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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends

Here we are again, with the 19th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to Society.

This present edition aims to bring you something completely new. One of this is the level of admiration the Eucalyptus are deserving from world society, being the most renowned actor in some segments of the human culture. For this reason, I decided to call this section "Tributes to the Eucalyptus", showing how human beings are pleasing these trees. In this edition we are introducing to you two masterpieces of the human creativeness having the Eucalyptus as the main subject: one in the music, another one in the written literature.

In the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" I'm introducing to you someone I have a great admiration for his technical knowledge, his teaching abilities, and enormous dedication to his work. All forest sector in Chile and in several Latin American countries know him very well. However, his competence, determination, and skills in teaching, researching and institutional working should become renowned also in the world. I'm talking about "professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza", a great friend of mine and of the Eucalyptus, as we are to see just a couple of paragraphs ahead.

This time, my mini-article deals with "sustainable management of Eucalyptus planted forests". Once more, I'm bringing an environmental subject as the main issue in the Eucalyptus Newsletter. I know my objectives very well: to bring my cooperation to a substantial environmental improvement in the pulp and paper business; and, as a consequence, in its relation to the interested parties of our Society. This specific mini-article try to open the eyes of the forest planters, to allow then to see and understand long-term ecosystem sustainability. We need to produce wood and forest products in plantations, we want forest productivity, they are vital; but also vital is to guarantee the sustained capacity of the ecosystems in the long-term, with a vision of future.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us this time about the "production of shiitake mushroom using Eucalyptus wood logs as substrate". This is definitively something special and fantastic to be disclosed to Society: there are so many uses for the Eucalyptus that people could not even imagine. This activity combines economic results, environmental improvements and social benefits (food generation), completely sustainable when performed according to the best practices.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web and Painel Florestal. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have reached the target for the year 2008 corresponding to 10,000 registered people receiving monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Tributes to the Eucalyptus: in the Music and in the Literature

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza

Online Technical References

References on Events and Courses


Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The production of shiitake mushroom based on Eucalyptus logs (by Ester Foelkel)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Managing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests for Enhanced Sustainability

Tributes to the Eucalyptus:
in the Music and in the Literature

A few months ago, when our dear friend Gustavo Iglesias Trabado released the "Eucalyptus World Map", containing the Eucalyptus plantations in several and distinct countries in the world (, it was made possible to identify how impressive and disseminated is the Eucalyptus participation in the daily life of many world citizens. People may find Eucalypti products in their homes as energy sources (firewood), they feel their aroma on detergents and disinfectants, they use paper made with their fibers, they eat honey made by bees from the Eucalyptus flowers, they feel delighted by the meals prepared with the shiitake mushroom produced in Eucalyptus logs, etc., etc. Anyhow, the interconnection of Eucalyptus and human society grows sharply. Although some contestants always exist, the truth is that society values and feel that the Eucalypti are important to their life comfort and welfare. People take advantage of the benefits provided by these trees as wood and other products - we also like the beauty of the trees and shrubs, we are always interacting with Eucalyptus: through their trees, forests, cells, chemical substances, energy, etc. For these reasons, nothing more than natural, that people in the world society are always giving credits or homage's to the Eucalyptus. This may happen in the most different ways. In the section Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus, Ester Foelkel has been bringing to you how the Eucalyptus are converted in art pieces, pictures, jewels, art-crafts, paintings, etc. All these interrelations humans/Eucalypti may be seen in past Eucalyptus Newsletters.

For this very reason, I decided to bring to you two important tributes rendered by human society representatives to our Eucalyptus friends. They are simple demonstrations of the affective link between men and the Eucalyptus trees. Being art one of the most impressive ways that human beings disclose their emotions, I would like to share with you two important demonstrations of nice sentiment to the Eucalyptus, both available in the world art: these two works have the same title - Eucalyptus.

The Eucalyptus book is very well-known, it was very close to be converted into a movie to be performed by renowned artists as Nicole Kidman and Russel Crowne. Although the movie has indefinitely postponed, the book written by Mr. Murray Bail is an enormous success, since it was released in 1998. The book (and the author) have been awarded several times, being the book a best-seller due to its involving theme, text and story: a love story being told as if it was a tale or a novel. Murray Bail is an Australian writer, born in the city of Adelaide in 1941. He had several periods of the life living abroad, in other countries, such as India, England, and other European countries ( Nowadays, he lives in Sydney. His books are few in titles, but masterpieces, both in recognition by several awards, and also by the enormous number of readers.

This book tells the history of a pretty young lady - Ellen Holland, daughter of a rich and eccentric farmer, who was also widower. They were living in New South Wales region, Australia. This man, always astonished and in passion to the many species of Eucalyptus he had in his farm, decided to promote a competition to find a husband to the daughter. The one who could identify all species of Eucalyptus species growing in the farm, would be considered the winner. Far from being a boring or nonsense story, this Australian love tale about the Eucalyptus has enchanted all those reading the book. The reason is because it combines creativeness, romance, wisdom, interests, emotions and anxieties. It also shows the innovative way one of candidates has developed to associate the difficulties of the dispute, not to the botany or taxonomy, but to tales and strange and curious stories.

Eucalyptus - Murray Bail - (released in 1998 - in English) (About Murray Bail's writing career as reported by the Wikipedia digital encyclopedia) (Complete revision and summary of the Murray Bail's Eucalyptus book) (Eucalyptus book reporting from literature critics and reviewers) (About the author) (About the author by Wikipedia digital encyclopedia) (Actress Nicole Kidman's website with comments about the never-made Eucalyptus movie) (Eucalyptus book as it appears to be sold/purchased in

On the other hand, the song Eucalyptus, a success with the band The Deadly Syndrome, has been displayed at several virtual specialized websites. It discloses a simple, nice and friendly lyrics, with a very pleasant song: "wonderful", "great inspiration", as defined by some visitors in these websites, when commenting the video clip. It is something that fills with emotions the heart of people searching for peace and reflections in the music. The great surprise is having the Eucalyptus trees as the main theme in the lyrics. It definitively worth to hear the music and to follow the song lyrics. It tells us about the protection effect of a row of Eucalyptus trees, protecting the singers against the cold weather, the wind, the rain, and other threats. When this line of Eucalyptus trees were planted for these protection objectives, the author of the lyrics shows that these benefits have been achieved during some time. However, during a short sleep, when the singers wake up, they notice that the Eucalyptus trees had been harvested (or even not planted - it could be a dream!...). Only the stumps were left... All the protecting effects were gone - the wind, the rain and the cold were back. The band, with melodious emotion, complains of and emphasize the loss. They try to find other ways in the light they start to see in the horizon. Magic! Believe me.

The Deadly Syndrome band ( fwas founded in Los Angeles in the year 2006. It has been very often in several music shows at this specific city and in many other USA cities. "The Ortolan" was the first band album, having in Eucalyptus the most known song. Please, know and enjoy:

- The Deadly Syndrome - (released in 2007 - in English) (life show at the Roxy Theater in Los Angeles) (Video clip) (Video clip)
(with the Eucalyptus song in audio to be listened or downloaded) (Lyrics of the Eucalyptus song, as found in The Ortolan album)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza

In this edition of Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am extremely pleased to introduce another one of my great Chilean friends to you, to whom I have the greatest admiration: Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza, or just Roberto Melo, as he is affectionately known and admired by the whole Chilean pulp and paper and forest-based sector. His academic and scientific production is definitely enviable, comprising some hundreds of scientific papers, articles, reports, lectures, etc., running on a wide variety of themes: woods, fibers, pulp, paper, sawmills, forests, composites, energy, biorefineries, industrial processes, etc., etc. To achieve this enormous productivity, Roberto Melo certainly has always applied much effort, dedication, and enthusiasm, there are no doubts in this respect. Besides the unquestionable number of articles, his research has always been oriented towards applicability, involving themes of interest to the pulp and paper sector, in amazing growth in Chile during the course of his career. Because of that, his life is very rich in conquests and achievements, but also in difficulties. His academic achievements resulted in homage and awards paid to him on several occasions, as well as various rewards, additionally highlighting Roberto Melo, a person who is very much admired and respected by everyone he is acquainted with.

Perhaps Roberto Melo might be indicated to compete for the Guinness Book of Records – just a few professors of the pulp and paper sector practically completed 50 years of academic dedication as professor and researcher at the same university. For Roberto Melo, the education of the young has always been a life priority, which also applies to the scientific studies and research. In his life, he has always tried to associate people (pupils, colleagues, technicians, students, family) with the educational growth and development. At the university, his main concern was the technological development, that of education, and that of the knowledge bases. Despite the numerous difficulties in working at a university without so many resources (laboratory and economic ones) and in a country experiencing a number of political problems for decades, Roberto Melo has always been successful. He also gained the respect of several generations of students and technicians of the pulp and paper sector in Chile, thanks to his leadership, charisma, and dedication.

Professor Melo was born in Victoria, a small town near Valdivia, Chile, in 1929. He will turn 80 years in age this year, in which we are paying homage to him as one of the Friends of the Eucalyptus. He attended a public elementary school in Angol, cherishing the idea of becoming an elementary school teacher. He always wanted to be a teacher and to teach – a dream cherished since his childhood. His family noticed his qualities and glimpsed better opportunities. Making efforts, Roberto Melo went to Concepcion, where he got enrolled at the course of chemical civil engineering, while in fact he would like to be a chemist. As these careers are closely interconnected, Roberto began to come across and to be charmed by the practical opportunities that chemical engineering offered to someone well-acquainted with basic chemistry. He graduated in chemical civil engineering ( and immediately started working for the steel industry, remaining there for a couple of years. His marriage to his wife Nely took place at that time, in 1955 - two sons and two daughters having resulted therefrom. At present, already retired, Roberto Melo hopes to be able to devote himself further to his family.

Right after the marriage, he decided to quit his job at the steel industry, accepting an invitation to act as a technological researcher for the Faculty of Engineering (, at the recently established LFP – Laboratory of Forest Products – at the University of Concepcion - UDEC ( Thus, he enters at the end of the ’50s, as researcher, in the University of Concepcion, with which he maintained an affectionate link for close to 5 decades. Even taking into consideration the modest LFP facilities at the beginning of its operations, he found much motivation to develop researches for the Chilean forest-based sector, particularly in the region of Bio Bio River. His initial colleagues - Ingo Junge, Edgar Bluhm, and Gustavo Pizarro – were soon joined by our esteemed friend Professor Jose Paz. With Jose Paz, Roberto Melo formed, for many years, one of the most famous academic doubles of the pulp and paper sector in Latin America. The enthusiasm was great: thus the creation of special courses for the career of chemical engineer with specialization in wood products, especially pulp and paper, was accelerated. The transition from the investigation area to the classrooms was a quick and well-aimed leap. The dream about becoming a teacher would be materializing very soon in his career – except for the detail that he would become professor of applied industrial chemistry.

From 1960 to 1972, Roberto and Jose kept huge effort planting the seeds for the formation of a victorious pulp and paper industry in Chile. At the beginning, there were just a few mills: Papeles Bio Bio, Inforsa, CMPC Laja. Those mills and companies grew and could take advantage of the human resources formed by Roberto Melo and Jose Paz. The demand for technicians was growing and there were already a large number of them. On the initiative of several of them, as well as of CMPC, ATCP-Chile (Asociacion Tecnica de la Celulosa y el Papel, Technical Pulp and Paper Association) was founded in 1972. The paper making sector consolidated within the private enterprise, managing to escape from the nationalizing policies of some Chilean governments.

In those initial years, the Pinus radiata forests presented themselves as fantastic alternatives for the growth of the Chilean forest industry. However, Roberto Melo and Jose Paz started evaluating other fibrous species, among them the Eucalyptus ones. The researches with E.globulus generated enthusiasm, and the E.nitens – recommended for colder regions by INFOR – Forest Institute – also presented excellent potentials. Thus, the Laboratory of Forest Products played a fundamental role in giving support to the growth of the Eucalyptus and the Pinus radiata as sources of fibers for the Chilean pulp and paper industry. A large part of the technological researches appeared in the "Republic of the Forest Products", which was the denomination by which the university colleagues began to call the LFP, considering its enormous success in projects with the companies of that region.

In the late ’80s the Eucalyptus cycle for hardwood pulp production was beginning in Chile. The multinational Shell started investing heavily in Chilean forests, kicking off the project of Santa Fe market pulp mill. The Eucalyptus switched from being exclusively suppliers of firewood and wood for railway sleepers, poles, and mining piles/stakes, to be also used for bleached kraft pulp production.

Unfortunately, while the industry was developing, particularly from the early ’90s onwards, the projects were reduced, and so was the support of University of Concepcion to the Laboratory of Forest Products. The entity gradually began to lose members of its teaching body, as some of them retired, while other ones unfortunately died. At present, our esteemed and competent friend, Professor Dr. Claudio Zaror, has the command of the LFP, but practically with reduced human resources. His mission will be to make it grow again to the level of quality required by the Chilean forest-based industry. It matters to know whether this very industry, as well as the University of Concepcion, will be willing to share and offer resources for this new and required growth of the LFP. To a certain extent, this was one of the great disappointments in Professors Melo and Paz’s careers: to have failed to discover and to develop successors in the pulp and paper area, in order to proceed with their missions at UDEC. Our friend Dr. Claudio Zaror is one of the most representative and competent university professors in Chile, however his area of specialization concentrates on the environmental aspects of the sector, rather than on those concerning the industrial technological process. We hope he may get support from other qualified personnel.

Roberto Melo was an investigator and professor at UDEC for about 50 years. His first retirement occurred in 1991, but he was soon called to resume his classes and researches. He remained there till 2006, when he decided to "open up room for the younger", finally quitting his academic positions, in order to be able to devote himself further to his family, to occasional writing of technological texts, and to part-time researches at laboratories as those from UDT (Unidad de Desarrollo Tecnologico/Unit of Technological Development of UDEC - Roberto Melo also had an active participation in other academic and technological institution's, contributing to the creation of courses and careers at the University del Bio Bio (civil engineering at forest industries), University of Guadalajara (Mexico), etc.

Throughout the course of their careers, Roberto Melo and Jose Paz believe to have oriented over 250 students egressed from LFP, helping them with the researches for their course conclusion and degree monographs.

The main lines of research the LFP and consequently, Roberto Melo, devoted themselves to, were as follows:

• physical, chemical, and mechanical qualities of fibrous raw materials;
• pulping and bleaching;
• paper grades and pulp quality;
• paper recycling;
• energy efficiency;
• aspects of environmental contamination of the sector.

Sources of much pride in his career are the following achievements:

• to have cooperated in the development of the Chilean forest-based sector, forming professionals to help building a competitive and victorious technological base;
• to have generated much technological knowledge through academic researches and projects applied at the companies of the sector;
• to have cooperated in the growth of ATCP - Chile, the presidency of which he occupied for several years (1972 to 1978);
• to have cooperated to convert the University of Concepcion and the region where it is established into centers of forest development in the country.

Roberto had a very quick passage through the industry, first in the steel industry and later, just for a few months, along with his friend Ingo Junge, in the paper industry. This was a difficult time of his life, due to an illness, after which he chose to join UDEC again, having left it only "after two retirements".

Among his main marks of distinction and honor, the following stand out:

• President of ATCP - Chile (Chilean Technical Pulp and Paper Association)
• Municipal Award for Applied Investigation (municipality of Concepcion);
• Title of Emeritus Professor of the University of Concepcion, in 2002:
• Award - Forest Industry Merit, provided by CORMA – Corporacion Chilena de la Madera - Chilean Wood Corporation, in 2003:
• Title of Distinguished Engineer, provided by the Regional Council of the College of Engineers, in 2006: (See page 02 of the file)

In spite of his numerous accomplishments and marks of distinction, professor Roberto Melo is well renowned for his simple, kind, and friendly manner of getting along with his thousands of friends and admirers.

Know more about professor Roberto Melo scientific and associative life (all references in Spanish):

Un paseo por el bosque. Roberto Melo Sanhueza distinguido con el grado de Profesor Emerito de la Universidad de Concepcion. Celulosa y Papel. 1 pp. (2002)

Curriculum vitae
- Roberto Melo Sanhueza. 40 pp. (s/d)

Entrevista Roberto Melo. Ex-Presidente ATCP Chile. Celulosa y Papel. 3 pp. (s/d)

Know more about professor Roberto Melo scientific production by navigating in some of his papers and articles on Eucalyptus and other related issues:

Another enormous number of papers and articles have also been published by professor Roberto Melo and his co-workers having the Pinus radiata as wood source for the researches. They will be provided also for your knowledge through the number 14 of PinusLetter, another online newsletter issued by Celsius Degree, but oriented to the pines ( Look for the Section "Grandes Autores sobre os Pinus". (Unfortunately to foreign readers , PinusLetter is just published in Portuguese).

All references in this section are in Spanish or English, the language is connected to the title of the article.

Modelo cinetico simplificado para la remocion de acido hexenuronico presente en pulpa kraft de eucalipto utilizando una solucion de acido peroximonosulfurico. X. Petit-Breuilh; C. Zaror; R. Melo. II International Colloquium of Eucalyptus Pulp. 14 pp. (2005)

Estudio de la reaccion del peracido peroximonosulfurico en pulpa de eucalipto globulus. N. Soto; C. Zaror; R. Melo. XI Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 12 pp. (2005)

Pulpaje semiquimico de Eucalyptus nitens. M. Pereira; R. Melo; C. Pereira. II International Colloquium of Eucalyptus Pulp. 5 pp. (2005)

Hexenuronic acid removal from unbleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp by peroxymonosulfuric acid. X. Petit-Breuilh; C. Zaror; R. Melo. Chilen Chemistry Society 49(4): 355 - 360. (2004)

Remocion del acido hexenuronico con acido peroximonosulfurico. Efectos en la calidad de la pulpa kraft. X. Petit-Breuilh; R. Melo; C. Zaror. X Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 9 pp. (2003)

Balances de calor y optimizacion energetica de las areas de coccion, evaporacion y secado de una planta kraft. C. Sanchez; R. Melo; L. Lobos. X Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 21 pp. (2003)

Efecto de la remocion de acido hexenuronico en el blanqueo de pulpa de kraft en madera de eucalipto. M. Pereira; R. Melo; C. Daza. Celulosa y Papel 19(2): 14 - 17. (2003)

Environmental implications of hexenuronic acid removal from Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp using peroxymonosulfuric acid. X. Petit-Breuilh; R. Melo; C. Zaror. 36th ABTCP Annual Congress. 8 pp. (2003)

Efectos de la sobrecarga de licor negro en el blanqueo de la pulpa. V. Estrada; R. Melo; M. Lozano. X Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 22 pp. (2003)

Produccion de glucosa a partir de celulosa mediante hidrolisis acida y enzimatica. C. Campos; R. Melo. X Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 17 pp. (2003)

Degradacion enzimatica de madera previa deslignificacion parcial y tratamiento alcalino. E. Brunaud; R. Melo; M. Pereira. Celulosa y Papel 18(3): 12 - 18. (2002)

Destintado de papel de desecho con zeolitas naturales. H. Escalona; R. Melo. IX Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 12 pp. (2001)

Destintado de papel de desecho con pH neutro. D. Giacomozzi; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 16(4): 04 - 08. (2000)

Copolimerizacion por injerto de acetato de vinilo en fibra celulosica secundaria. P. Catalan; A. Neira; R. Melo; B.L. Rivas. Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica 44(4). (1999)

Aplicacion de peroxido de hidrogeno a alta temperatura en blanqueo de pulpas kraft de eucalipto. J. Escalona; J. Reyes; R. Gonzales; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 14(2): 14 - 22. (1998)

Destintado de papeles recuperados fotocopiados e impresos laser. R. Melo; M. Valenzuela. Celulosa y Papel 14(3). 8 pp. (1998)

Abstract: Life cycle analysis of the Chilean forestry process industry
. P. Gonzales; C. Zaror; R. Melo. XI World Forestry Congress. (1997)

Efecto de la carga de ozono en la degradacion de la lignina residual en pulpas kraft. R. Melo; S. Acevedo. Celulosa y Papel 12(1): 18 - 22. (1996)

Efecto de la depolimerizacion de pulpas quimicas por ozono sobre las propiedades mecanicas. R. Melo; S. Mariani; J. Acosta. Celulosa y Papel 12(4): 18 - 21. (1996)

Emulsiones de estireno con esteres de acido metacrílico como encolantes de papeles. R. Catalan Saravia; S. Farias Navarrete; R. Melo. V Jornadas Técnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 11 pp. (1993)

Estudio de poli (4-vinil-piridina-co-estireno) como impregnante de papeles. R. Catalán Saravia; R. Melo. V Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 9 pp. (1993)

Estudio del efecto activador del ozono durante la predeslignificacion con oxigeno. Proceso OxO. J. Pinilla; R. Melo; A. Solis. V Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 10 pp. (1993)

Experimentan con ozono para blanquear pulpa. R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 8(3). 1 pp. (1992)

Dimensionamiento y evaluacion económica para una planta Organosolv. V. Otarola; C. Zaror; R. Melo. IV Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 11 pp. (1991)

Deslignificacion de pulpas con oxigeno. Activacion con Cl2 y NO2. H. Araneda; R. Melo. IV Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 21 pp. (1991)

Efecto de emulsiones acrilicas en papeles. R. Catalan Saravia; R. Melo; U. Angne. IV Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 9 pp. (1991)

Ensayos de pulpaje y blanqueo de madera de eucaliptos (Eucalyptus spp.). R. Melo; J. Paz; A. Solis; V. Carrasco. Celulosa y Papel 7(1). 10 pp. (1991)

Predeslignificacion con oxigeno de pulpas organosolv de eucalipto. J. Castro; R. Melo. IV Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. 16 pp. (1991)

Efectos de la adicion de metanol sobre el pulpaje soda-antraquinona de eucalipto. R. Melo; P. Muller. Celulosa y Papel 5(1): 10 – 14. (1989)

Nuevas especies en la producción de celulosa. J. Paz; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 3(1): 13 – 15. (1987)

Utilizacion de carboximetil almidón de sodio (CMA) en papeles de impresion off-set. J. Schuffenegger; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 3(3): 17 - 21. (1987)

Efectos de acidos poliacrilicos sobre papel. R. Catalan; R. Melo; B. Rivas; U. Angne. Celulosa y Papel 2(2): 10 - 15. (1986)

Pulpaje soda-etanol de madera de eucalipto. R. Melo; W. Montoya. Celulosa y Papel 2(1): 13 - 15. (1986)

Pulpaje semiquimico con lejia verde de madera de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus). C. Dorner; R. Melo; A. Solis. Celulosa y Papel 2(1): 08 - 12. (1986)

Aprovechamiento industrial de los eucaliptos.
Anonimous. Projeto PNUD/UDEC. 2 pp. Celulosa y Papel ATCP Chile. (s/d)

Blanqueo de pulpas kraft de Eucalyptus globulus com oxigeno, ozono y peroxido. P. Perez; R. Melo; J. Paz. 13 pp. (s/d)

Caracterizacion de la pulpa producida com diferentes condiciones de proceso RDH. R. Esteban; R. Melo; J. Paz. 15 pp. (s/d)

Interrelacion entre las propiedades de uma celulosa kraft y la materia prima usada para su fabricacion. R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; N. Bello. Celulosa y Papel. 6 pp. (s/d)

Obtencion de pulpas quimica blanca sin uso de compuestos clorados. G. Salvadores; J. Paz; R. Melo. 12 pp. (s/d)

Posibilidad de producción de pulpas semiquimicas en Chile. R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; C. Murcia; H. Pacheco; M. Torres. Celulosa y Papel. 5 pp. (s/d)

I want to express my most sincere gratitude to ATCP Chile for providing the chance to disclose to you all some of the relevant papers published by professor Roberto Melo and co-workers. They have been incorporated, as an ATCP Chile courtesy, to the website for making things easier in the edition of this section. Thanks also to ABTCP Brazil for the cooperation on scanning and converting several of these publications to the digital format. You have surely found many important technical information to the science and technology of the Eucalyptus in Chile. I hope you are to enjoy, to be delighted and to learn with professor Melo and professor Paz achievements. Also, many of these articles also have some of their most relevant students as co or main-authors, most of them working now in distinguishing positions at pulp and paper mills and government institution's in Chile.

Roberto Melo had the privilege along his long and productive career to consolidate knowledge and values to some generations of chemical and forest engineers in Chile. The success of the pulp and paper and forest-based industries in Chile, without any doubts, have their foundations built with Roberto Melo's dedication, patience, enthusiasm and charisma

Thanks my dear and esteemed friend professor Roberto Melo, for all your work in favor of the Eucalyptus and Pinus fibrous raw materials. Our admiration and recognition for your fabulous dedication and skills. I by myself, our dear and professional brother professor Jose Paz Pena, and the huge number of admirers of yours and readers of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we all want to thank you very much for your life example.

Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent thesis and monographs from Chilean Universities. They cover issues on Eucalyptus plantations, but mostly are related to forest products and industrial utilization of the Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus woods.

Comportamiento pulpable de Eucalyptus nitens normal y suprimido crecido en la X Region de Chile. A.E. Borgono Acosta. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 51 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Efecto de ayudantes en pulpaje kraft basados en antraquinonas y surfactantes sobre pulpa de Eucalyptus nitens.
J.Y.F. Guzman. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 59 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Medios de cultivo para el desarrollo de inoculos de hongos de pudricion blanca aplicables en biopulpaje kraft. R.A. Morales Vera. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Chile. 87 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Efecto de los aditivos utilizados en el pulpaje kraft sobre el blanqueo ECF de Eucalyptus nitens. V.F.F. Garcia. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 83 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Densidad basica de la madera de Eucalyptus globulus en dos sitios en Chile. A.I. Espina Lizana. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 50 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Analisis de costos en el proceso de certificacion forestal entre 2000-2005 de la empresa Forestal Valdivia S/A - Un caso de estudio. J.A. Vargas Rodriguez. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 67 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Revision bibliografica del marco legal en bioseguridad forestal y los ornanismos geneticamente modificados en la produccion en Chile. V.A. Kauzlarich Rojas. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 46 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Evaluacion tecnica y economica de sistema de astillado en bosque de Eucalyptus sp. A.C. Jaramillo Mendoza. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 67 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Variacion de la composicion quimica en albura, duramen y altura de madera pulpable de Eucalyptus globulus proveniente de Monte Alto y Monte Bajo. G.L. Barahona Olmos. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Chile. 87 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Tableros de contrachapados de Eucalyptus nitens: efecto de las diferentes dosificaciones de adhesivo en las propiedades fisico-mecanicas. L.M. Maragano Fehrmann. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 44 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Impregnabilidad de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens.
V.N. Salas Langer. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 66 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Fabricacion de OSB y contrachapado a partir de Eucalyptus nitens: analisis del comportamiento en proceso. P.E. Arcos Sanchez; J.E. Allen Merello. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad del Bio Bio. 411 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Caracterizacion fisica, quimica y morfologica del Eucalyptus delegatensis cosechado en el fundo Las Palmas (X Region). G.A. Thienel Carrasco. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 51 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Propiedades del licor negro bajo la influencia de la carga y formulacion de antraquinona en pulpaje kraft. D.F. Tapia Barrientos. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia. 40 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Determinacion de peso especifico y de algunas propiedades biometricas en Eucalyptus globulus como materia prima pulpable. C.M. Saavedra Fuenzalida. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Chile. 98 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)

Estudo del biodeterioro en madera de Eucalyptus globulus por metodo gravimetrico. L.K. Zaid Nunez. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Chile. 70 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)

Analisis de flavonoides en plantas medicinales del sur de Chile con tecnica HPLC. (Eucalyptus globulus is also included in the study). D. Varas Pacheco. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile.Valdivia. Pages not numbered. (2004) (in Spanish)

Determinacion de la importancia del consumo de lena por el sector industrial de la X Region y sus implicaciones ambientales. M.A. Ponce Osorio; R.N. Cardenas Gomez. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Santiago de Chile. 66 pp. (2004) (in Spanish),%20Mariana.pdf

Estudio del aprovechamiento en el proceso de astillado de Eucalyptus globulus.
A.M. Iturra Leal. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad Austral de Chile.Valdivia. Pages not numbered. (2003) (in Spanish)

Caracterizacion y estandarizacion de productos, procesos y equipos en la industria del aserrio. C.F. Aguilar Cayun; R.A. Sanheza Bravo. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad del Bio Bio. 270 pp. (2003) (in Spanish)

Propuesta de diseno de un sistema de gestion ambiental para el Vivero Buin de la Corporacion Nacional Forestal - Region Metropolitana
. N.B. Osorio; P. Villasen Garay. Monograph for Graduation. Universidad de Santiago de Chile. 302 pp. (2002). (in Spanish)

References on Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

MADEIRA Congresses organized by BESC Events. (in Portuguese)
A series of congresses oriented to wood-based industry have regularly been organized in Brazil by BESC, under the leadership of my dear friend Mrs. Jussara Ribeiro. These events are known as "MADEIRA" (WOOD) and they take place in different locations in the country in a two years time basis. MADEIRA is the simplified name to "International Congress on Sustainable Economic Development of the Forest-based and Energy Generation Industries". The two past editions of the congress happened in the cities of Brasilia (2006) and Porto Alegre (2008). The rich and diversified programs may be reached through the web. The 2006 speeches may be downloaded via the ABRAF website (Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers). On the other hand, the speeches from the 2008 event, that recently took place in Porto Alegre/RS (December, 2008) may be accessed at the event own website or at the Painel Florestal website.
Madeira 2006: (Program and speeches for downloading)
Madeira 2008: (Program) (Speeches) (Speeches at the Painel Florestal portal)

X Rio Grande do Sul Forest Congress. (in Portuguese)
This is a very traditional event that happens in a 4 years basis in the charming town of Nova Prata, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The past event, the number 10, has happened in August, 2008. More than 1,200 participants have been reported, the great majority of young students of forest engineering, agronomy, and forest products technology. The event chairman, always very enthusiastic and dynamic, was our dear friend professor Claudio Dilda

The most distinguishing state authorities, political forces, and forest industry and academic leaderships have participated in the sessions. Although most of the speeches were not made available for downloading, there are some that may be grabbed at the event website: (Speeches) (Videos)

8th Eucalyptus Cultivation Updating Meeting - IPEF. (in Portuguese)
This excellent event is organized in a regular basis by our partner IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies). This specific one has happened at the Experimental Forest Station of Itatinga, SP, owned by ESALQ/USP, in the year 2008. It was, no doubts about, a great course about the modern silvicultural technologies being adopted in Brazil to the Eucalyptus. (Program and speeches)

ANAVE 2008 Forum and EcoForum Events. (in Portuguese)
Some of the most renowned events in Brazil to the pulp and paper industry. They are result of ANAVE efforts to promote pulp and paper markets, trading and sustainability in the business. Visit the excellent speeches about paper recycling and the environment (EcoForum) and about the impact of the recent world financial crisis on the pulp and paper products (Forum). To my dear friends, Theo Borges, Mauricio Porto and Jahir de Castro, members of the ANAVE Board of directors, our congratulations for the events. Have a look to the speeches at: (ANAVE website - Brazilian Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivative Products Sales Professionals) (Forum 2008 - Speeches) (EcoForum 2008 speeches - about the environmental aspects of paper recycling)

I Seminar about the Economic and Technical Perspectives of the Agribusiness in Brazil. (in Portuguese)
This was a CEPEA/ESALQ/USP event - Center of Advanced Studies in Applied Economy, that happened in August 2008. The event had as main objective to discuss the trends and potentials for the sugarcane, citric crops, grains, cattle growing and forest plantations to Brazil. Have a look to the speeches from professors Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha and Fernando Seixas, both dealing with plantation of forests. (General program of the event) (Dr. Carlos Bacha speech, a guideline to the forest plantations investors) (Dr. Fernando Seixas speech, a great class lesson about the commercial plantation of forests)

CIADICYPs 2006 and 2008. (in Spanish, English or Portuguese)
The several editions of the CIADICYPs (Ibero-American Congress of Investigation in Pulp and Paper) are becoming some of the best choices oriented to the scientific communities in pulp and paper in these regions. The past two editions have happened in Chile (2006) and Mexico (2008). The university and research institute communities located in these regions are the usual participants in these events, disclosing their findings about pulp and paper science and technology. The CIADICYPs have a two years basis frequency, taking place alternatively in several countries, as it has already happened with Argentina, Brazil, Spain, Chile and Mexico. The next event (2010) is expected to happen in Portugal. (2006 CIADICYP speeches - Chile) (Program of the 2008 CIADICYP - Mexico) (2008 CIADICYP speeches - Mexico) (CIADICYP - Mexico, 2008)

IUFRO International Conference - Processes Controlling Productivity in Tropical Plantations.
(in English)
Fantastic event by IUFRO - International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, with all support and organization provided by IPEF (Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies) and by ESALQ/USP. This international conference was able to place together experts from several countries sharing technological information and knowledge about tropical plantation forestry. The event has happened in Porto Seguro, Brazil, in November 2008. The speeches are available for downloading at the IPEF website, don't miss this offer. Our most sincere thanks to IPEF, to the technical staff and ESALQ professors, to the distinguishing speakers, for the high quality offered in the papers, and for the opportunity to access this rich technical material. (Event website) (Program and speeches)

IV International Forest, Wood, Pulp and Paper Meeting - EXPOCORMA 2008. (in Spanish or English)
This corresponds to the most important series of events organized by CORMA - Corporacion Chilena de la Madera. Along the EXPOCORMA week, several issues are debated in different seminars. We strongly recommend you to take some time to visit the speeches, mainly those from the Pulp and Paper Industry Symposium (core issue: biofuels) and from the XXIII Silvotecna (core issue: biomasses and bioenergies). Furthermore, you are also to find seminars about fauna, flora, native forests, wood panels, and forest production, all related to the Chilean realities. This enormous series of technical material is to take a long time to be navigated, but believe me, it worth. To CORMA, our congratulations for the always efficient EXPOCORMA and for the concept of making all this vast knowledge available to society via the web. (Events and speeches - EXPOCORMA 2008)


Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

BRACELPA - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. (in Portuguese and English)
BRACELPA is the organization to have the leadership and to represent the Brazilian pulp and paper manufacturers. BRACELPA website is one of the most visited for this sector in Brazil, due to the reputable statistics, data bank, Q&A, reports on social responsibility and sustainability, etc. BRACELPA executive president is our esteemed friend Mrs. Elizabeth de Carvalhaes and the Board has as president one of the most renowned executives in this business in Brazil, our talented friend Dr. Horacio Lafer Piva. Please, visit BRACELPA website to find relevant information about the P&P business in Brazil, having the planted forests as main fibrous raw materials. (P&P sector statistics) (Statistical annual report - 2007) (P&P sector socio-environmental report)

CENARGEN - EMBRAPA. (in Portuguese)
CENARGEN is the organism at the EMBRAPA network to care about Genetic Resources and Biotechnology. CENARGEN and EMBRAPA home-pages are among the most visited websites in Brazil, because the high quality and quantity of relevant, state-of-the-art materials. With regard to Eucalyptus, CENARGEN has played important role on mapping its genome, through the multi-project Genolyptus. Among CENARGEN outstanding researchers, we find our friend Dr. Dario Grattapaglia , one of the most renowned scientists in Brazil. He will be soon introduced to you as one of the Friends of the Eucalyptus. Wait a little more, with patience. Something that pays to search the CENARGEN website is to visit the section on available digital publications. Just type Eucalyptus in the searching tool engine, and wait: your are to become surprised with the gift I have prepared to you. (CENARGEN general website) (EMBRAPA portal - The portal of the Agriculture Research in Brazil)
(Search about Eucalyptus at CENARGEN website)

CEPEF - Center of Forest Research at the Federal University of Santa Maria. (in Portuguese)
CEPEF acts with high quality performance on forestry R&D in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, its aim is to promote the integration forest companies and the university. I suggest to visit the pages on virtual and online publications, and also the fantastic magazine Ciencia Florestal, all editions/articles being available for downloading. (CEPEF website) (Virtual technical series) (Online publications) (Ciencia Florestal magazine) (Ciencia Florestal - archives)

CIFlorestas - Center of Forestry Intelligence. (in Portuguese)
CIFlorestas consists in a structured action of the Minas Gerais State (Brazil) to promote the growth and development of the forest segment in the state. Minas Gerais is the leading state in Brazil in areas of planted forests, due to the steel manufacturing and pulp and furniture industries. CIFlorestas aims to provide tools to investors to guarantee a better quality decison-making process. Among the proposed actions, it is outstanding the wish to provide a huge amount of good quality information to the interested parties: prices, statistics, environmental issues, legislation, productivity indicators, technical literature, guidelines, promotion of businesses, exhibitions, courses, etc. Efforts are concentrated in several forest species as: Eucalyptus, Pinus, Australian cedar, palm heart trees, black wattle, rubber tree and Araucaria angustifolia, being the last one adapted to the mountains in the south of Minas Gerais state. (Website) (About the Eucalyptus) (About the Pinus) (Technical texts and articles)

Rochester Institute of Technology - RIT Printing Industry Center. (in English)
The RIT is a great technological center for R&D and education in the city of Rochester, state of New York. One of the RIT most advanced areas is exactly the study of paper printing (RIT Printing Industry Center). This region has for years been an area of Eastman Kodak photographic paper manufacturing, and such paper demands excellent printing quality. Have a look in the website the offer of several digital publications about printing technologies and paper quality. (Rochester Institute of Technology) (Printing Industry Center) (Digital publications about paper printing)

RR Agroflorestal. (in Portuguese)
RR Agroflorestal is a consulting company in issues related to forest nutrition and plant physiology, vegetative propagation and agriculture and forestry biotechnology. The company provides a good number of valuable technical information at its website, to be accessed without any cost. RR also offers a very good technical newsletter Addubare. The newsletter archives may also be found in the website, with the possibility to register yourself to receive future editions by e-mail messages. (Website ) (Online publications) (Addubare technical newsletter)

SI-Florestas / Universidade Federal de Vicosa. (in Portuguese)
SI-Florestas is a new and potentially dynamic system to capture and to make available the information about forestry via web. This system is being developed by UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. I'm happy that our dear friend Mrs. Doris Magna Avelar de Oliveira is directly involved with this development, a guarantee of quality, for sure. SI-Florestas is still in the embryo stage, it needs you to register for log in, and the access is still very restrict. However, I place a lot of confidence to this system, a way to privilege the forestry society in Brazil and in the world.

TECLIM - Clean Technologies Network. (in Portuguese)
TECLIM consists in a network about clean technologies and cleaner production, acting in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with the support of the Polytechnic College of the Bahia Federal University, through the enthusiasm of professor Asher Kiperstok. There is a great number of publications on cleaner production, some of them developed at some pulp mills located in the region (Bacell, Aracruz and Bahia Pulp) and also on other types of wood industrialization. Go to visit the section to search the literature on the website of the Virtual Library, and find interesting thesis about Pulp, Paper, Wood and Environmental issues. (Website) (Searching literature in the digital library)

Dr. Joao Vianei Soares Personnal Website at INPE/DSR. (in Portuguese)
Dr. Joao Vianei Soares is a great and talented Brazilian agri-engineer, graduated at the UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. His main skills are remote sensing studies and telecommunication related to forestry and forest hydrology, both to natural Brazilian forests and plantation forestry. He works under the umbrella of INPE - Brazilian Institute of Space Research. Have a look to the most outstanding papers and speeches Dr. Soares makes available for us. (Dr. Vianei Soares website) (Forest hydrology course - handouts in Word) (Forest hydrology course - handouts in Powerpoint) (Dr. Vianei Soares articles in magazines) (Dr. Vianei Soares articles in seminars, congresses and conferences)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by
Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The production of shiitake mushroom based on Eucalyptus logs

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an Eastern indigenous mushroom and is today the second type most consumed fungus in the world. Besides that, L. edodesis is an important wood lignin degradation organism: it causes the so called “white rot” symptom on decayed dead timber. This fungus ability has been the main issue on many scientific researches, specially as a way to isolate holocelulose from wood through biolignolitic process. Shiitake fungus acts on the nutrient cycling due to its wood degradation ability, that makes nutrients and organic carbon to return to the soil as organic matter (Silva and Santana, 2007). The shiitake is very well-known in Asian countries and it has been cultivated there from over 1,000 years, becoming part of the culture and food-diets in many regions.

Shiitake great flavor, medical and nutritional properties are the reasons for making its increasing consumption all over the world, including in Brazil. The mushroom can be sold fresh, as preserved food or dried. The last type was the prime sold option on Brazilian markets by early 80's. However, nowadays, the shiitake market has changed, becoming mostly characterized by the fresh mushroom for consumption. This occurred because of its widespread availability and because of the increasing production in Brazil. Another reason for the increased fresh mushroom consumption has been the better conservation process: mushrooms can keep their freshness for over 10 days on a 4°C temperature (Neves and Graciolli, 2008). According to the same authors, 64% of the studied shiitake producers on western Sao Paulo state counties don’t get yet better prices for selling their large diameter mushrooms, considered to be the high quality ones. The fresh shiitake price on the researched area varied from R$ 12,00 to R$ 25,00. In spite of that, most producers commercialize their shiitake at R$ 15,00 - corresponding to US$ 6.5 (Neves and Graciolli, 2008), but this market is becoming prosperous with chances for better profits.

Dried shiitake is important fibers and proteins source. It has 25.9% of proteic compounds and can easily substitute meat of a meal. This food is considered low fat one (0.45 – 0.72% of lipids), low calories and its composition has 67 % of carbohydrates and the rest are vitamins B2 and C, minerals and the ergosterol (cell membrane component and vitamin D precursor).

Shiitake has relevant medical properties and is recommended its use to enhance human immunology. It is not a surprise that this mushroom was considered for many times as an “elixir of life” for the Japanese people, being very much studied for therapeutic purposes all over the world (Angelis and Piao, 2008; Neves and Graciolli, 2008; Silva and Santana, 2007). Shiitake prime compounds researched for pharmaceutic uses are lentinan and LEN (L. edodis mycelia extract) (Angelis and Piao, 2008).

Shiitake can be produced on decayed tree logs and the Eucalyptus ones are showing great capability for fungus development, as a substrate. So, this mushroom is also considered an important Eucalyptus product, becoming an extra income for the planted forest owners and increasing values to the low diameter timber.

The shiitakes are generally produced from oak and chestnut wood or from sawdust substrate on Japan and China, respectively. However, on Brazil, the Eastern immigrants had to adapt their food production techniques. The utilization of Eucalyptus logs as mushroom substrate was one of these adaptations. Nowadays, Eucalyptus wood is the prime ingredient for Brazilian shiitake production (Silva and Santana, 2007). According to Neves and Graciolli (2008), the main wood used on L. edodis production in Sao Paulo State was the Eucalyptus (55.9 %), followed by the mango tree with 32.3 %. There are lots of studies already finished or keeping on going, seeking for Eucalyptus logs production and upgrades. Besides wood chemical, physics, pathologic and environmental characteristics, the shiitake production selection depends on market offer and demand. Therefore, the Eucalyptus logs have advantages in comparison to other woods like the ones from mango, avocado and others. That’s essentially because of the accessible price. The main Eucalyptus species used as shiitake substrate are: Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus urophylla. From these, the species E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. saligna are also intensively utilized for pulp and paper production being very common in Brazil (Silva and Santana, 2007; UFLA, 1999). The shiitake production depends on the log quality, considered the sole substrate necessary for the fungus development. As a consequence, in case of shiitake production on Eucalyptus logs, they need to be straight timber, with 4-5 years and may be harvested on the right season, when the bark is very stuck to wood. During log harvesting and transportation, special caution should be provided to the bark, avoiding its damage. The logs can be stored for at list 10 days on greenhouses or barns on proper cleanliness, temperature, humidity and shadow conditions. Young Eucalyptus trees should be preferred due to their smaller diameter heartwood and low bark stiffness and rigidity. The best log diameter is between 12 to 15 cm and it should be 80 to 130 cm long. Branches with these dimensions can be also used as substrate for shiitake production. Younger trees with very low diameters logs allow faster production, but their longevity and mushroom size are reduced resulting on low quality. On the other hand, higher diameter logs (over 15 cm) are harder (wood and bark density) and because of this it takes too long for mushroom production. This can increase risks of pathogenic organisms’ contamination. It also brings problems with logs handling because of their heavier weight (Silva and Santana, 2007).

On a Montini research reported by Angelis and Piao (2008), it was observed a variation between shiitake production and E. saligna log diameters. As a result, there was a negative correlation among these two evaluated properties. So, the mushroom production was lower as the diameter logs increased.

The majors problems observed by the shiitake producers (70.6%) from Sao Paulo state were the bark releasing from Eucalyptus logs and its log cracking/splitting. The authors pointed that it would be resolved with better harvest season and operational controls (Neves and Graciolli, 2008).

After cleaning, logs are inoculated with proper selected varieties of L. edodes mycelia and spores. The inoculum is always produced on sawdust under aseptic and controlled conditions on a laboratory. The shiitake inoculum can differ on strains for better productivity and quality (Angelis and Piao, 2008; Neves and Graciolli, 2008; Silva and Santana, 2007; Andrade et al. 2006). The shiitake production depends on choosing an inoculum strain adapted to the region weather conditions and to the type of substrate. The inoculation is made with a 2 inches drill, opening holes on the log, spacing 15-20 cm from each other. After, small amounts of inoculum are placed on the holes and covered with fused paraffin at 100-120°C.

Keiser (2004) compared shiitake development on Eucalyptus and bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) logs. The fungus colonization on the last one showed inferior rates and there was higher contaminant incidence too. It was explained by the worse shiitake strain adaptation on bracatinga wood. Thus, the importance of the right inoculum.

Following inoculation, starts the nursery step, when logs can be stacked in a campfire format or in the “igueta format” for wood fungus development and colonization. Each pile should have 60 to 70 log units, keeping them away from soil. The logs must keep a distance of 5 to 7 cm from each other to allow better air circulation, ventilation and consequently lower contamination. Nursery conditions should be high on moisture (70-90 % RH) and shade. Daily, moisture is recommended to be sprayed over logs and the ideal temperature on nursery is 25 to 30 °C. In some cases, logs should monthly change places for better uniform fungus development. After 150 to 180 days, wood is already humid and softened. It is the time when appear the first visible fungus colonies. Then, logs are induced for fructification using mechanical (logs throw on the ground) and thermal (emerge logs on 10°C cold water for 12 to 24 h) shocks.

Shion et al. (2007) evaluated thermal and mechanical shock effects on shiitake production over Eucalyptus saligna logs. As a result, emerged time and water temperatures influenced significantly on mushroom production, increasing it by twice to four times when water was cooled and the logs were emerged from 6 to 10 h. Mechanical shocks were not proved to influence on shiitake production on this study. Following the shocks steps, logs are accommodated on fructification chambers (85% RH; 22 - 25oC), taken 3 -5 days to fructify. From this step onwards, mushrooms are ready to be harvested in 8 to 10 days.

With the end of fructification cycle, logs can be re-inoculated and then returned to nursery being able to develop other productions (generally 3 to 4 more) depending on the wood conditions. Following the right management after first shock, the Eucalyptus logs go back to nursery every 90 to 120 days. Despite that, as the number of shocks and fructifications increases, log nutrient contents start to get exhausted, so production becomes reduced.

Aiming to get better shiitake production on Eucalyptus logs, Queiroz et al. (2004) performed mineral supplementation on 3 strains of L. edodes. All of them had positive answers to the provided treatment, but one had even better results. The authors believe this occurs due to this mushroom strain competition capacity, capable to better colonize logs in relation to the other strains.

On a market study by Neves and Graciolli (2008), 53.4 % of the researched shiitake producers showed average productivity of 200 grams of fresh mushroom/log/cycle. Paula et al. (2001) followed the shiitake production economic feasibility for 14 month on Sao Paulo state. The authors analyzed different Eucalyptus log scale production (number of logs). They concluded that the larger production scales (2,000 and 4,000 logs) guarantied better profit - that could range up to 34 % during that study period. Thus, shiitake production is a good income and wealth alternative for farmers, helping on rural diversification.

According to Silva and Santana (2007), shiitake has important biodegradation properties that can be used for bioconvert wood residues from wood factories like sawdust and the Eucalyptus bark into food sources. Over 70% of mushrooms in China are produced on this way and it seems to be an interesting alternative, considered to be environmentally correct. It is also an additional source of income for forestry company associated to shiitake producers.

Brazil has low per capita mushroom consumption (0.5 g/year) compared to the Germans (3.5 g/year) and other countries, but it’s showing an impressive growth in recent years. This can be explained by the decreasing price of the product to the consumer market. The way to obtain competitive and low prices is to proper manage mushroom - aiming to have production expenses reduced.

In conclusion, Eucalyptus has potential to become the most used substrate and prime-material substrate to develop shiitake mushroom in many countries. Despite of that, new researches should be kept in force to develop even more advantages of the relation shiitake- Eucalyptus, creating benefits not only for the consumers, but for the producers and for the environment, as well.

Some recommended websites and research articles relating Eucalyptus and shiitake are available just below for your reading. Find out more information about production techniques, nutritional and medical benefits and other curiosities that shiitake mushroom owns. Enjoy this fantastic opportunity, and in case you feel motivated, don't forget to have some shiitake mushroom in some of your next meals.

Shiitake. Virtual Enciclopedia Wikipedia. Available on 12. 23.2008 (in Portuguese) (in Spanish) (in English)

Cogumelos imperiais. Available on 12.23.2008. (In Portuguese)

Australian log-grown shiitake mushrooms. The Australian Master Tree Grower Program. Available on 12.23.2008. (In English)

Modulo de cogumelos. FCA/UNESP - Botucatu-SP. Available on 23.12.2008. (In Portuguese) (Home) (Research)

Lentinus edodis (Berk.) Pegler. O cogumelo shiitake. D.F. Angelis; A. C. L. Goes; A. C. S. Piao. (In Portuguese)

Technical and scientific articles

Caracterizacao da producao em toros do cogumelo comestivel Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler na regiao oeste do Estado de Sao Paulo. C. F. Q. Neves; L. A. Graciolli. Acta Sci. Agron. 30(4):487-494. (2008)

Biotecnologia e bioconversao de residuos agro-industriais - Uma revisao. C.B. Lopes; A. Schamberger; J.C.F. Trindade. VI Semana de Tecnologia em Alimentos. UTFPR - Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana. 7 pp. (2008)

Cultivo de cogumelos em toras de eucalipto.
J. C. Silva; C. C. Santana. REMADE Edition 101. (2007)

Avaliacao do crescimento micelial de linhagens de shiitake, da producao em toras de eucalipto e de alteracoes fisicas da madeira. M. C. N. Andrade; F. W. Calonego; M. T. A. Minhoni; E. T. D. Severo; J. Kopytowski Filho. Acta Sci. Agron. 29(1) 23-27. (2007)

Thermal and mechanical shocks affecting the first flush of production of Lentinula edodes on Eucalyptus saligna log. H. F. Shiomi; M. T. A. Minhoni; J. O. Machado; A. Cargnelutti Filho. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 38:200-203. (2007)

Entomofauna associada ao cultivo de shiitake [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pleger] no municipio de Arroio do Padre, RS. Brasil. E. L. G. Costa. Monograph UFPEL - Universidade Federal de Pelotas. 34 pp. (2007)

O cultivo de cogumelos em pequena escala. P. Oei. Agrodok 40. Fundacao Agromisa and CTA. 90 pp. (2006)

Avaliacao da producao de sete linhagens de Lentinula edodes em toras de Eucalyptus grandis na regiao de Sao Carlos - SP. M. C. N. Andrade; M. T. A. Minhoni; J. Kopytowski Filho;D. C. Zied. (2006)

Abstract: Effect of cereal brans on Lentinula edodes growth and enzyme activities during cultivation on forestry waste.
E. M. Silva; A. Machuca; A. M. F. Milagres; Letter in Applied Microbiology 40(4):283-288(6). (2005)

Controle de fungos contaminantes no cultivo do cogumelo comestivel shiitake em toros de eucalipto. M. C. N. Andrade; L. A. Graciolli; Acta Sci. Agron. 27(2)293-299. (2005)

Mineral supplementation and productivity of the shiitake mushroom on Eucalyptus logs. E. C. Queiroz; R. H. Marino; A. F. Eira. Sci. Agric. 61(3): 260-265. (2004)

Avaliacao de isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler (Shiitake) em diferentes substratos. R. Tratch; G. S. Keiser. Revista Academica: Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais 2(4):11-14. (2004)

Viabilidade economica do cultivo de shiitake em diferentes escalas de producao. D. P. Paula; M. A. A. Tarsitano; L. A. Graciolli. Scientia Agricola 58(2):431-436. (2001)

Como cultivar o cogumelo shiitake. L. P. Almeida; R. P. Uzzo; W. R. Maluf. Boletim Tecnico de Hortalicas. 1thedition. No 008 UFLA. (1999).

Producing shiitake mushrooms: a guide for small-scale outdoor cultivation on logs. J. M. Davis. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. (1995)

Growing shiitake mushrooms
. S. Anderson; D. Marcouiller. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets. 7 pp. (s/d)

Shiitake market products and producers (considerer just as references - they are not commercial indications): (In Portuguese) (In Portuguese) (In Portuguese) (In English)
CategoryID/15500.0/SubCatID/3755.0/file.htm (In English)

Shiitake mushroom images

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel

Managing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests for Enhanced Sustainability

In the past three decades, we have succeeded in developing in Brazil a fantastic technology to plant and to grow productive forests. We have learned to make them develop well and to produce specialized woods for specific end-uses. The leaps in productivity were equally fantastic: from growth rates below 20 cubic meters per hectare.year for Eucalyptus plantations in the ’60s, to about 50 m³/ha.year in the middle of the first decade in the XXI Century. We have obtained many answers to the question "how to make an Eucalyptus forest plantation to grow and produce well?" However, this technological jump is now demanding new breakthroughs, some of them of typically environmental nature, focused on sustainability, other ones typically technological, in a new cycle of aggregation of new technologies for higher productivity and sustainability levels. To make it happen, we have to become better acquainted with physiology and ecology of these forests and their interrelations and interactions with the environment. How does the forest plantation grow? What does it need for this purpose? How does the tree create its cells and tissues? How do the trees interact with each other and with the environment? What are their real effects on the ecosystems? What are the critical and restrictive factors? How to optimize them? How to improve the global efficiency and the environmental balance of the planted forest i.e. the relationship between inputs and outputs of the forest system in question? By environmental balance outputs we should understand the amounts of woods, of biomasses, of nutrients, of water, or of biodiversity, which are used, extracted, or simply transit and accumulate in the system. As inputs into the system there are the production factors, added by ourselves or by Nature, such as water, nutrients, sunlight, soil microbiology, etc. Optimization implies evaluation of impacts, opportunities, and partial and total efficiencies, from biology and physiology to the productivity expressed by one or more economic indexes and generated marketable products.

The environmental implications of the planted forests started being evaluated a long time after beginning the researches to accelerate productivity. Until some 15 years ago, the soil was considered as a substrate for the trees to grow, rather than as a patrimony, a legacy from Nature to be managed in a sustainable way. It was no more than a decade ago, that the planted forest sector began to understand and to admit that the hydrology of the planted areas is affected and for this very reason the management of these areas must be done based on micro-watershed monitoring. In the beginning of such kind of experiments, these studies were rather performed to prove that the forests did not affect the ecosystem. Now, they are carried out to provide knowledge to find more eco-efficient and more sustainable ways to establish and manage these plantations. An enormous conceptual evolution!

Many environmentally correct techniques (and other ones not so much!!) have been introduced to make the forest plantations grow, such as:

• utilization of land areas already exhausted by agriculture and cattle growing (for reasons of acquisition and implementation costs, adaptability of the forest species to those land conditions, etc.);
• agro-ecological forest farm planning in all of its phases, from "cradle to grave";
• suitable planning of silviculture and forest harvesting operations;
• definition of internal roads, so as to maximize soil protection and water conservation;
• correct forest operations, to prevent an operation from impairing the subsequent ones due to its poor quality;
• banishment of the use of fire as a tool in the forest activities;
• effective forest fire combat;
• soil conservation and protection: of its constituents, structure, microlife, moisture, porosity, etc.;
• minimum soil preparation for planting;
• reduction in soil erosion by keeping over the ground the forest residues and bark after forest harvesting;
• fertilization with chemical and organic fertilizers and forest harvesting residues;
• utilization of industrial and urban wastes for chemical and organic soil fertilization, combining a productive (forest) activity with a sanitation activity (use of solid wastes, usually composted);
• retention and conservation of water resources (soil, aquifers, fountainheads, watercourses, etc.);
• establishment of superficial over-ground flow water drainage systems to avoid soil erosion and to incorporate the rain water into the productive area;
• intense combat to competition weeds;
• suitable plantation enemies combat (forest protection), such as ants and other pests and diseases, preferably by introducing resistance into the plants, or by using methods of biological control;
• space adaptation for the tree to grow, including its roots, its crown, etc.;
• engineering of the tree shape and architecture/design , for maximizing its aerial growth (trunk wood);
• engineering of the leaf area and crown architecture, to optimize the relationship between photosynthesis and water consumption;
• eco-physiological and nutritional monitoring;
• more and more intensive use of mechanized operations, from soil preparation to forest harvesting;
• substantial improvement in the survival of planted saplings, in the initial growth of the trees, in the uniformity among them, in the control of underbrush and other enemies, etc., etc.
• improvement in the genetic quality of the trees, by means of forest improvement by selection in the population or by cloning of superior individual trees;
• improvement in the effectiveness of use for nutrients and water by the forests: increase in productivity through more efficient use of water and "food";
• improvement in the quality of wood for specific end-uses (pulp and paper, sawmill, coal, etc., etc.);
• diversification of the forest environment by engineering of forest eco-mosaics involving areas of productive forests, agriculture, cattle growing, and protected native vegetation;
• use of tools from biotechnology and genetic engineering, in order to accelerate productivity and improve some process or product qualities;
• recovery of degraded areas, restoring their productivity or rehabilitating them and/or incorporating them as permanent preservation areas;
• formation of more complex productive economic/ecological designs, involving other activities of interest for society (rural farmers, wood users, development of other uses and forest products, etc.);
• etc.; etc.

One thing is absolutely true: we need to plant forests and they must be productive. The higher the productivity, the more we will be supplying the demands of human society with smaller planted area requirements and higher supply of products. Thus, we will help preserve the wood sources of native forests, which for many years have been plundered by generations and generations worldwide.

It is important to stress that these high rates of forest growth are fundamental for the forest plantations to be successful. The reason is that the afforestation process has a long maturation time. Money invested today in planting will only return some years ahead. In countries where money is scarce and has a high cost, like Brazil, the sooner the money returns, bringing economic results, the happier the investor becomes. Often, this is good for the investor, but not so positive for the environment. In general, wood is a low-price raw material, especially if intended for products classified as commodities, such as pulp and paper. The real market prices of such products decrease as time goes by, so that the companies producing them are forced to produce more efficiently and at lower costs at all times. Nevertheless, this fast increase in productivity has also its impacts, which should be evaluated, monitored, and minimized. Extremely productive areas require a differentiated forest management; otherwise they run the risk of impoverishing in the long term.

Nowadays, every forest engineer occupied in planting productive forests knows that the soil is one of the major natural sources of wealth and life. It was constructed by Nature through a series of actions over the course of millions of years. Consequently, to take good care of the soil is to care for life sustainability on the planet. However, a however must exist here: people often believe so, but do not act or consider the long-term in their plans. We are so fascinated to produce and manage our operations and our forests costs, that our planning about the use of the soil is based on a short-term vision, perhaps considering only one or two rotations of the forests we plant. This brings wrong conclusions and mismanagements.

If our present role is to plant forests to generate sustainable consumer goods for our increasing and demanding society, we have to do this very well, in the best possible way. What we are doing at present is good, I have no doubts in this respect. We talk much and practice what we call a good forest management, or sustainable forest management. We have certified planted forests, with suitable protection of the soil, the biodiversity, and the water resources. However, in daily life it is always possible to do better something we are doing at present. There will be always opportunities to improve. And also threats of worsening, evidently. It is not enough to focus just on the operational technologies and costs. It is not enough just to increase forest yields without paying attention to the future quality of the areas where we plant our forests, regardless of the species of trees they consist of: Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia, Araucaria, teak, cork-tree, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella), poplars, lenga, etc.

Considering the current growth rates, the total cycle of the Eucalyptus planted forests in Brazil may represent a figure from 5 to 25 years, depending on the use and the type of selected forest management .

When I hear our enthusiastic forest technicians mentioning that, at present in Brazil, it is possible to supply a mill producing 1 million tons of pulp per year with only 100,000 hectares of Eucalyptus planted forests with clear cutting by coppicing at 6 to 7 years of age (period of forest rotation), I cannot avoid being proud of our technological and scientific achievements. However, I begin to feel frightened when I hear these very technicians saying that, within a short period of time more, we will only need 80,000 hectares of Eucalyptus plantations to supply a market pulp mill producing 1.3 millions of tons, with forest rotation with clear cutting by coppicing at 5 years of age. Too short forest rotations start causing problems to the soil, which cannot be avoided or restored with mineral fertilizers. Moreover, mineral fertilizers will be scarcer and scarcer, as well as more expensive. The problems for the soil do not concern only fertility, but also moisture, structuring, compaction, organic carbon, microlife, etc. Therefore, I ask myself how long we will be able to use this same land so intensively without exhausting it and I wonder what the future might reserve for these soils, if this last mentioned type of intense and localized forest management persists.

The environmentalists on duty accuse the coffee, the rice, the orange, the soy bean, and the sugar cane agriculture of having exhausted or being in the act of exhausting the soils of our country. They also ask themselves what the Eucalyptus and Pinus planted soils will become by such intense utilization of the land. We, who belong to the sector, cannot wait to see what will happen, even if we have enough evidence that the impacts are minimal in the short term. We know very well the best ways of protecting the soils, the water resources, and biodiversity. We know how to minimize these impacts, although with a large-scale activity it is impossible to completely eliminate many of them. However, there is always the option for compensating them with other conservation measures, such as the maintenance of extensive areas of permanent natural preservation, which at present represent almost 50% of the total areas of the Brazilian forest companies.

With regard to the forest management of the plantations, I have spoken and written much about this subject and I would like to see some things happening faster in this respect. Some of them are relatively simple and easy to implement, and represent enormous environmental gains for the forest ecosystems. However, their implementation involves conceptual changes in the forest management, which will end up delaying a little the process. On the other hand, they will necessarily happen, even because history will be written in this direction. It only remains to wait or deal with it in advance, putting into practice the most suitable knowledge available in environmental terms.

Among these measures of greater sustainability for our forest eco-mosaics, I have been stressing the following ones:

• To minimize the anthropic actions on the forest areas: the less the human being will interfere in the forest site; the less often men will be present there to affect the environment - the better for the designed productive eco-mosaic.
• To extend the forest rotation time: the longer the planted Eucalyptus forest will keep growing, the more effective the nutrient cycling, the better the structuring of the soil, the microlife, the hydrological regimes, etc. This can occur both for the management models by coppicing (longer forest rotations as a function of spacing opening), and by multiple purpose tree management with intermediate thinning prior to the final forest harvesting. Among the management models adopted at present, those based on long forest rotations, with intermediate thinning, are undoubtedly the most eco-efficient ones. They allow almost the same volumetric forest productivity in the long term and enhance the productivity in terms of wood weight (due to the increase in wood density as a function of forest age). In environmental terms they preserve much more the soil - the complete denudation of which occurs more rarely and with less drastic interventions.

• To promote alternative forest crop rotations, preferably by using alternative species of nitrogen-fixing tree Leguminosae. A hardwood pulp mill can perfectly have its wood supply based on Eucalyptus and Acacia, for instance. Planting may take place alternately in a certain land area. This very area may be allowed to rest after a certain period of productive use, becoming a permanent preservation area with protected ecosystems. Everything according to an eco-efficient planning, aimed at sustainability.
• To maintain the forest harvesting residues on the forest soil (over the ground to decompose): bark, thin branches, leaves, tree-tops contribute to improve the soil and the natural resources of the area. I become definitely panic-stricken at the plundering technologies applied to all this material by new designed machines, even scraping machines of organic tree litter deposited on the soil surface, in order to feed power boilers or ethanol pulp biorefineries. It is something I will fight against with all my forces.
• To always work with technologies involving minimum environmental impact: minimum soil preparation, minimum use of agrochemicals, fertilizing use of organic compounds of industrial waste, fertilizing use of biomass boiler ashes, etc., etc.

I definitely propose longer forest rotations for the Eucalyptus plantation forestry, not shorter ones, as many technicians want, rather concerned about productivity and costs in the short term. I propose (to Brazilian conditions) at least 7 years, preferably 8 to 10 years for coppicing and clear cutting. The optimum management would be for the multiple purpose forest management regimes with thinning, with the forest being thinned approximately twice in the course of a total twenty-year long or even longer forest rotation. Thus, we will be able to develop productive multiple purpose arrangements, so dreamt of, involving development of products of higher added value, without failing to meet raw material requirements for the commodity-like products, for the generation of firewood biomass, etc.

There are three basic factors for this defense of concept of mine, which I will be reinforcing once more as the following:

• the too-short rotation forestry denudes the soil more frequently: we lose organic carbon, moisture, biodiversity – which occurs quickly by oxidation, deterioration, drying, compaction, etc. This occurs even when leaving over the ground the forest harvesting residues, such as leaves, branches, and bark. The situation is dramatic when those people wanting to plant in close spacing models and extremely short cycles harvest the whole forest biomass for energy, including the organic tree layer deposited on the soil surface, or organic litter. We will be condemning this soil within some decades, since in general Eucalyptus forests are planted in weaker soils.
• for its development, the Eucalyptus avails itself very much of the cycling of nutrients: from 3 years of age onwards, the Eucalyptus forest begins to live, to a great extent, from the nutrients it deposits on the soil in the form of organic litter: branches, leaves, bark, etc. This cycling allows the same ion of calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., to be absorbed by the tree and used several times in its metabolism. A part of it is immobilized in the wood tissues, while another part returns to the soil surface by the deposition of organic matter. In case many trees are planted per hectare, competition will be enormous at early ages, the forest will stop growing and will be harvested at 4 - 5 years of age, as want it some people just concerned about harvesting more dry matter from the forests (no matter the size of the trees). It will result therefrom that we will be exporting a large amount of soil nutrients, without giving them a chance to cycle (to return to the soil and thereafter again to the tree). The result will be a pronounced soil impoverishment and a consequent impaired image for the Eucalyptus plantation forestry.
• diversification and increase in the eco-forest complexity, with higher potentialities of socioeconomic involvement in several products of forest origin and lower concentration of power in the hands of a few.

Some forest manager's focus often concentrates on forest productivity and on their operational costs, considering that since they are already complying with the principles and indicators recommended by the forest certification schemes, their environmentalist’s diploma is already guaranteed. I think, on the contrary, that we should look first at our fantastic forest eco-mosaic with a helicopter vision and find the correct ways of making it productive, maintaining the sustainability aimed at. It is just a question of what to focus on first – the objectives of productivity and economic results will be maintained in both cases. To show that it is possible to produce very well with these alternative management systems, with volumetric productions near to those obtained by clear cutting by coppicing, I suggest you to navigate through a recent work of 2006, presented by Klabin (R.L. Sella) at a forest event of TUME/ESALQ – Eucalyptus Multiple Purpose Test ( Sorry, the speech was presented in Portuguese, but data are simple and understandable.

Therefore, my friends, regardless of the possibility that the world economy in the next decades may go on putting pressure to continue to grow at high rates, this can be done at a much higher level of sustainability. There are different ways of growing planted forests: it will depend on us to elect the best one(s), but the consequences thereof will fall not only on us, but on the future generations as well. At present, we have available a level of knowledge which allows us to do well – in the future we will know more and perform still better. We have to be attentive and committed to practice sustainability, instead of just speaking of it. We want and need to have forest plantations. They help protect natural forests and supply products and provide benefits to society. But we must plant them and manage them with environmental quality, adopting a vision focused not only on the present, but on the distant future as well. After all, sustainability is an anthropocentric long-term concept. The focus of sustainability are the future generations - they are those we want to help finding a good, habitable, as well as sustainable world.

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
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