns fungos termofilos isolados de cavacos de madeira de eucalipto. (Germination and growth of some thermophilic fungi isolated from eucalypt wood chips). C.G. Auer. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 54. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Alternativas de controle do mofo-cinzento e do oidio em mudas de eucalipto. (Alternatives for control of gray mold and powdery mildew in leaves of Eucalyptus). R.M. Bizi. Adviser: C.G. Auer. Master Dissertation. UFPR - Federal University of Parana. 80 pp.(2006)
(in Portuguese with summary in English)

Metodologia para inoculacao de Botrytes cinerea em Eucalyptus dunnii
. (Methodology for the inoculation of Botrytes cinerea in Eucalyptus dunnii). A. Grigoletti Jr.; R.M. Bizi; C.G. Auer. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Communication 134. 02 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Selecao de fungicidas para controle de oidio em eucalipto. (Selection of fungicides to control powdery mildew in Eucalyptus). R.M. Bizi; A. Grigoletti Jr.; C.G. Auer. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 51: 165-170. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Doencas do eucalipto. (Eucalyptus diseases). T. L. Krugner; C. G. Auer. In: Manual de Fitopatologia. (A Guide on Phytopathology). H. Kimati; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho; L. E. A. Camargo; J. Rezende. Volume 2. 4th Ed. Editora Agronomica Ceres. (2005) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Isolamento de fungos xilofagos causadores de podridao-branca na madeira de Eucalyptus sp. (Isolating wood decaying fungi causing white rot in Eucalyptus sp.). T.L. Zeni; C.G. Auer; W.L.E. Magalhaes. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Communication 119. 03 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Estudo preliminar sobre as temperaturas de desenvolvimento de Valsa ceratosperma. (Preliminary study about temperature influence in the development of Valsa ceratosperma). C.G. Auer; T.L. Krugner. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 48: 117-120. (2004)
(in Portuguese)

Doencas. Cultivo do eucalipto. (Diseases. Eucalyptus plantations). C.G. Auer; A.F. Santos; A. Grigoletti Jr. Production Systems 4. EMBRAPA Florestas. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Doencas do eucalipto no sul do Brasil: identificacao e controle. (Diseases of Eucalyptus in Southern Brazil: identification and control). A.F. Santos; C.G. Auer; A. Grigoletti Jr. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Sheet 45. 20 pp. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Estrategias de manejo de doencas em viveiros florestais. (Strategies for managing diseases in forest nurseries). A. Grigoletti Jr.; C.G. Auer; A.F. Santos. EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Sheet 47. 08 pp. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Contribuicao de fatores climaticos na ocorrencia da seca de ponteiros de Eucalyptus grandis em Arapoti-PR. (Contribution of climatic factors on the occurrence of tree tops drying in Eucalyptus grandis in Arapoti-PR). L.M.A. Maschio; F.M. Andrade; C.G. Auer. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 41: 55-63. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Efeito de fungos termofilos sobre a madeira de Eucalyptus saligna. III. A populacao fungica. (Effect of thermophilic fungi in Eucalyptus saligna wood. III. The fungal population). S.M.P. Guilmo; C.G. Auer; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 37: 89-95. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Influencia do solo na incidencia de cancro em Eucalyptus grandis. (Influence of soil on the incidence of canker in Eucalyptus grandis). C.G. Auer; T.L. Krugner. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 34: 65-73. (1997) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Doencas de arvores urbanas. (Urban trees diseases). C.G. Auer. Documents 28. EMBRAPA Florestas. 19 pp. (1996) (in Portuguese)

A ocorrencia do cancro do eucalipto nos estados do Parana e de Santa Catarina. (The occurrence of Eucalyptus canker in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina). C.G. Auer. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 32/33: 81-83. (1996) (in Portuguese)

Descricao de uma anomalia ocorrida em Eucalyptus grandis na regiao de Arapoti-PR, Brasil. (Description of an anomaly occurred in Eucalyptus grandis in the region of Arapoti-PR, Brazil). L.M.A. Maschio; C.A. Ferreira; C.G. Auer; A. Grigoletti Jr.; M.R.S. Wiecheteck; A.M.B. Nardelli; C.A. Bernardi. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 32/33: 85-87. (1996) (in Portuguese)

Patogenicidade de Cylindrocladium candelabrum em acacia negra. (Pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium candelabrum in black wattle). C.G. Auer; E.P. Sotta. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 30/31: 29-35. (1995) (in Portuguese)

Levantamento de Valsa ceratosperma e de Cryphonectria cubensis em cancros de Eucalyptus grandis em tres locais do estado de Sao Paulo.
(Survey of Valsa ceratosperma and Cryphonectria cubensis in Eucalyptus grandis cankers in three locations of the state of Sao Paulo). C.G. Auer; T.L. Krugner. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 28/29: 03-10. (1994) (in Portuguese)

Efeito de fungos termofilos sobre a madeira de Eucalyptus saligna. II. Aspergillus sp., Dactylomyces thermophillus, Penicillium bacillisporum, Rhizomucor sp. e Sporotrichum sp. (Effect of thermophilic fungi in Eucalyptus saligna wood. II. Aspergillus sp., Dactylomyces thermophillus, Penicillium bacillisporum, Rhizomucor sp. and Sporotrichum sp.). S.M.P. Guilmo; C.G. Auer; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 26/27: 29-34. (1993) (in Portuguese)

Efeito de fungos termofilos sobre madeira de Eucalyptus saligna. I. Thermoascus aurantiacus. (Effect of thermophilic fungi in Eucalyptus saligna wood. I. Thermoascus aurantiacus). S.M. Prado; C.G. Auer; L.E.G. Barrichelo. 24th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper). 08 pp. (1991)
(in Portuguese)

Cancros em Eucalyptus grandis: relacao entre incidencia e qualidade de sitio, taxonomia da especie de Valsa associada e sua patogenicidade comparada com Cryphonectria cubensis. (Eucalyptus grandis cankers: relationship between incidence and site quality, taxonomy of the Valsa species associated to its pathogenicity compared to Cryphonectria cubensis). C.G. Auer. Ph.D. Thesis. ESALQ/USP - University of Sao Paulo. 110 pp. (1991) (in Portuguese with summary in English)

Surto epidemico da mancha foliar causada por Cylindrocladium spp. e sua relacao com o crescimento de especies/procedencias de Eucalyptus na regiao de Tucurui, PA. (An epidemic outbreak of leaf spots caused by Cylindrocladium spp. and its relationship to the growth of species/provenances of Eucalyptus in the region of Tucurui, PA). T.L. Krugner; I.A. Guerreni; C.G. Auer. IPEF 43/44: 74-78. (1990) (in Portuguese)

Fungos termofilos em pilhas de cavacos de Eucalyptus spp. com auto-aquecimento. (Thermophilic fungi in self-heated wood chips piles of Eucalyptus spp.). C.G. Auer; T.L. Krugner; L.E.G. Barrichelo. IPEF 38: 28-32. (1988) (in Portuguese)

Estrutura anatomica e composicao quimica de cavacos de madeira de eucalipto inoculados com o fungo Thermoascus aurantiacus. (Anatomical structure and chemical composition of Eucalyptus wood chips inoculated with the fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus). C.G. Auer; M.P. Ferrari; M. Tomazelli Filho; L.E.G. Barrichelo. IPEF 37: 45-50. (1987) (in Portuguese)

Levantamento de fungos termofilos associados a pilhas de cavacos de Eucalyptus spp. (Survey of thermophilic fungi associated with of wood chips piles of Eucalyptus spp.). C.G. Auer. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP - University of Sao Paulo. 98 pp. (1986)
(in Portuguese with summary in English)

Efeito da serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis no crescimento micelial de Pisolithus tinctorius em meio de cultura. (Effect of litter of Eucalyptus grandis in the mycelial growth of Pisolithus tinctorius in culture medium). C.G. Auer; W. Bettiol. IPEF 32: 49-52. (1986) (in Portuguese)

Having the Floor... The Friends of the Eucalyptus

The Role of Planted Forests for Meeting the Future Demands from World Society

Article by Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp & Celso Foelkel

1 . Introduction

In the second decade of the twentieth century, forest plantations began gaining expression and importance due to numerous factors favorable to them and to users, such as: i) wood obtained with the homogeneous quality standards required by industrial processes; ii) significantly higher productivity than native forests; iii) close location to consumption centers and networks of transportation and communication, optimizing logistics; iv) the possibility of better controlling production cycles; v) cost reduction; vi) possibility to establish them in selected areas with favorable attributes of climate, soil and good business environment.

Deforestation, in a global level, remains as one of the major concerns of our time. From 2000 to 2006, they were cleared 13 million hectares of forests per year, in a worldwide basis. Forest plantations and the expansion of preserved natural forests have contributed to reduce the annual loss to 7.3 million hectares in the same period extent, but a still unacceptable rate. Earth has 3.95 billion hectares of forests and the world's wood production is 3.5 billion cubic meters per year, from which, 47% for industrial purposes. Significant and growing percentage of this production is supplied by plantations. In this scenario, planted forests assume increasingly roles not only for wood production, but also for conservation of the natural resources. In addition of supplying raw materials for various industrial and non-industrial uses, all present in our day-to-day lives, planted forests contribute to the supply of various environmental and social services. They also cooperate to prevent the aggression on natural resources, reducing the pressure on them because of wood extraction from native forests. To understand and to optimize the functions of the planted forests in all of their dimensions is fundamental for meeting the future demands of society in a sustainable manner.

2. Planted Forests - World Extent and Distribution

Planted forests occupy 271 million hectares, equivalent to 2% of Earth's available land and 6.9% of all types of existing forests; 205 million ha (76%) were established on the basis of producing wood or non-woody products, and 66 million ha (24%) with an exclusive function of protection/conservation. Planted forests refer both to the forest plantations of introduced or exotic species, or the forests of indigenous species established through planting or seeding under regular spacing and with the same age, as well as the component of native species planted at semi-natural forests. Forest plantations account for 140 million hectares (included in the 271 million ha of planted forests), from which around 110 million ha with functions of production and about 31 million ha of exclusive functions of protection. An unique feature of planted forests is their versatility, both in terms of management, as their objectives: for example, in East Asia, half of the planted forests fulfills protective functions; in various locations are designed for recreation.

In recent years, the increase recorded in the area of planted forest for production, also indicates the recognition of their capacity to provide social and environmental benefits.

Globally and today, the ownership of planted forests oriented to production is spread among government's and public institution's (50%); small individual owners (32%), corporations (17%) and others (1%). In 1990, 70% of them were owned by public agencies and 12% by small holders. The ownership of land planted with forests is in the process of decentralization, mainly in East Asia.

3. The Functions of Planted Forests

The importance of the economic, social and environmental aspects of the planted forests has been acknowledged in international forums since the World Symposium on this specific issue, organized by FAO in Australia in 1967; and reinforced in the commitments of the UNCED Declaration of Forest Principles in 1992, in the proposals for actions on sustainable forest management of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, the United Nations Forum on Forests and the UN Millennium Development Goals.

3.1. Wood production

This has been and will remain as being the main function of the planted forests. The fact of the plantation areas are increasing not only indicates their selection for economic and operational purposes. It also indicates, to some extent, the difficulties and the lack of success in the management of the native forests to supply the wood demands by population with proper species and at the desired time.

Campaigns, restrictive policies for commercial access and lack of investment in the past, brought uncertainty about the future wood supply from native forests (Salleh, 1997). For many countries or regions with little or no planted forest cover, deforestation is being the choice to supply the demanded wood, or as an alternative, to import forest products. More and more, wood products from planted forests replace those obtained from native forests, especially those from tropical forests, as in the case of plywood, flooring and engineered products with higher added value. Production of firewood and charcoal from planted forests are also of extreme importance to many countries, including Brazil, both for domestic use (stoves, fireplaces, etc.), as well fuel for drying of grains and the supply to steel and pig-iron manufacturers.
3.1.1. Future demands for wood and required forest area

Annually, the planted forests produce 1.4 billion cubic meters of wood, supplying over 35% of global consumption. The use of this wood occurs in sawmills (46%), pulp and paper mills (18%), non-timber products (16%), bioenergy (6%) and others (13%).

Over the next 20 years, global demand for forest products will be affected by: i) growth of world population from 6.4 to about 8.2 billion people; ii) increasing of economies at emerging countries and their share in the global economy from U.S.$ 50 to $ 100 trillion; iii) changes in people's consumption patterns due to the higher life expectancy, quality of life improvements and the urbanization process; iv) transformation of many current sources of native woods in protected areas, production of environmental services, tourism, recreation, etc.; v) use of wood as an energy source to partially replace fossil fuels; vi) improvements of technologies for re-engineered wood products; vii) use of recycled materials and wastes from production processes; ix) pressure of consumers for certified products.

In 2030, consumption of roundwood for industrial purposes is expected to be 2.44 billion cubic meters, an increasing of 45% compared to the 1.68 billion cubic meters in 2005 (FAO, 2009). This estimate already considers the growing use of wastes and recycling in the production of panels and papers. Higher levels of production and consumption will take place in Europe, North America and Asia. The amount of biomass for energy demands is also expected to grow nearly 50% by 2030, part of which will be supplied by wood, industrial wastes and agricultural crops. The percentage of roundwood for energy will be demanded in the same order of magnitude as for industrial wood.

Planted forests are essential for meeting the major proportion of the future population needs for wood. It is estimated that by 2030 they will yield about 1.9 billion cubic meters (1.70 to 2.14 billion cubic meters), representing 75-80% of the world demand for industrial wood (Carle & Holmgren, 2008). By this time, the area of planted forests will reach 345 million ha, mostly corresponding to plantations in South America and Asia, although the latter region is likely to experience a deficit situation.

The targets for reducing greenhouse gases may increase the demand for renewable liquid fuel. The production of lignin-cellulosic ethanol may increase the demand for the wood from planted forests to far beyond these projections.

The forest world faces the challenge of guaranteeing the fulfillment of society's future demands for forest products through a new matrix of supply which is assuming a new configuration, now totally linked to these demands from society.

3.2. Production of non-wood goods and services

Several species are important in providing non-timber forest products in various regions of the planet, including extractives, fruits and seeds.

Examples are: oil palms and rubber-tree plantations in Asia, Africa and South America; Arabic gum produced from Acacia senegal trees in Sudan; natural tannins produced from Acacia mearnsii in South Africa and Brazil, and the cork very commonly extracted in Europe. We shall also highlight the resins extracted from Pinus, the essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus and Corymbia for the food industry, pharmaceuticals, hygiene and cosmetics products; also, Cocos nucifera plantations as a source of food for various populations and honey production that occurs in partnership between forestry companies and cooperatives of producers in several regions of Brazil. Pellets, briquettes and wood chips for energy are becoming important in the energy matrix of many companies, regions and countries. Likewise, the expectations are enormous for generation of biofuels (ethanol) from the hydrolysis and fermentation of wood carbohydrates. Lignin originated from planted forests also is expected to offer valuable products to supply the chemical industry, and as an alternative source of fuel.

3.3. Environmental services

The plantation of forests is by far the most recommended practice to protect the soil, prevent erosion and preserve water sources. Natural resources are Mankind heritage and legacy. Forest producers must preserve natural resources in good condition and their rational utilization's are a matter of survival for the perpetuity of the forest-based sector. The contributions to society and the potential impacts of planted forests depend on the scale and on the operational practices that are adopted by foresters. It is possible to maximize the positive effects and to mitigate the negative ones.

3.3.1. Protection and enhancement of biodiversity

Forest plantations should not be established in areas directly converted from natural forests or natural ecosystems. On degraded, abandoned or underutilized areas, the planted forests gain great importance to the protection and enhancement of biodiversity. They also assume significant role in the recovery of the countryside landscape.

In the tropics, one of the indicators for measuring the functions of the forest plantations on biodiversity protection is the reduction of pressures related to demands on goods and services from native forests and ecosystems. That's because one hectare of planted forest area may correspond to 20 to 30 ha of native forests in terms of production. The availability of alternatives and the option to preserve, to manage native forests or planting new forests depends on public, sectorial and extra-sectorial policies, as well as on market forces. Under this view, planted forests may not be enough to do the job, but they are required for the conservation of native forests (Kanowski, 2005). Plantation forestry in itself is not a condition for absence of fauna. The impacts on biodiversity depend on the biome and the previous situation of the region (Vital, 2007). One shall not expect that plantations would have the same diversity of native forests; however, they may get closer according to the way and operations are adopted and implemented, as the well-known concept of forest management unit, which is understood as "the whole" formed by the planted stands, the understories and the protected and preserved natural areas. Strategies and procedures to ensure protection and enhancement of biodiversity in the landscape and diversification of the management system are already available. They must be implemented upon previous environmental planning, oriented towards establishment of ecological corridors and mosaics, thus enabling connectivity between these components in order to provide safe habitats for shelter, feeding, reproduction of wild fauna, gene flow and flora and fauna conservation. Studies from many years in various regions of the world have found hundreds of species, including endangered species, in special at the edges of native forests and plantation forests (Scarano, Rios & Esteves, 1998). In Brazil, the forestry legislation recommends as mandatory a minimum percentage of conservation areas of natural ecosystems, in addition to the permanent preservation areas on each rural state. The planted forest sector maintains preservation rates exceeding the requirements of legislation: for every one or two hectares that are planted with productive forests, at least one hectare of natural ecosystem is kept preserved, or even enriched. It gives a much better ecological balance, as the greatest biodiversity reduces forests hazards and the incidence of pests and diseases.

3.3.2. Recovery of degraded and desertified land areas

Deforestation and improper use of agricultural land left an enormous legacy of degradation in many regions of the world. The planting of forests in a large scale has proved to be an appropriate activity to recover these areas. Forest plantations are the most effective way to mitigate or reverse desertification, a phenomenon which worldwide affects more than 5 billion hectares and reaches over 25% of the world in more than 100 countries.

Besides reverting desertification, forest plantations give support to the production of firewood, non-wood products and people and communities livelihood and welfare, preventing migratory flows. Countries like China, India, Pakistan and Mongolia have adopted forest plantations and agro-forestry with integrated land use systems to prevent land degradation and desertification and to protect agricultural land. The Institute of Applied Research at Ben Gurion University followed the development of 200 species of trees and shrubs planted in the northeastern region of the city of Beer - Sheva, in Israel. The plants were grown without any irrigation with an average annual rainfall of just 200 mm. The researchers have recommended that the 42 most successful species could be used for erosion control, reforestation, wind and dust protective barriers. The tests included trees and shrubs, particularly Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Acacia, Cassia and Prosopis, originated from Australia, North America, South America, Africa and Middle East. The genus Eucalyptus, with 70% survival, has produced more vigorous and better developed trees (Journal of Arid Environments, 2006).

3.3.3. Maintenance of soil fertility

In general, the soils used for establishment of planted forests have low fertility and often have marginal utilization for the agriculture. Due to the longer growing cycle, the forests have an absorption rate of nutrients that is lower than agricultural crops and higher efficiency on their utilization (Barros et al, 2004). A significant portion of the nutrients removed by trees from the soil returns during the growth cycle, due to litter decomposition. In addition, rational measures of planning, conservation and monitored fertilization contribute to balance the nutritional needs of the planted forests.

Numerous researches show the beneficial effects of forest plantations on the properties of the soil, such as aeration, drainage and water storage. Agricultural crops, in areas previously occupied by Eucalyptus in Portugal and Brazil, have produced more than the average compared to the same kind of crops in those regions (Feio, 1989 and Aracruz, 2000). On top of the adoption of conservation practices (Curi & Silva, 2006), nutrient cycling (70% from N, K and Ca are stored in the leaves, bark and branches), the continuous deposition of litter during the forest cycle form a vital organic matter layer of protection in the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion (Mora & Garcia, 2000; Barros et al., 2004). The longer rotation time of planted forests results that operational activities are less frequent, which favors the reduction of soil compaction and helps the recovery of soil microbiology (Mora & Garcia, 2000). Plantations and forest-based industries are not itinerant; they renew themselves staying in the same place for decades and obtaining significant increases in forest yields.

Plantation forests have been recognized long ago as restorers of the original forest site yield capability and confirmed by worldwide researches testing species as Tectona, Gmelina, Terminalia, Eucalyptus and Pinus in Nigeria, India, Brazil, showing the beneficial improvements in the soil properties (Van Goor, 1985; Adejuwon & Ekanade, 1988; Kushalappa, 1985; Choubey et al., 1987 cited by Lima, 1993).

3.3.4. Protection of hydrological resources

Protection and improvement of water quality and regulation of hydrological water flows are important environmental services that planted forests may offer. Several results of researches and monitoring studies of watersheds having forest plantations, virtually eliminate most of the concerns about possible impacts on water availability.

There are scientific references to guide actions for protecting water resources and to prove that well-managed plantations consume water very efficiently and do not cause depletion of superficial water reserves or in the groundwater. The maintenance of water resources in good quality and quantity is indispensable to sustain the forest business activity. They should remain in good conditions, as well the soil in terms of its nutrient fertility. The soil water and the groundwater regimes are not substantially different from the ones observed in other types of agricultural crops, or even in other types of surface land plant covers. To know about forest-water relationships it is necessary to know the water cycle. The water which falls in a forest returns to atmosphere by evapotranspiration or hits the ground and can be stored, evaporated, or to move in laminar flows on the soil or be leached to groundwater. The water that drains out from the influence of the planted forest forms the runoff that feeds the water courses. When there is not a good vegetation covering the ground, it forms heavy flows or torrential floods, causing sediment deposition, eutrophication and turbidity of the water courses. Water consumption should be analyzed in terms of total annual consumption by forests, and in terms of amount of wood produced per unit weight of water; i.e. efficiency in the use of water. The water available for tree growth is coming mainly from the upper soil layer, which concentrate the thin roots that absorb most of the water and nutrients. These roots are rarely deep enough to reach the water table. The interference of forest plantations in the water regime is directly related to photosynthesis and varies according to climatic conditions that govern the natural supply or availability in a given region, topography, soil and leaf area index of the fast growing forest. In places where rains a lot along the year, with a total rainfall greater than evapotranspiration, there will be surplus of water. On the other hand, in places where there is little rain, as in semi-arid regions, where the evapotranspiration is eventually higher than rainfall, it will result little or no water to recharge the soil profile and the aquifers. In these situations, special care must be taken to plant fast-growing forests. It is on the watersheds levels that should be concentrated the primary focus of the planted forest management procedures, since they are the formers and feeders of rivers and hydrological systems. The runoff decreases as a result of planting and growth of forests, as well as increases after the harvesting (as observed in studies in South Africa, New Zealand and India, cited by Lima & Zakia, 2006). The potential impact will depend on the prevailing hydrological conditions and the availability of natural water, as well as the application of sound management practices. In the forest-water relationship, considerations such as water quality, sedimentation processes, peak flows and equity of access to the water resource must include sustainability strategies, because the watersheds are highly sensitive to management practices or any type of anthropogenic activity (Lima, 2004). Such a strategy should incorporate the concept of watershed as the planning unit, considering the integrity of riparian ecosystems, riparian vegetation that should be protecting the entire head of drainage, the banks of water streams and other saturate types of lands throughout the hydrological system. Hydrological systems, water regimes, photosynthesis, transpiration, evapotranspiration, water dynamics, operating practices and anthropogenic actions are factors that are related to the ecoefficiency in the use of water resources. This broader view of the relationship between forest plantations and conservation of water resources has already attracted the perception of society that the issues related to the availability and quality of water may be improved or made worse by human actions, and practices on forest management, and not just by the characteristics of one kind or another of forest. Water scarcity in many countries and regions is affecting rural and urban areas. Concerns are increasing, as far population grows and still exists inefficient management at the catchment basins.

3.3.5. Mitigation of green-house effects

Planted forests are essential to the overall strategy to mitigate global warming, because they play multiple roles for meeting this target, especially in the tropics, where they grow faster and therefore remove more carbon from the atmosphere in shorter spans of time.

Trees immobilize free carbon from the atmosphere (and not the one fixed in Nature in the forms of coal, oil or derivatives), releasing oxygen in the process of photosynthesis and storing organic carbon in forest products during their lifetime. Realistic estimates of the carbon residence time in forest products contribute to more accurate inventories of emissions / removals, because contrary to what many people assume, the fixed carbon does not come back to the atmosphere as soon as the tree is harvested. For commercial forests, the accounted carbon removal is independent of the use of wood: even if the wood is used as a source of renewable energy, it will be contributing by replacing non-renewable fuel sources. Although afforestation and reforestation activities are eligible as projects for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry - LULUCF (,_land-use_change_and_forestry) under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism, the rules are not designed to stimulate planted forests, reason why the number of these projects is still small when compared to other CDM activities. The negotiations that are being taken to draw the new forestry model of post-2012 commitments regarding the Climate should review the conditions that currently are restricting the opportunities for planted forests in such process, including: i) recognition of environmental and social benefits of sustainable forest management; ii) establishing a baseline and a level of scale compatible with the activity; iii) establishing periods for credits compatible with the maturation cycles of the planted forests; iv) recognition of the carbon stored in forest products as a function of their lifetime; v) elimination of constraints imposed to the forests planted prior to 1990. Currently, the 271 million hectares of global planted forests are storing the equivalent of 1.5 Giga tonnes for CO2, plus at least another 0.5 Giga tonne stored in forest products (Carle & Holmgren, 2008). For developing countries, owning and applying sustainable forestry technologies, oriented to high growth rates in forest productivity, it is essential to solve these limitations. In Brazil, for example, the first release of the national inventory for emissions and reductions of greenhouse gases showed that the planted forest sector contributed to mitigate 6% of the emissions from this industrial sector (MCT, 2004).

3.4. Economic contribution

In many ways, the planted forests contribute to national, regional and global economies. Although such information is not always disseminated and disclosed in the forest sector as a whole, it is necessary to be clear about them to monitor, measure and properly valuing the advances provided by the forest activity.

3.4.1. Value added to GDP – Gross Domestic Product

In 2006, the economic value added from forestry in a worldwide basis was U.S.$ 468 billion, corresponding to 1% contribution to the global GDP. Of those, 25% was generated by timber production, 32% by the wood processing industry and 43% by the pulp and paper industry. (FAO, 2009). The production of wood furniture adds another $ 120 billion.

The percent contribution of the forest sector to the GDP varies among regions (from 0.3% in Central Asia to 1.9% in Latin America and the Caribbean) and among countries at the same region, as does also the composition of the added value by the forestry sector. In developed countries, 80 to 90% of this value is provided by the industries; in developing countries ranges from 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, up 50% to 70% in Asia Pacific and South America (Lebedys, 2008; FAO, 2008). The rapid growth of forest industries in the 1990's and present days, in the Asia-Pacific and South America, increased by 70% the value added by the forestry sector in these regions, where much of the industries have harvested wood from plantations as raw materials. Several countries obtain significant contribution of the forestry sector in their economies, such as Finland (5.7%), Sweden (3.8%), Brazil (4%), Solomon Islands (16.7%), Liberia (17.7%), among others. In many of them, the forestry economy is heavily based on planted forests, including New Zealand (100%), Brazil (68%), Chile (95%), Uruguay (100%), Finland (25%), having also other important countries as South Africa, Sweden and others. In economic terms, planting forests is an attractive activity because there is strong wood demand in the long run, enabling to obtain multiple products and all this is very profitable. In Brazil, the gross production value derived from forest plantations was U.S.$ 28.8 billion in 2008, from which 46% related to pulp and paper industry, 34% to the wood processing industry and 20% from wooden furniture. The tax collection to public treasury was U.S.$ 4.5 billion, equivalent to 0.83% of all tax collections of the country in 2008.

3.4.2. Generation of export surplus

International trade of forest products, which handled U.S.$ 330 billion, accounted for 2.4% of all transactions of products in the global market in 2006, may reach U.S.$ 700 billion in 2030. Wooden furniture accounted for an additional $ 54 billion.

The average growth of world trade in forest products during the period 2001 to 2007 was 9% per year, this figure being reduced in 2008 due to the global economic crisis. At the regional level, exports are dominated by Western Europe and North America (65%), followed by Asia-Pacific (15%) and Eastern Europe (10%). Trade occurs with great force among these regions or among countries in these regions. The largest contributions to the exports are the pulp and paper (65%), followed by the wood processing industries (35%). Although significant for some developing countries and transition economies, exports of raw timber and non timber are proportionally of minor importance.

Despite the rapid growth that has happened in value in these recent years, trade in forest products has grown less than the observed to other commodities. The share of forest products in total exporting markets has declined in recent years in all regions, except in Latin America and the Caribbean. There are few exceptions, for example, Brazil and New Zealand. Asia-Pacific and Latin America countries have made a substantial transition at their forest sectors: from previous focus on primary raw timber production and very simple wood processing to a wider and more diversified line of products in global market scale (FAO, 2006b). For these countries, the challenge will be maintained - or even increased -to have strong participation in the global marketplaces without depletion of their natural resources. Advantages will be in the countries that are already facing this challenge with the planting of forests to provide and ensure future supply of wood. Exports of forest products account for significant proportion of total earnings obtained in various countries that have plantation forests, including New Zealand (8.9%), Chile (10%), Uruguay (6.7%), Brazil (5.0%) Finland (19.5%) and Sweden (11.4%). In Brazil, exports of processed wooden products from forest plantations accounted for 20% of the balance of trade surplus, totaling U.S.$ 6.8 billion in 2008, representing 3% of total exports of the country: pulp and paper have participated with 86% of these values. The wooden furniture exports (90% of which have wood from plantations in the composition) amounted to over U.S.$ 1 billion of foreign earnings.

3.4.3. Generation of jobs

The total number of visible direct jobs in the worldwide forest sector is around 14 million, distributed in similar proportions between these three segments: forestry, processing industry, and pulp and paper, plus another 4 million in the wood furniture industry.

According to FAO (2009), the forestry sector employs 0.4% from global workforce, a percentage that varies among regions (0.1% in Africa to 1.4% in Western Europe, for example) and among countries (Finland 3,6%, Latvia 5% , Malaysia 3%, Brazil 1.2%). Part-time, seasonal and indirect jobs, and those generated due to income-effect and small-scale industries are not included on these statistics. In developing countries, the activities at forests employ more than at industries. Labor productivity increased by 40% in the past 16 years and continues to grow. Each region shows different trends and patterns as decline, stability, or increase, for various reasons, as the decline in forest production, increasing imports and others. In Western Europe there was a 25% increasing in labor productivity due to the mechanization; in Eastern Europe there was a decrease of 35% over the same period, due to the restructuring of their economies in transition. The multiplier effect in job generation due to forestry continues to grow. In 1990, each job in the forest was generating 1.1 jobs in the processing industry and 0.8 in the pulp and paper industry. In 2006, the ratio rose to 1:1.4:1.1. Globally, one person was employed per 1,000 hectares of forests (natural and planted, as a whole) and this job has generated two jobs in other related industries. This proportion varies from region to region, and there is a relationship of six jobs in the wood processing industry for each job unit in the forests in North America, and 2:1 in developing countries. In many countries, the effect of productivity growth was balanced by increased production and new opportunities generated by the expansion of forest plantations, which favored the maintenance of more stable jobs. In other countries, the stability was due to the slower rate of development in the forestry sector. Latin America and the Caribbean are the only regions where the forestry sector has grown steadily in the three sub-sectors due to increased production, availability of resources and rapid economic growth. The world average yield is 500 m³ per employee; in North America is 4,700 m³; in Latin America is 1,400 m³; Africa is 250m³; and in developing Asia is just 150 cubic meters per employee. Forestry practices and the conditions of natural forests are very different, reasons why the comparisons are meaningless. As the yields are measured in harvested wood volume per worker, in places with many plantations of high productivity, the results will be quite different compared to operations in natural forests. Planted forests are major generators of jobs throughout the supply chain. In the rural areas, depending on topography and operational techniques, are generated from 2 to 7 direct jobs for every 100 ha of effective plantations. In Brazil, the indirect employment and the jobs due to income-effects from forestry are multiplied by 7. When considering the jobs generated throughout the supply chains (wood processing, steel, furniture and pulp and paper), there is a relation of 77 jobs per 100 ha of effective forest planting. As important as the generation of jobs in itself is the creation of sustainable jobs, not seasonal, and the quality of these jobs. This is quite often in the scheme of forest plantations with sustainable forest management. According to data from the BNDES - Brazilian National Bank of Economic and Social Development, in 2007, the industrial sectors based on forest plantations in Brazil were reported as some of the main generators of jobs per unit of invested capital.

3.5. Social contribution

The ways of the social contribution due to planted forests, at the national or local levels, vary depending on the economic, environmental, social and cultural aspects of each region.

3.5.1. Poverty reduction and social inclusion

Planted forests play an important role in mitigating or reducing poverty, both in developing countries, as well in areas of developed countries where there are groups excluded from the benefits of the development processes. More than other sectors, forest plantations have the potential to provide sustainable livelihoods, generate opportunities for communities and to local entrepreneurs and to empower the poor and needy people (UNFF, 2003).

Established on degraded or abandoned land, forest plantations create new jobs; and their good governance, planning and management benefit rural populations (Elliot, 2003). Forest plantations are known by pioneering the application of models of development in less favored regions, often far from urban centers and with severe lacks on infrastructure (Villela Filho, 2006). In developing countries, the companies have always provided facilities and equipments to hospitals, schools, training centers and helped the organization of cooperatives for producers and services providers, preventing migration of the rural man to the cities. Infrastructure, when absent or weak, is a barrier to economic growth, making it more difficult and burdening the flow of production and the market access, demanding investments in partnerships, including the forest companies. Poverty reduction and social inclusion should not be understood as just the provision of jobs. They also demand the support for education, housing, culture, sanitation, health, training, recreation and community actions not in paternalist ways, but in partnership with local communities, NGOs and government entities. Corporate social responsibility is increasingly required as a market mechanism and it will continue to grow in importance in the private sector agenda. Companies and business representative bodies have already made commitments, developed codes of behavior, implemented sustainable forest management standards, all covering social and environmental aspects. Organizations or planted forest producers that do not prepare themselves will soon be deleted from the markets. In many countries, social action programs and partnerships with communities in the areas of influence of forest projects have resulted in significant improvements for needy people. In Brazil, for example, it is estimated that in 2008 about 990 municipalities have been assisted by social inclusion programs promoted by forestry companies, benefiting over 2 million people.

3.5.2. Inclusion of small and medium size rural farmers

It is necessary to ensure the inclusion of small and medium sized forest producers in the forestry business. Differently as that occurs in Europe and North America, where there are 25 million commercial forests owning families, the model of industrial-scale forest plantations in southern hemisphere caused concentration of areas owned by large companies in various regions, inhibiting the possibility of greater participation of small and medium-sized rural owners in the process of wood production. Plantation forestry can also develop agro-forestry in small rural farms, which are directly related to family farming.

In addition to the functions of providing safety, technology management, economic, environmental and social benefits, the forestry model may generate concentration of power, and this fact leads to conflicts and reactions from some segments of society. However, this concentration model is changing. Alternatives of partnerships for wood production and supply by independent producers, and by investment funds (TIMO's) are gaining importance to the expansion of plantation forests in several countries. Forest fostering is practiced in Brazil by companies, resulting in thousands of farmers in more than 500,000 hectares of planted land, and the independent initiatives for planting forests by thousands of farmers have been important to the sector's growth and sustainability of the rural environment. All these facts are contributing to the environmental suitability of the rural estate, since forestry occupies idle areas, helps setting the man on countryside and generates additional income for families, estimated to be in the range of U.S.$ 40 to $ 70/ha.month. For the industry, this new model is favorable since: provides an additional source of raw material, representing less immobilization of capital in land and machinery; promotes greater integration with the community and society; reduces the pressure on natural resources; encourages new business developments in the region. Over the past six years, the annual area of plantation on hands of rural producers in various stages of development has grown from 8 to 25%. This model always includes partnerships with universities, public agencies, extension service providers, NGOs and communities. This change in forest production model involves new paradigms such as: i) encouraging the multiple use of forest products to obtain not just wood for fiber or biomass energy, but also forests oriented to sawmills, resins and other products; ii) operational changes from large-scale forestry to small-scale; iii) technology transfer to rural producers to ensure excellent indexes of quality and productivity provided by the technological packages developed by the state-of-art companies; iv) adequacy of forest plantation technologies to the regional situation and farm land profile, combining with agro-forestry systems and/or formation of forest stands without abandoning the traditional agriculture to enable the rural producer combining agricultural and silvicultural activities; v) strengthening of the forestry business, through support from the initial stage of planting until the time of forest harvesting and wood sales, including compatible lines of credit, technical assistance and improvements on market information; vi) support for forest certification in the cases of small and medium-sized forest producers (Garlipp, 2006).

3.5.3. Energizing and diversification of local economies

Many times, society is unaware of the forest supply chains and their ability to stimulate local economies. Programs for large-scale forest plantations, like any other economic activity, have the potential to modify the structure and behavior(s) of the community(ies) where they are inserted/located.

At the same time it is required to ensure access and customary rights of ownership or land use for the traditional population, planted forests and the industries associated with them are agents for changes. This fact may lead to different livelihood opportunities or constraints, favoring some and disfavoring others (Kanowski, 2005). The diversification of local economies backed by planted forests is a reality and should be encouraged. The multiple products of these forests provide integration with other areas in the agribusiness and foster the emergence of new industries and service activities. They allow, therefore, to focus the forest management in adding value to the forest, to the tree and to timber. This makes possible to customize the forest products to several end-uses in different productive chain links (Balloni, 2006). In Brazil, there are several wood clusters derived from planted forests which have been established surrounding some anchor companies or pulp and paper mills. These clusters are fueled by wood suppliers, producers and/or consumers, encouraged by these companies and some of them are converted into independent producers of forests. Manufacturing industries of competitive products with higher added value, such as window frames, moldings, panels, doors, floors and furniture have emerged, which intensify the synergy of a number of companies that supply parts, components, materials and providing services. With the expansion of planted forests, these forest clusters will be expanded or new clusters are to emerge. For leveraging al this, the clusters need to incorporate new technical, economic, environmental and social developments. To enhance clusters and allowing them to add these knowledge's, it is required to value the chain teaching-researching-extension-production (Stape, 2008). The vertical integration of activities based on planted forests contributes to the welfare and improvement of the living conditions for the local populations. This has been observed by strong improvements in the HDI - Human Development Indexes, being superior than the ones recorded in other municipalities with economies based in other kind of activities (Smith, 2009; SBS, 2008; ABRAF Yearbook, 2009). The income component of the HDI is directly influenced by the forest sector in the short-term, showing positive effects in boosting the economies of these municipalities and in improving the people's quality of life. In the long term, the effects will be resulting in better income distribution and access to services of social infrastructure.

4. Final Remarks

Planted forests are not just efficient production units of raw materials. They are living collections of elements in constant dynamic interaction with the biotic and abiotic resources. They should perform, as well, economic, environmental and social functions, without opposing the principles of sustainability.

The context in which planted forests are inserted and their benefits in response to local conditions will be different, depending on the proposed objectives to them. It should not be expected that planted forests will conceptually replace the functions of native forests, but they should be considered renewable supply of goods and services demanded by society on an increasing scale and at global level. These services may even have broadly environmental aspects, such as forest protection, fauna sheltering, windbreaks or protection against desertification.

The scientific researches that provided amazing improvements in productivity and product quality from planted forests, including biotechnology and agro-forestry, allied to the management practices, should be strengthened to respond to these new demands, and to help solving the possible new paradigms regarding the provision of social benefits and environmental services, side-by-side to the new production models.

Technological development of forestry plantations with native tree species will be strongly demanded by both companies that are currently accessing natural forests, and by small and medium-sized producers to whom it is important to have diversification of species in their agri-businesses.

Eco-physiological models and Precision Forestry - as today adopted by several forest companies - are available to integrate this novel way of doing things regarding the productive functions of forest to support the capacity of the environment.

Due to these new economic, environmental, social and cultural dimensions, planted forests will have management systems tailored to balance such demands.

The expansion of forest plantations is to occur mainly in tropical countries, due to their comparative advantages. There, one can already notice changes on the institutional investors such the growth of TIMOs, REITs and others. To these new players, they will also be demanded management attitudes that value these socio-environmental concepts and other services, not only the economic purposes.

The wood has significant energy efficiency advantage over many other materials where the costs to Nature are 10 to 200 times larger. Planted forests are renewable resources, enabling the production of reusable and recyclable products.

The environmental service markets for planted forests are not yet well-structured, although they are potentially very large, not only with respect to carbon sequestration, as well as for ecotourism, recreation, watershed protection, restoring of landscapes, rehabilitation of degraded areas, and mitigation of temperature and pollution in "the islands of heat", that have been converted the major metropolitan cities.

The industries based on forest plantations, which in their development paths have exceeded challenges, innovated their production processes, promoted the multiple use of wood, invested on cutting edge technologies and pioneered the adoption of sustainable forest management, must seek new models of sustainability to give concrete answers to solve the new challenges that will arise.

Planted forests are a legitimate form of land use and in many countries and regions, are vital options for production and/or environmental protection. Although occupying only 2% of Earth's land, in some locations they are bringing conflicts of interest that need to be addressed through participatory groups with legitimate representation. The engagement of all stakeholders to promote the proper management of planted forests will strengthen and enhance the activity.

It should be clear to everyone that any intensive activity will generate impacts, even when dealing with natural or planted forests. However, these impacts can be minimized, when adverse, and maximized when positive. Moreover, there is always the need to seek for a balance between the economic demands of society and the environmental, social, cultural and anthropological issues. Therefore, dialogue among stakeholders will grow in importance in the processes of decision making on forestry, from now onwards.

Legal or certified timber is a global concern and will be required, even in domestic markets, which occurs in various countries through public and private organization procurement policies. Planted forests, by themselves, are effective instruments to control and discourage the production and trade of illegal timber.

Independent certification of sustainable forest management and other voluntary mechanisms for evidence of corporate responsibility (ecolabels, certificates of environmental management, corporate social responsibility, health and safety at workplace, etc.) should grow as instruments of access to green markets and qualifying the planted forests in attendance of their socio-economic and environmental requirements. In several countries, more than half of the forest plantations are certified; in others, almost all are certified. It is estimated that in 2020, approximately 80% of all industrial wood coming from forest plantations will be certified. Also, industrial products from certified forests (paper, pulp, panels, etc.) will find new other volunteer systems to prove their environmental suitability along their life cycle, including those recognized as very effective environmental instruments, such the type I ecolabels.

It is necessary to establish an environment for synergy and international understanding that may favor the use the planted forests as a vital strategy and as a vector of sustainable development to overcome the challenges and meeting the future demands of the world society.

5. Literature References and Suggestions for Reading

ABRAF - Brazilian Association of the Plantation Forest Producers. Anuario Estatistico ABRAF 2009 - Ano base 2008. (2009 Statistical Yearbook - Base Year 2008). 129 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese) (in English)

Adejuwon, J.O.; Ekanade, O. Soil Changes Consequent upon the Replacement of Tropical Rainforest by Plantations of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Terminalia superba. Journal of World Forest Resource Management 1(4):47-59. (1988)

Aracruz Celulose S.A. Eucalipto: Uma Arvore Amiga da Natureza. (Eucalyptus: a Friend of Nature's Tree). 34 pp. (2000)

Aracruz Celulose S.A. Eucalipto e Meio Ambiente em Tempos de Aquecimento Global. (Eucalyptus and Environment in the Global Warming Age). 39 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Balloni, E.A. A Floresta Plantada como Agente de Desenvolvimento Economico–Social. (Plantation Forest as Agent of Economic and Social Development). Revista Opinioes (Sep-Nov): 36-37. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Barros, N.F. et all. Plantacoes de Eucalipto e Fertilidade do Solo. (Eucalyptus Plantations and Soil Fertility). Brazilian Society of Soil Science. Boletim n.1: 13-17. (2004)

Carle, J.; Holmgren, P. Wood from Planted Forests: a Global Outlook 2005-2030. Forest Products Journal 58(12): 06-18. (2008) (in English)

Choubey, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Mishra,G.P. Studies of the Soils under Teak Plantations and Natural Forests of Madhyia Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Forestry 3(3): 235-238. (1987)

Curi, N.; Silva, M.L.N. Conservacao do Solo e da Agua em Florestas Plantadas de Eucalipto. (Soil and Water Conservation in Eucalyptus Planted Forests). Revista Opinioes (Mar-May): 30. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Dyck, B. Benefits of Planted Forests: Social, Ecological and Economic. Report of The UNFF International Experts Meeting on The Role of Planted Forests in Sustainable Forest Management. UNFF - United Nations Forum on Forests. New Zealand. (2003)
(in English)

Elliot. C. WWF Vision for Planted Forests. UNFF - United Nations Forum on Forests - Intersessional Experts Meeting, New Zealand. (2003)
(in English)

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. Global Planted Forests Thematic Study: Results and Analysis. A. Del Lungo; J.Ball; J. Carle. Planted Forests and Trees. Working Paper FP38E. 178 pp. (2006a) (in English)

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. Contribution of the Forestry Sector to National Economies, 1996 – 2006. Working Paper: FSFM/HCC/08. 180 pp. (2006b) (in English)

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. State of the World´s Forests 2009. FAO Roma. 168 pp. (2009) (in English)

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. Responsible Management of Planted Forests: Voluntary Guidelines. Working Document No.37/S. 84 pp. (2006) (in English) (
in English)
in Spanish) (in Spanish)

Feio, M. A Reconversao da Agricultura e a Problematica do Eucalipto. (The Agriculture Reconversion and the Eucalyptus Problem). Central Association of Portuguese Agriculture. Lisbon. 166 pp. (1989)
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(in Portuguese)

Foelkel, C. A Nova Floresta Plantada (ou A Floresta do Futuro). (The New Planted Forest - or the Forest of the Future). Grau Celsius website. 08 pp. (1992) (in Portuguese)

Garlipp, R.C.D. Mecanismo Estrategico e de Novas Oportunidades. (Strategic Mechanism and New Opportunities). Revista Opinioes (Jun-Aug). (2006) (in Portuguese)

Garlipp, R. Gestao Sustentavel para os Grandes Consumidores de Produtos de Origem Florestal. (Sustainable Management for the Major Consumers of Forest-Origin Products). IV Madeira 2008 - International Conference on Sustainable Economic Development of the Forest-Based and Power Generation Industries. Porto Alegre/RS. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Garlipp, R.; Foelkel, C. Las Funciones de los Bosques Plantados Hacia las Futuras Demandas de la Sociedad. (The Role of Planted Forests for Meeting the Future Demands from World Society). XIII World Forestry Congress. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. PowerPoint presentation: 30 slides. (2009)
(in Spanish)

Jornal de Ambientes Aridos. (Journal of Arid Environments). Ben Gurion University of the Negev. (2006)

Kanowski, P. Intensively Managed Planted Forests. The Forests Dialogue. 08 pp.(2005) (in English)

Kushalappa, K.A. Nutrient Status In Eucalyptus Hybrid Monoculture. Indian Journal of Forestry 8(3): 269-273. (2005). In: Forestry Abstracts, 47(10):5218, 1986

Lebedys, A. Contribution of the Forestry Sector to National Economies: 1996 – 2006. FAO - Forest Economics and Policy Division. Working Paper:FSFM/HCC/08. 180 pp. (2008) (in English)

Leite, N.B. As Contribuicoes da Floresta Plantada a Nacao. (The Contributions of Planted Forests to the Nation). Revista Opinioes (Sep-Nov):Editorial. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Lima, W.P. Impacto Ambiental do Eucalipto. (The Environmental Impact of the Eucalyptus). EDUSP. 301 pp. (1993)
(in Portuguese)

Lima, W.P. O Eucalipto Seca o Solo? (Does Eucalyptus Dry the Soil?). Information Bulletin of the Brazilian Society of Soil Science 29(1): 13-17. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Lima, W.P.; Zakia, M.J.B. As Florestas Plantadas e a Agua. (The Planted Forests and the Water). RiMa Editora. 218 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Silva, M. Mudando o Perfil da Silvicultura. (Changing the Silviculture Profile). Revista Opinioes (Aug-Oct). (2005) (in Portuguese)

MCT - Ministry of Science and Technology - Brazil. Comunicacao Nacional Inicial do Brasil a Convencao Quadro das Nacoes Unidas sobre Mudanca do Clima. (Brazil's Initial National Communication to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 276 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Mora, A.L.; Garcia, C.H. A Cultura do Eucalipto no Brasil. (The Eucalyptus Cultivation in Brazil). SBS -Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 114 pp. (2000)
(in Portuguese and English)
(in Portuguese and English)

Novais, R.F. Aspectos Nutricionais e Ambientais do Eucalipto. (Nutritional and Environmental Issues about the Eucalyptus). Revista Silvicultura 68: 10-17. (1996)

Salleh, M.N. Enhancing the Productive Functions of Tropical Rain Forest: a Challenging Goal. XI World Forest Congress - FAO. (1997) (in English)

Scarano, F.R; Rios, R.; Esteves, F. Tree Species Richness, Diversity and Flooding Regime: Case Studies of Recuperation after Antropic Impact in Brazilian Flood-Prone Forests. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 24(2/3): 223-235. (1998) (in English)

SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. Fatos e Numeros do Brasil Florestal. (Facts and Numbers of the Brazilian Forestry). 93 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Silva, J.C. Paradigmas das Plantacoes de Eucalipto. (The Paradigms of Eucalyptus Plantations). Arka Editora. 128pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Stape,J.L. A Pesquisa Silvicultural e a Visao Socioambiental sao Imprescindiveis para os Novos Clusters Florestais. (The Silvicultural Research and the Socio Environmental Visions are Indispensable to the New Forest Clusters). Revista Opinioes (Dec 2007/Feb 2008). (2008) (in Portuguese)

Lawrence, P.; Grant, G. Maximising the Role of Planted Forests on Sustainable Forest Management. UNFF - United Nations Forum on Forests - Intersessional Experts Meeting. New Zealand. (2003)
(in English)

Van Goor, C.P. The Impact of Tree Species on Soil Productivity. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 33(2): 361-364. (1985);NL8582877 (in English)

Villela Filho, A. Silvicultura: Beneficios Cada Vez Maiores. (Silviculture: Increasing Benefits). Revista Opinioes (Sep-Nov). (2006) (in Portuguese)

Vital, M.H.F. Impacto Ambiental de Florestas de Eucalipto. (Environmental Impacts of the Eucalyptus Forests). Revista BNDES 14 (28): 235-276. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

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