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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends,

Here we are again, with the 24th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. We hope that this information may be useful to you and to the Eucalyptus. Remember that most of this knowledge we are sharing is being brought to our World Society for a better understanding about the Eucalyptus trees and forests. The aim is to offer knowledge in a way that everyone may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to browse through the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to the Human Society. Our target is very clear: to help stakeholders from the society to better understand the benefits that the eucalypts offer to humans, as far as they are planted in proper conditions of Sustainability (and with personal and corporate responsibility). For this to happen in ever increased intensity, we always provide many suggestions, information and knowledge. The purpose is to raise the level of understanding and knowledge about the Eucalyptus, something absolutely necessary for the importance they play to human beings.

This edition has several purposes: one is to continue to bring to you classic and historical books about the Eucalyptus. With this, we are gradually offering a collection of some classic books that form the foundations of the knowledge about the Eucalyptus in the world. Another objective of this issue is to gather information to you on prices of forest products and costs of forestry operations in Brazil. These items are always subject of curiosity and interest on the part of Brazilian communities that are associated with Eucalyptus.

We are also returning with the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus". Our honored guest in this edition is a great friend of mine and a top Argentinean expert on pulp and paper: Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica. Know more about the career and accomplishments of Dr. Venica in this issue and understand the reasons he is being distinguished with this honor.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she tells us this time about the utilization of Eucalyptus wood for flooring purposes. It is amazing the extent of such Eucalyptus timber purpose in Brazil and in many other countries. Something that Society even realize, although the daily interaction with these woods in the floors people step on.

We have also returned with two sections that aim to add a lot of knowledge to the forest-based sector. In "Eco-efficiency and Sustainability Corner", we are placing emphasis on forest certification and type I eco-labels applicable to the forest segment. In the section "A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation" we are emphasizing the development of technological roadmaps, explaining and clarifying the technological routes which are to be followed in the coming years by forest-based sector and by the industries associated to forests in some production chains.

In my technical mini-article in this issue, I decided to touch a subject that generates many emotions and debates with many stakeholders interacting with Eucalyptus forestry: the GM trees - genetically modified trees.

This newsletter also brings one more chapter of our digital book about the Eucalyptus. The chapter 17 in the Portuguese language of the Eucalyptus Online Book is focused on "Differentiating Eucalyptus market pulps and papers by pulp fines management".

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal and INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales and Papermakers' Wiki. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks for all incentives and support to our work, in special to readers, ABTCP, sponsors, and partners. We have already exceeded our target of registered readers, when about 12,000 people are getting monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Now, our goal for the remaining of this year is to always keep a number above 10,000 readers actually receiving, opening and reading our publications. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, Fibria and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 17 (in Portuguese)

Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation - Technological Roadmaps

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica

Online Technical References - Some More Historical and Classic Books about the Eucalyptus

References about Events and Courses

Prices of Forest Products

Costs of Forest Operations with Eucalyptus

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: Eucalyptus Wood Flooring (by Ester Foelkel)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Eucalyptus Plantations and Genetically Modified Trees

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 17 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 4.2 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Diferenciando Polpas de Mercado e Papeis de Eucalipto atraves da Gestao dos Finos Celulosicos da Polpa" -
"Differentiating Eucalyptus market pulps and papers by pulp fines management".

If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:

Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

Globally, the demands for enhanced eco-efficiency and sustainability continue to place pressure on the productive sectors. Through the adoption of completely voluntary procedures, many economic segments have shown great pro-activity and innovation to fit these new requirements, among which the Brazilian forest sector. One of the more creative ways to achieve and to demonstrate sustainable models in the forest-based industry has been environmental labelling/green labels. There are several eco-labels to be pursued by our forest sector, and the best known are: eco-labels/certifications for forest management and/or chain-of-custody and the type I eco-labels, which have a wider coverage, comprising of the entire production process ("product life cycle thinking"). Forest certification has been a consolidated achievement for the planted forest sector in Brazil. Nearly all the leading manufacturers of forest products already have forest certifications for their forest management or contents of wood from certified origin in the final manufactured products (certification of the chain-of-custody). Now, it comes to the ground the opportunity to obtain type I eco-labels (labels granted by third party developed criteria, with public consultation with stakeholders participation) for products such as tissue papers and printing and writing papers (graphic and copy papers). Brazilians are determined to move forward on these topics concerning labelling schemes, with support of organizations like MDIC - Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade; CNI - National Confederation of Industry; BRACELPA - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper; ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association; ABNT - Brazilian Technical Standards Association and UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme.

We have prepared a selection of websites to be visited for better understanding of forest certification and eco-labelling paper products. We are also offering to you some literature that will allow a better view of the current situation, both regarding forest certification, as well the type I eco-labels for paper products.

Articles and speeches about eco-labelling and forest certification:

Market information and eco-labelling roadmap package. Printing and writing papers from Brazil.
D. Scheer; D. Speda. 54 pp. (2009)
(in English)

Eco-labels. Challenges and opportunities.
D. Scheer. Eco-labelling Workshop. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation:16 slides. (2008)
(in English)

Os eucaliptos e os selos verdes. (The Eucalyptus and the eco-labels). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 13. (2008) (in Portuguese) (in English)

Brasil - Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto. Floresta plantada a papel.
(Brazil - Sustainability in the Eucalyptus value chain. From planted forests to paper). C. Foelkel. Eco-labelling Workshop. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Brazil and eco-labelling: a new opportunity to the pulp and paper industry. C. Foelkel. Workshop UNEP/INWENT. Bonn/Germany. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2007) (in English)

Funcoes do processo de certificacao florestal.
(Functions of the forest certification process). C. Foelkel. 9th Nova Prata State Forestry Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 20 slides. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Suggested websites about forest certification schemes (also known as "forest eco-labels")

CERFLOR - Sistema Brasileiro de Certificacao Florestal - INMETRO - Instituto Brasileiro de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial. (Brazilian Forest Certification Scheme). (Brazil)
CERFLOR aims to provide guidelines and a system for forest management certification (and chain-of-custody) in Brazil, according to the fulfillment of criteria and indicators - applicable to the whole country. The standards are developed by ABNT (Brazilian Technical Standards Association) and they are also integrated into the Brazilian System of Conformity Assessment and INMETRO. The standards that make up the CERFLOR certification system were prepared by a Special Committee for the Study of Forest Management through ABNT leadership. All standards, before their publication, were evaluated in the field and submitted for public consultation. The CERFLOR system has international mutual recognition by the PEFC Council - Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes. We are also bringing for your reading a didactic lecture delivered by our dear friend, the forest engineer Mrs. Maria Teresa Rezende, executive secretary of CERFLOR - the Brazilian Forest Certification Scheme. (in Portuguese and English)
(Speech in Portuguese by forest engineer Mrs. Maria Teresa Rezende, presented in an event about Eco-Labelling, organized by MDIC/SECEX, which was held in Brasilia, December 2009)

CERTFOR - Sistema Chileno de Certificacion de Manejo Forestal Sustentable. (Chilean Forest Certification Scheme). (Chile)
The Chilean CERTFOR scheme is also recognized by PEFC Council, and its targets are the certification of forest plantations, native forests and commercial companies that use certified wood (chain-of-custody). It is possible to know the standards on plantations, available for downloading, as well as the guidelines for audits and reports. (Standard for plantation forests) (Standard for chain-of-custody)

FSC Brasil - Conselho Brasileiro de Manejo Florestal.
(Brazilian Forest Stewardship Council). (Brazil)
The Brazilian Forest Stewardship Council is a non-governmental, independent, nonprofit organization, recognized as an OSCIP (Organization of the Civil Society with Public Interest). Its mission is to disseminate and facilitate the proper management of forests in Brazil, as far as they are in compliance with principles and criteria for ecological protection, social benefits and economic feasibility. FSC Brazil website is very rich in information and literature, such as standards, booklets, public consultation processes, etc. Most of these literatures are in Portuguese, but some in English and Spanish are also available. (Website)ção1.pdf (Forest certification guidebook)ípios_manejo_responsável.pdf (Flyer about sustainable forest management) (Types of forest certifications)ês.doc (Principles and criteria) (State of the revision of Principle 10 - Plantations)

IMAFLORA - Instituto de Manejo e Certificacao Florestal e Agricola. (Institute for Forest and Agricultural Management and Certification). (Brazil)
IMAFLORA works with agricultural and forest certification as a tool to promote changes, to help the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and promotion of social benefits. In Brazil, the IMAFLORA Forest Certification Program represents the SmartWood Program of Rainforest Alliance - a global NGO accredited by the FSC and a world pioneer in forest certification. IMAFLORA's website has a large number of excellent available publications, and we have highlighted some of them: (Website) (Guidebook - FSC forest management) (FSC- Forest certification manual) (Other publications by IMAFLORA)

PEFC Council - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes. (Global website)
The PEFC Council (Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) is in a non-profit organization that was founded in 1999 to promote sustainable forest management through third party certification. The PEFC is also an organization to house certification schemes developed with quality and reliability throughout the world and for these reasons can be accepted in a program of international mutual recognition. (Website) (PEFC Council publications) (Sustainable forestry and forest certification) (Criteria and technical documents for mutual recognition)

Selected websites about type I eco-label for paper products:

Eco-labelling printing & writing paper in Brazil. UNEP Eco-labelling project partners. (Global website)
Know about the project that UNEP has with the Brazilian pulp and paper sector and the MDIC - Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade to create capabilities in this specific sector for achieving eco-labelled paper products production and exports to Europe.
(Training kits- speeches and technical material)
(Project flyer)
(Speeches from a workshop which was held in Sao Paulo, in June 2008)

UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme. Eco-labelling.
(Global website)
It is a dedicated website developed by UNEP with the aim to promote the project "Enabling developing countries to seize eco-label opportunities", with a good amount of valuable technical information developed with the partners from countries such as Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, Kenya, China and India. (Website)

European Eco-label. The Flower Label from European Union.
(Global website)
This website allows the reader to navigate and to know the theory and concepts about the process of environmental labelling: principles, criteria, assessment manuals, auditing, etc. There are dozens of products that already have labels provided by the European system, but we just bring to you some links with the eco-labelling of paper products. (The "Flower" European eco-label)
(Eco-labelling graphic and copy papers)
(Users' manual for graphic and copy papers)
(Eco-labelling tissue papers)
(Users' manual for tissue papers)

The European Flower Green Store. (Global website)
This is a home page designed to provide navigation and information to consumers of eco-labelled products with the "flower" label. Here, interested parties can know the status of all labelled products and services, their manufacturers, conditions of licenses, photos, etc. It is considered to be a well-visited website in Germany, France, Belgium and Hungary. The reader has several language options, since the website is presented in language versions of all member countries of the European Union. (Website) (in Portuguese) (in Spanish)

Rotulo Verde Colibri da ABNT - Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas. (The Brazilian Hummingbird Eco-label. ABNT - The Brazilian Technical Standards Association). (Brazil)
In the early 1990, ABNT - The Brazilian Technical Standards Association launched its Brazilian environmental labelling scheme, which was represented by the drawing of a hummingbird. The program has stayed relatively stagnant for nearly a decade, due to the priority given by the Brazilian productive sector to be structured according to ISO, OHSAS, forest certification, etc. However, today the Brazilian eco-label system is being revitalized by a joint effort of the ABNT and some ministries of the Brazilian Government (MDIC - Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade and MMA - Ministry of Environment). One of the priorities is to develop criteria and indicators for eco-labelling graphic and copy papers. (Website) (Criteria under development) (Considerations about "life cycle thinking")

A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation

Technological Roadmaps

The forest-based sector and the whole chain of forest products seem to be experiencing strong winds of technological innovation. This trend is more than necessary, since changes in consumers' habits and demands are increasingly sophisticated and volatile. We have also to add on top of these drivers, the new demands on aspects of environmental sustainability and energy needs and profound changes on competitive alternatives to forest products, such as electronics, communications, web, etc. There are people arguing that planted forests will have strong demands to meet the so-called 4 F's (Food, Fiber, Fuel, Furniture).

Some countries and states are creating strategic groups to try to understand these changes, coming faster and faster, and demanding more research and knowledge in the forest-based sector. These needs are so fundamental, that a number of well-prepared documents are being produced to show the actual technological status and the technical requirements to achieve new productive platforms through R&D and strong value aggregation through industrial and managerial innovations. There is a huge expectation for the forests, since they are supposed to start supplying more energy to society, both in the form of solid biomass fuels, or in liquid (ethanol cellulose) or gas (methane and wood gasification). There are hopes for the advancements of nanotechnology, when it would become possible through these techniques to reveal the mechanisms of photosynthesis, and finally, to have at our hands the technology of this important reaction from mother Nature. All technological fields are being studied in an extraordinary manner and much is being engineered in several countries that maintain a degree of leadership in these studies (United States, Canada, Finland, Sweden). To avoid duplication of efforts and expenditures of scarce resources, the scientific and technological communities are being asked to establish the so-called "technological roadmaps" that are nothing more than lines of research and studies needed to move faster to accomplish the dreamed goals for forests and their new products and technologies. This has even been driven by technical associations (for example, by TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry/USA) and by sectors of the governments through public policy agendas, especially the Agenda 2020. Please, visit the website of the Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance to learn more about the technology vision for the ongoing forest-based sector, with strong emphasis on biorefineries, sustainable forestry, biotechnology and nanotechnology (

At this special section of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we are offering to you the opportunity to have at your disposal a collection of "technological roadmaps". Some of them are available on the web, from which we selected some for your reading. If you or your company want to take a glimpse to the future of the forest industry and on the new technologies that are coming, do not miss what we are offering to you.

Visit and learn about some of the relevant roadmaps for the technology to the forestry industry, including the planted forest sector, power generation, the development of nanotechnology and biotechnology and the production of pulp and paper. Don't miss this chance...

Bioenergia no estado de Sao Paulo. Situacao atual, perspectivas e barreiras/propostas. (Bioenergy in the state of Sao Paulo). J. Goldemberg; F.E.B. Nigro; S.T. Coelho. Sao Paulo State Press. 152 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Towards a technology roadmap for Canadian forest biorefineries. Industry Canada. 64 pp. (2007)
(in English)

Technology roadmap. Applications of nanotechnology in the paper industry. R. Reitzer. 75 pp. (2007) (in English)

Energy trends in selected manufacturing sectors. Forest products. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 16 pp. (2007) (in English)

Renewable energy technology roadmap. Up to 2020. EREC - European Renewable Energy Council. 24 pp. (2007)
(in English)

The integrated forest biorefineries. M. Karlsson. European Conference on Biorefinery Research. PowerPoint presentation: 20 slides. (2006) (in English)

Forest-based sector: a strategic research agenda for innovation, competitiveness and quality of life. Vision 2030. Forest Platform. 28 pp. (2006)
(in English)
(Annex: Extended descriptions of research areas) (in English)

Forest products industry technology roadmap. Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance. U.S. Department of Energy. 78 pp. (2006)
An updated version of this relevant document will shortly be released early 2010 through the website (in English) (in English)

Innovative and sustainable use of forest resources. Vision 2030. Forest Platform. 20 pp. (2005)
(in English)

Nanotechnology for the forest products industry. Vision and technology roadmap. Agenda 2020 Technology Initiative. 102 pp. (2004) (in English)

Ciencia e tecnologia no setor florestal brasileiro. Diagnostico, prioridades e modelo de financiamento. (Science and technology in the Brazilian forestry sector). CT Brasil. MCT/IPEF. 21 pp. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Setting the industry technology agenda. The 2001 forest, wood & paper industry technology summit. G. Clossett. TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. 210 pp. (2001) (in English) (Book content) (in English)

Forest products. Industry of the future. Office of Industrial Technologies. 08 pp. (2001) (in English)

Biobased products and bionergy roadmap
. U.S. Department of Energy. 32 pp. (2001) (in English) (Bioeconomic revolution) (in English)

Chemical vision 2020: 2000 separations roadmap. AIChE - American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 107 pp. (2000) (in English)

World in 2015. The four possible scenarios. S. Sharp. TAPPI Futurists. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. 72 pp. (1999) (in English)

The technology roadmap for plant/crop-based renewable resources 2020.
Renewable Vision 2020. U.S. Department of Energy. 44 pp. (1999) (in English)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica

In this edition, I have the honor and the privilege to introduce to you another great friend of mine and also of the Eucalyptus, our dear friend Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica.

Alberto Venica,
as he is well-known especially in the Iberian-American pulp and paper sector, is native from Argentina, born in 1953. There, he obtained his degree in organic chemistry from the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, in 1975. His curriculum is broad and diverse, as a function of the different types of professional involvement's he had in his career. I know Alberto Venica from the time he was head of the wood chemistry division at the Centro de Investigacion para el Estudio de la Celulosa y el Papel - CICELPA (Research Center for the Study of Pulp and Paper), a research and services body from the Argentinean INTI - National Institute of Industrial Technology (http:// / There, Alberto Venica worked from 1979 to 1990 with outstanding names in the pulp and paper researching segment from Argentina, such as my dear friends: Hugo Velez, Ricardo Repetti, Alicia Varela, Olga Casal, etc. As soon as Alberto began his work in CICELPA, he was recommended to attend a course on "Chemistry of Lignin" at the Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico. It was with this course that came the decision to engage himself in the chemistry of wood, pulp and paper, focusing mostly the chemical aspects, because of his qualifications, background and vocations. However, the life led him to browse through almost all aspects of the pulp and paper industry, but always he placed his focus on the chemical and now also on the modeling and simulation issues.

I also remember the time when Alberto was working for his doctorate degree in wood chemistry at North Carolina State University, under the advising of no less than the famous and unforgettable dear friend, Dr. Josef Gratzl, from 1986 to 1989. There, he had lessons and guidance from renowned teachers and researchers, besides Dr. Gratz: Drs. Chen-Loung Chen, Hou-Min Chang, Hasan Jameel, Heinz Olf and Adriana Kirkman. His thesis at that time already involved pulping research with hardwood, in the specific case, the poplar (alamo). The title of the Ph.D. thesis "Soda-AQ delignification of hardwoods: reactions, mechanism, and dissolved lignin characteristics" has been translated into Spanish as: "Pulpado soda-AQ de maderas duras: reacciones, mecanismos y caracteristicas de las ligninas solubilizadas".

Alberto Venica's professional career is very diverse, as it is the Argentinean production of pulp and paper. So far, Argentina has failed to attract large investments in modern and state-of-the-art mills for the manufacture of pulp or paper, either from pine or Eucalyptus, despite all the technical and forestry expertise and potentials it has for this task. The famous Argentinean Mesopotamian region, comprising the provinces of Misiones, Entre-Rios and Corrientes is one of the regions of the world most privileged to the development of fast-growing plantations of Eucalyptus and Pinus. Argentinean Mesopotamia has an area of about 200,000 square kilometers, a wonderful and humid subtropical climate, plenty of water supply due to the presence of some of the largest rivers in South America. On the other hand, the country offers other interesting and even intriguing alternatives: use of sugar cane bagasse and poplar fiber sources for papermaking; high use of recycled fiber; strong emphasis on processes for high-yield pulping (semi-chemical NSSC and cold soda, alkaline peroxide, etc.); production of lignosulfonates and precipitated hemicelluloses, etc. This wide range of fibrous raw materials and pulping processes has led Alberto Venica to be converted into an eclectic professional, with diverse involvement's in numerous academic and industrial projects.

Dr. Alberto Venica has had a quite unique career: he is being able to divide his time between his unquestionable academic/researching vocation and his talent to develop solutions to pulp and paper industrial problems. Today, he is also involved in teaching academic courses on "Paper-Machine Wet-End Chemistry" and "Wood and Pulping/Papermaking Chemistry" in the pulp and paper master degree program at UNAM - Universidad Nacional de Misiones in Posadas - Argentina (
). There, he has developed a strong partnership in academic papers with professors Dr. Maria Cristina Area and prof. Fernando Felissia, among others.

Currently, Dr. Alberto Venica is an independent consultant on pulp/paper technological issues, working in various topics such as: pulp and paper production, application of precipitated calcium carbonate in papermaking, chemistry and production of alkaline lignins and lignosulfonates, among other topics. In almost all of his activities, the Eucalyptus trees, woods and fibers are deeply related. This is because the woods and the fibers of the Eucalyptus are very important for the manufacture of many types of papers and pulps in Argentina. In fact, at the Massuh company, where Dr. Venica was pulp production superintendent in the early 90's, he studied and optimized the process of NSSC lignosulfonate production obtained from Eucalyptus, a technique almost unique in the world of wood lignin. He also had technical and managerial positions in Celulosa Argentina company (Zarate and Capitan Bermudez mills), both with strong involvement in the use of Eucalyptus wood for production of various types of papers.

In the past recent years, Dr. Alberto Venica has been dedicated to activities of technical advising and training, working on several issues to customers in Latin American countries (Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Colombia, with more frequency). At the recent political crisis involving his country Argentina with neighboring Uruguay, due to the controversial and emotional dispute because the installation of a kraft pulp mill owned by the Finnish company Botnia (located in Fray Bentos, Uruguay), Alberto had very active participation in clarifying technical questions from the interested parties in his country. He has participated in public hearings, interviews, writing and reviewing reports and studies, etc. He felt obliged to defend with passion, both the Argentinean professionals who deserve opportunities to work in this kind of industry and the Argentinean pulp and paper industry itself, in which he always worked to improve. The way this political process was being handled in Argentina, brought to the ordinary public the feeling that to work in this type of industry was a second class and derogative job. Hence, the Alberto's and other pulp and paper experts' involvement to provide to Argentinean people and local society some clarifications on the technical issues of the dispute. Alberto had several interviews and newspaper articles, many of which are still available in the web:;;

Alberto also dedicates himself to various pulp and paper technical associations and cooperative networks of researches and studies, such as ATIPCA - Argentinean Association of the Technicians at the Pulp and Paper Industry; TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry - USA (; RIADICYP - Red Iberoamericana de Docencia e Investigacion en Celulosa y Papel ( and RIARREC - Red Iberoamericana para la del Revalorizacion del Reciclado Celulosico (

When I asked him to tell about his challenges in the career, he said something quite interesting: "My restless and inquisitive character and my adventurous and risk-taken spirit led me to go ahead on projects that normally would be classified as with low chances for success. First, I dedicate myself to the chemistry of lignin, a rarity in Argentina in the 80's. After, at the industry, I had to help developing a mill that had as mission to produce cold soda pulp for white and printing papers. A challenge that was overcome by creativity, technology improvements and optimization. Soon after, I had to work to optimize production of one of the few paper mills in the world manufacturing neutral sulfite pulp of Eucalyptus to make noble quality white paper for printing. Also, the wet-end chemistry of the paper-machine always attracted me, as I always have been attracted by the chemical issues, such the production and applications of precipitated calcium carbonate, as example. Finally, as a teacher, I have dedicated my time on courses about chemical issues (pulping, bleaching and the wet-end of the paper-machine), something that delights me to do."

In the family, he and his wife Mrs. Anatolia Castillo Benitez, admire with pride the daughter Daniela growing as human being and studying medicine. Certainly, she will be far from the pulp and paper issues when working in her career, but much closer to people, as Alberto likes to do.

Alberto's main lines of technical activities in his work are related to:
• production of high-yield pulps by modern processes;
• production of chemical pulps: cooking, bleaching, washing, screening;
• uses of hydrogen peroxide in the pulp industry;
• pulp production using sugar cane bagasse as raw material;
• deinking and manufacture of recycled paper;
• optimization of the chemistry of the wet-end in the paper-machine;
• optimization of processes closures as related to water cycles;
• mass balances and process modelling;
• development of applications for alkaline lignins, lignosulfonates and hemicelluloses;
• applications for precipitated calcium carbonate;
• applications for additives and adhesives based on starch in the manufacture of corrugated cardboard;
• environmental audits;
• studies for the recycling of specialty papers, which show difficulties to have the fibers individualized.

Finally, when I asked about his career next steps and future plans, he replied:
"My work along my career in the pulp and paper sector has brought me many satisfactions. First, for helping to develop this industry in my country and for allowing me to be constantly learning and using this new knowledge in my career and also being able to transfer what I'm learning to my students. However, what I most value is the fact that my career allowed me to meet so many friendly people spread over many regions of the world. I hope the future allows me to continue finding friends and people, and to contribute to the generation and improvement of more sustainable pulp and paper technologies. Under the scope of a technical dream, I would like to see and to help the installation of a modern high-yield bleached pulp mill in my country, using Eucalyptus as raw material."

To know more about Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica's career, please, visit his curriculum vitae and browse the selection of technical articles, speeches and courses that we have brought to you:

Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica - A brief curriculum vitae.
Adobe pdf file. 05 pp. (2009)
(in Spanish)

Quimica del extremo humedo: carbonato de calcio. M.C. Area; A.D. Venica. Mari Papel+Corrugados. Accessed on 01.12.2009. (in Spanish)

Course "Quimica del Extremo Humedo de la Maquina de Papel".
A.D. Venica course about the wet-end chemistry of the paper-machine. Several PowerPoint presentations. 27,4 MB. (Zip). (2009)
(in Spanish)

Cerramiento del sistema de agua. Utilizacion de herramientas de simulacion. A.D. Venica; E.R. Rebora. RIARREC/ABTCP Congress. 08 pp. (2009)
(in Spanish)

Water circuit closure simulation tools.
A.D. Venica; E.R. Rebora. RIARREC/ABTCP Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 12 slides. (2009)
(in English)

Diseno de experiencias en la optimizacion del blanqueo a escala industrial. M.C. Area; A.D. Venica. AFCP Argentina. 05 pp. (2009) (in Spanish)

ABSTRACT: Soda–AQ delignification of poplar wood. Part 1: Reaction mechanism and pulp properties.
A.D. Venica; C.-L. Chen; J.S. Gratzl. Holzforschung 62(6): 627-636. (2008) (in English)

ABSTRACT: Soda-AQ delignification of poplar wood. Part 2: Further degradation of initially dissolved lignins. A.D. Venica; C.-L. Chen; J.S. Gratzl. Holzforschung 62(6): 637-644. (2008) (in English)

Carbonato de calcio precipitado (PCC) como carga en la fabricacion del papel. A.D. Venica. RIADICYP Workshop - Girona and Terrassa. 09 pp. (2007) (in Spanish)

Alternativas de blanqueo de pulpas kraft de Eucalyptus spp. incorporando quelante fosfonado y enzimas.
A.D. Venica; F.E. Felissia; M.C.Area. III ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. (2007) (in Spanish)

Estudio comparativo de especies de Eucalyptus y su respuesta al pulpado NSSC. M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; J.E. Clermont; C.E. Nunez; A. Venica. III CIADICYP. 08 pp. (2004) (in Spanish) (PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides) (in Spanish)

Optimizacion de la carga de Na2SO3 y Na2CO3 en el proceso NSSC de Eucalyptus viminalis. M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; J.E. Clermont; A.D. Venica. II CIADICIP. 24 pp. (2002) (in Spanish) (PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides) (in Spanish)

Respuesta al blanqueo y al refino de pulpas NSSC de Eucalyptus viminalis y Eucalyptus grandis. M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; O.M. Barboza; D. Bengoechea; A.D. Venica. II CIADICYP. 10 pp. (2002) (in Spanish)

ABSTRACT: Grafting of NSSC lignosulfonates for cationic flocculating agents production
. M.C. Area; A.L. Sanchez; F.E. Felissia; A. Venica; J. Valade. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 36(1-2): 105-121. (2002) (in English)

NSSC process optimization: pulping, pulps and spent liquors.
M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; A. Venica; J.L. Valade. Tappi Journal 84(4). 13 pp. (2001) (in English)

Ultrafiltration of NSSC spent liquors, and their use as papermaking additives.
M. C. Area; F.E. Felissia; M.S. Martos; D. Bengoechea; A. D. Venica; J. L. Valade. Tappi Journal 84(6). 15 pp. (2001) (in English)

Upgrading spent liquors from NSSC process. III. Separation of spent liquor components by ultrafiltration. M.C. Area; M.S. Martos; F.E. Felissia; A.D. Venica; J.L. Valade. TAPPI Pulping Conference. 11 pp. (1999)
(in English)

Upgrading spent liquors from NSSC process. IV. Utilization of spent liquors as papermaking additives.
M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; D. Bengoechea; A.D. Venica; J.L. Valade. TAPPI Pulping Conference. 13 pp. (1999)
(in English)

Efectividad de diferentes pretratamientos en el blanqueo al peroxido de pulpas industriales.
O.M. Barboza; M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; A.D. Venica. I CIADICYP. 04 pp. (2000) (in Spanish) (Similar article with 16 pages, 33rd ABTCP/TAPPI Congress, 2000) (in Spanish)

Experiencia industrial en la produccion de pulpa semiquimica a la soda fria para papeles de impresion y escritura. A. Venica. I CIADICYP. 08 pp. (2000) (in Spanish)

Ultrafiltracion para la recuperacion de subproductos de los licores residuales del proceso NSSC. M.C. Area; M.S. Martos; F.E. Felissia; A. Venica; J. Valade. I CIADICYP. 04 pp. (2000) (in Spanish)

Upgrading spent liquors from NSSC process. Quality and quantity of organic components. M.C. Area; F. Felissia; C.E. Nunez; A. Venica; J. Valade. I CIADICYP. 05 pp. (2000) (in English)

Copolimerizacion graft de lignosulfonatos presentes en licores residuales del proceso NSSC. M.C.Area; A.L. Sanchez; F.E. Felissia; A. Venica; J. Valade. I CIADICYP. 04 pp. (2000) (in Spanish)

Utilizacion de componentes organicos de licores residuales NSSC como aditivos en la fabricacion de papeles y cartones. M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; A. Venica; J. Valade. I CIADICYP. 04 pp. (2000) (in Spanish)

ABSTRACT: Upgrading spent liquors from NSSC process. I. Identification and quantification of organic components. M.C. Area; F. Felissia; C.E. Nunez; A. Venica; J. Valade. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 34(1-2): 173-182. ( 2000) (in English)

ABSTRACT: Upgrading spent liquors from NSSC process. II. Lignosulfonates and hemicelluloses molecular weight distributions. M.C. Area; F. Felissia; A. Venica; J. Valade. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 34(5-6): 525-535. (2000) (in English)

NSSC process optimization: I. Pulps quality. M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; A.D. Venica; J.L. Valade. TAPPI Pulping Conference Proceedings. 11 pp. (1998)
(in English)

NSSC process optimization: II. Spent liquors.
M.C. Area; F.E. Felissia; A.D. Venica; J.L. Valade. TAPPI Pulping Conference Proceedings. 08 pp. (1998)
(in English)

ABSTRACT: Soda-AQ delignification of hardwoods: reactions, mechanisms, and dissolved lignin characteristics. A.D. Venica. Ph.D. Thesis. North Carolina State University. 137 pp. (1989)
(in English)

Caracterizacion de derivados de lignina: lignina kraft y lignosulfonatos. A. Venica; J. Gratz; C.-L. Chen. 16th Annual Congress. ABTCP. p. 415 - 429. (1983)
(in Spanish)

Recuperacion de lignosulfonatos de licores residuales NSSC de Eucalyptus
. E. Chimienti; A. Venica; A. Varela. 16th Annual Congress. ABTCP. p. 621 - 632. (1983)
(in Spanish)

ABSTRACT: Estudio de licores residuales de cocciones semiquimicas al sulfito neutro.
E.N. Chimienti; A.D. Venica. II Congreso Latinoamericano de Celulosa y Papel. (1981)
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(in Spanish)

Caracterizacion del tall oil de pinos misioneros. E.N. Chimienti; A.N. Varela; A.D. Venica. 2.84 MB (Zip). 05 pp. (Undated) (in Spanish)

I have a great admiration for the expertise, for the typically Argentinean push and for the human quality of this great developer of the pulp and paper production processes in South America. As far as the Eucalyptus, poplars, pines, sugar cane bagasse and secondary fibers are the main fibrous raw materials in Argentina, Dr. Alberto Venica is a great friend of all these fibers, knowing and understanding them as few are capable to do in the world paper industry. For this reason, I feel honored and privileged to have had the chance to tell you a little about the life of my friend and also a great "Friend of the Eucalyptus" and to share some of his technical published papers with the pulp and paper community.

Dear friend Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica, thanks very much for your friendship to the Eucalyptus and for all you have done and will continue doing for the pulp and paper sector in Latin America.

Online Technical References

Some More Historical and Classic Books about the Eucalyptus

The Eucalyptus trees began to call the attention of the world when Australia started being colonized by the British Empire. Therefore, it is common to find books edited at that early times related to botany, taxonomy and even the description of new expeditions to that continent, with many drawings showing details of the enchanted plants that settlers were seeing for the first time. The Eucalyptus flowers, smells, barks and tree formats dazzled the first settlers. In our new web mining for historical and classic books about the Eucalyptus, we present to you a few more masterpieces that are available in the web, some as public domain books. There are some cases you may find amazing drawings of plant parts of Eucalyptus and acacia (also native from Australia), whereas in past times (between 1815 to 1940) there were no digital cameras and even nice color pictures. So, I suggest you to have a look, and even to download some of these drawings for use on your computer, even if the illustrations are not necessarily from Eucalyptus. I'll mention along the text where these precious gems are available.

I'm also bringing to you in this section, two new books and one article that were recently placed online thanks to the partnership between Celsius Degree/IPEF/ABTCP, completing our collection of historical books written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. This service to Society was launched in the 23rd edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter.

Another reference book about the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil is the book written by our friends Admir Lopes Mora and Carlos Enrique Garcia, released in 2000 by SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. Now, thanks to an initiative by SBS/IPEF/Celsius Degree, with the support of the authors, it is being possible to release it for public access via web, through the websites of these three organizations.

Take your chance to download these important world classics on Eucalyptus and enjoy reading them. All I ask from you is patience for downloading the books, because files have become relatively heavy because scans were done for preserving the colors of the original documents. To prevent your impatience, we have added next to each book title the file size in MB. The files may be in PDF (Adobe Acrobat), WinZip, or available for reading online. The best way to open and save them, when possible, would be using the right button of your mouse and selecting the tool "Save target as ...". Through it, you can monitor the digital downloading of the file and its size in MB.

To all of our readers, who want to make use of these wonderful books, we wish a good reading. If you like them, please inform your friends to also take advantage of this wonderful historical and cultural database.

Historical and classic books about the Eucalyptus for downloading:

Forest trees of Australia.
D. J. Boland; M. I. H. Brooker; G. M. Chippendale; M. W. McDonald; N. Hall; B.P.M. Hyland; R.D. Johnston; D.A. Kleinig; M.W. McDonald; J.D. Turner. CSIRO. 736 pp. (2006)
(in English)

Eucalyptus: the genus Eucalyptus. J. Coppen. Barnes & Noble. 450 pp. (2002)
(in English)

A cultura do eucalipto no Brasil. (Eucalypt cultivation in Brazil).
A.L. Mora; C.H. Garcia. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 78.4 MB. 114 pp. (2000)
(in Portuguese and in English)

Diseases and pathogens of eucalypts.
Edited by P.J. Keane; G.A. Kile; F.D. Podger; B.N. Brown. CSIRO. 565 pp. (2000)
(in English)

Australia: 300 years of botanical illustration. H. Hewson. CSIRO. 240 pp. (1999) (A book demo) (in English) (Book review by the Annals of Botany magazine) (in English)

Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems.
Edited by J.E. Williams, J. Woinarski. Cambridge University Press. 430 pp. (1997)
(in English)

Impacto ambiental do eucalipto (Environmental impacts of the Eucalyptus).
W.P. Lima. 2nd Edition. 301 pp. (1993)
(in Portuguese)

Os eucaliptos no Brasil (The Eucalyptus in Brazil)
. Armando Navarro Sampaio. 06 pp. (1975) - (No reference of source)
(in Portuguese)

Instruccoes para a cultura do eucalypto (Instructions for the Eucalypti cultivation). E.N. Andrade. 2nd Edition. Paulista Railroads Co. 64 pp. 23.1 MB. (1937)
(in Portuguese)

Instruccoes para a cultura dos eucalyptos (Instructions for the Eucalypti cultivation). Luiz Simoes Lopes. Brazilian Forest Service. Bulletin nº 01. 23.3 MB. 60 pp. (1929)
(in Portuguese)

O eucalypto e suas aplicacoes (The Eucalyptus and its applications)
. E.N. Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 161 pp. 53.7 MB. (1928)
(in Portuguese)

A handbook for Eucalyptus planters.
California State Board of Forestry. 3.5 MB. 50 pp. (1908) (in English) (Online reading) (in English)

The useful native trees of Australia (including Tasmania). J. H. Maiden. 31 MB. 718 pp. (1889)
(in English)

Eucalyptographia - A descriptive atlas of the Eucalyptus of Australia and the adjoining islands.
Baron Ferdinand von Mueller. 63.9 MB. 496 pp. (1879-1884)
Find in this book the gems on descriptions and illustrations of Eucalyptus species, made by great botanist Ferdinand von Mueller.
(in English)

The botanical register: consisting of coloured figures of exotic plants cultivated in British gardens. S.T. Edwards; J. Lindley. There is a book collection under this title published by the authors from 1815 to 1840. It consists of a richly illustrated botanical collection. Watch and take advantage of the plant color drawings, they definitely symbolize an amazing art to envy the current digital cameras. Unfortunately, the volumes we have today available on the web do not include the Eucalyptus, but we will keep monitoring to be able to offer this privilege to you, as soon as some becomes available. (About the Botanical Register) (in English) (Volume 01 - 1815 - 291 pp. - 24 MB - There is the need to register for log in and download - There are no illustrations of Eucalyptus plants in this volume, but in case you like plants and arts, it pays to know this masterpiece book) (in English)

Illustrations of Botany. Captain Cook's voyage round the world. Part 1: Australian plants. J. Banks; D. Solander; J. Britten. 136 pp. 11.9 MB. (1900) (Unfortunately, we also do not find Eucalyptus illustrations in this book; however, you are to find several representing the Acacia genus) (in English)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers. We should also highlight the increasing availability of academic materials placed in a public way by many university professors, who offer their teaching hand-outs and classes materials for using by stakeholders of the society via the web. On some of our newsletters issues, we are to provide references of these types of courses, as well.

We hope you may enjoy our selection of events and courses presented in this edition:

International Workshop about Eco-Labelling. SECEX/MDIC/PNUMA/MMA.
(in Portuguese)
Event organized by Brazilian government entities in partnership with other organizations, involving: SECEX - Secretary of Foreign Trade; MDIC - Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade; UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme; and MMA - Ministry of Environment . The objective of the workshop was to bring awareness to government officials, private sector and civil society about the importance of environmental labeling as a market instrument to increase the competitiveness of country and Mercosul products in the world's most demanding markets, such as the case of the European markets. (About the event and purposes) (Speeches) (Celso Foelkel's speech about eco-labelling opportunities and sustainability to the Brazilian pulp and paper sector)

"Feira da Floresta" - "Forest Exhibit" - AGEFLOR - Rio Grande do Sul Association of Forest Companies. (in Portuguese)
Our partner AGEFLOR proved highly able to organize a magnificent 4-day forest event in April 2009 at Gramado/RS, which received over 4,000 visitors. Together with an innovative & interactive exhibit to communicate more about the forest-based segment to society, AGEFLOR also organized the International Forum on Forest Business, with lectures by renowned experts and executives from the forest sector selected in several South American countries. To my dear friends of AGEFLOR and top Friends of the Forests (Roque Justen, Leonel Menezes, Nilvia Rohrig and Jose Lauro Quadros * - *In Memoriam), congratulations for the success and courage for holding this event soon after a significant global economic crisis without frontiers. AGEFLOR friends are already mobilizing for a new edition of the event in 2010. Know more about the "Forest Exhibit" and some of the speeches presented at the international forum just navigating in the suggested links below: (About the 2009 Forest Exhibit) (Forest Exhibit, planned to 2010) (Speech by Mr. Carlos Faroppa about the forest sector in Uruguay) (Speech by Mr. Jose Eduardo Saiz about the forest sector in Argentina) (Speech by Mr. Rafael Carlstein about the forest sector in Paraguay) (Speech by Mr. Fernando Henrique Fonseca about the forest sector in Brazil - ABRAF's challenges) (Speech by Mr. Ilvandro de Melo about mate cultivation - llex paraguariensis - in Rio Grande do Sul) (Speech by Mr. Elir Girardi about the forest productive chain in Rio Grande do Sul)ço_2009.pdf (Speech by Mr. Joao Borges about the Brazilian pulp and paper sector) (Other speeches)

2009 ANAVE Forum. (in Portuguese)
Once more, ANAVE organized in Sao Paulo its annual forum, with the traditional success of previous editions. To my friends Theo Borges, Mauricio Porto and Jahir de Castro, to the board of ANAVE, our respects for the continued demonstration of quality with these events on the pulp and paper chain. Look at some of the speeches at: (ANAVE website - National Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivatives Salespersons ) (Speeches of the 2009 Forum )

IPEF - 9th Meeting for Updating Eucalyptus Cultivation Practices. (in Portuguese)
Excellent event about Eucalyptus forestry, periodically organized by our partner IPEF - Institute of Forest Research and Studies. The event took place in the Experimental Forest Station at Itatinga, SP, ESALQ/USP, in 2009. Definitely, a fabulous course on modern technologies applied to forest plantations. See some of the lectures made available to the general public for several of the presenters through an act of citizenship from IPEF. Congratulations to IPEF and to Dr. Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo by the wise decision to disclose IPEF material events for the continuous improvements of the Brazilian forest sector and the appropriate action for clarification the doubts about forestry coming from important stakeholders. (Event program and speeches)

Updating Week for Agricultural and Forestry Technicians - SIF - Society of Forest Research. (in Portuguese)
Excellent event with issues related to Eucalyptus silviculture, organized and promoted by my friends of SIF, Vicosa, in August 2009. Our congratulations to the speakers and to the organizing team led by our dear friend Dr. Ismael Eleoterio Pires and also the executive coordination with Nilson Carvalho, Adham Bezerra, Kellen and Aline Oliveira Trindade. Access the lectures at: (Speeches)

SEMUflor - Brazilian Symposium on Forest Seeds and Seedlings. (in Portuguese)
The Brazilian Symposium on Forest Seeds and Seedlings occurred in 2008 in Curitiba/PR in order to present and discuss standards and levels of quality for the production and marketing of forest seeds and seedlings. The other purpose was to qualify the participants and to provide input and technical parameters to the agro-business sector. (Speeches and short-courses - Be patient, because some of the files are very heavy)

II International Symposium on Watershed Management.
(in Portuguese)
This event was geared towards water sustainability and mitigation of global warming effects, through the proper management of micro-watersheds. The event had as speakers qualified lecturers from the College of Agronomic Sciences, UNESP - Botucatu, and several international experts from Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Costa Rica, Cuba, etc. It took place in Botucatu, in 2007, with overall coordination by Prof. Dr. Valdemir Antonio Rodrigues. Access more information about the event, lectures and articles in: (Event website) (Articles and speeches - Be patient, because some of the files are very heavy)

Seminar on Wet-End of the Paper Machine - Girona and Terrassa Workshop- RIADICYP.
(in Spanish)
Great event on the manufacture of paper, wet-end section of the paper-machine, organized by RIADICYP, Polytechnic University of Catalunia and the University of Girona. It took place in 2007 in Spain. For those who would like a good textbook on the different aspects of the formation and consolidation of the paper web, it is suggested to download all the files and to make up a good collection of texts written by renowned Iberian and Latin American experts on these issues. (Speeches and technical texts)

"Paper Physics Fundamentals" Course - Dr. Paul "Dan" Fleming. (in English)
To all those who would like to find a course about the fundamentals of paper physics, do not waste time, visit the six chapters that Dr. Paul "Dan" Fleming, Western Michigan State University, makes available on his personal website at that university. This is the technical material presented in the course PAPR_305 - within the paper engineering career, at WMU in Kalamazoo/MI. (About the traditional career on pulp and paper engineering at WMU) (About Paul "Dan" Fleming) (Dr. Fleming's courses) (Hand-outs of the Paper Physics course)

Prices of Forest Products

A very common question coming from those who are interested in planting forests or sell forest products is to know market prices of these products. In general, these stakeholders are ordinary people seeking information on the web about current prices and markets for such products. If they obtain the data that are in need, they can better plan their businesses, establish cash flows more precisely and optimize their results. Unfortunately, the web does not have too many places to visit for grabbing such information. In general, these data are obtained through charged services from specialized consulting companies, which are even salty priced for ordinary citizens, among them small and medium land-owners, students, teachers, scholars, journalists, etc.

Faced with these difficulties, I decided to mine what could be provided free-of-charge in the web, thus meeting an ever-present demand of those who visit our two websites and As a result, stakeholders may find updated prices of forest products sourced from plantation forests of pine and Eucalyptus for some regions of Brazil and the world, such as firewood, lumber, pulp and paper, panels, etc. We are offering a selection of recommended websites to be visited. Perhaps in some of them, you may find the answers to your questions about prices of forest products. If they are still not sufficient for your purposes, please, get in touch with industry associations. Maybe they can offer some recent reports that generally they publish about the industrial

AFCP Argentina - Pulp and Paper Association - Argentina. (in Spanish)
AFCP Argentina has pledged to be a good and reliable source of relevant information to its members and readers of the newsletters it delivers. The opening page of AFCP Argentina website brings together the most current statistics and news, the prices of most frequent pulp and paper products. (Website)

CEPEA - Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics. ESALQ/USP. (in Portuguese)
About one hundred CEPEA Information Bulletin in Forest Economics have been edited by the esteemed professor Dr. Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha and his team. Without any doubt, they are some of the best sources of information on forest products price indicators, today available in the web. Released monthly, the website has some recent editions of these bulletins, but there are even older ones that may be provided on request to those who wish to build historical trends about prices. The website also provides articles, lectures and events, from which we selected a very interesting speech about the evolution of wood prices in Brazil, presented by Dr. Carlos Bacha at the 2009 CEPEA Seminar titled "Economic Perspectives and Agricultural Activity Techniques with Environmental Adjustments". (About forest economy at CEPEA) (Articles about saw-timber prices) (Speech by Dr. Carlos Bacha about "Activities of plantation forestry in Brazil, the main established markets and prices of the wood")

CIFlorestas - Intelligence Center on Forestry
. (in Portuguese)
The mission of the Intelligence Center in Forestry, a kind of excellence pole on forestry for the state of Minas Gerais, is to centralize and disseminate knowledge and market information about the forest-based sector in Brazil, to generate wealth in a sustainable and renewable way for current and future generations, becoming a national reference center in knowledge, technology, innovation and forestry business. (Website) (Forest products prices in several regions of Minas Gerais state) (Land prices for plantation forests in several Brazilian states)

Forestal Web - Forest Information from Uruguay. (in Spanish)
The well-informative webpage on forestry developed by our friend Javier Barboza offers updated price quotations of the main products of the pulp and paper sector. (Website) (Pulp and paper products price lists)

INTA - Experimental Station of Concordia - National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Technology. (in Spanish)
The Experimental Station of Concordia, at the province of Entre-Rios, Argentina, presents Excel spreadsheets with the prices of many forest products in the region. (Forest products prices spreadsheets)

IPEF - Institute of Forest Research and Studies
. (in Portuguese)
IPEF has a great webpage showing historical prices of many industrial products made from wood, such as pulp, paper, plywood, lumber, etc.

CeluloseOnline Portal. (in Portuguese)
Among the many services provided to Society, the portal CeluloseOnline, owned by our dear friend Jose Tadeu dos Santos, brings updated quotation prices of pulp and paper products.

Silviconsult Radar. (in Portuguese)
Silviconsult Radar is edited and published by the consulting firm Silviconsult, directed by our friend Jefferson Bueno Mendes. Radar presents data on markets, costs and prices of various forest products. Although this product is not open and free to public, the Silviconsult website offers a demo copy that provides to the readers an idea about what they may find if they are Radar subscribers. (About the Radar Silviconsult) (Demo copy of Radar) (Speech by Mr. Jefferson Mendes about the "Evolution of Eucalyptus and Pinus wood prices in Brazil", at the Madeira 2008 Conference)

O Papel Magazine - Price indicators. (in Portuguese)
O Papel, the monthly journal of ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, has now an electronic version at a captive website. One of the magazine purposes is to offer an updated section about pulp and paper product prices, both at domestic and global markets. (Price indicators) (Monthly information on prices) (An example of the price indicator bulletin, written by Dr. Carlos Caetano Bacha and team, from CEPEA/ESALQ/USP to ABTCP)

SISFLOR - Forest Information System for the State of Sao Paulo.
(in Portuguese)
SISFLOR is a free forest information service offered by Florestar Sao Paulo and Sao Paulo State Forestry Foundation. The SISFLOR provides an enormous amount of information, among which the current prices of timber from plantation forest origin in Sao Paulo (Data on wood prices) (Florestar Estatistico magazine, with data on wood prices, markets and statistics)

Wood Resources International. (in English)
WRI has a great tradition of high quality information services about market trends and prices of forest products. It features several presentations on its website and offers some free information, simply register to subscribe. (Website) ("Wood Resources Quarterly" information bulletin) ("Market Briefs" information bulletin) (Speeches about forest products markets, most of them presented by our friends Hakam Ekstrom and/or Bob Flynn)

Costs of Forest Operations with Eucalyptus

There are no doubts about the level of technological development achieved by Brazil in regard to forest plantations of Eucalyptus trees. Through enormous research efforts and intense development of academic knowledge and technological innovations, the forestry companies in Brazil can reach the leading forest yields in the planet, thanks to the Eucalyptus plantation forests. Forest yields varies in general from 45 to 60 m³/ha.year, and the average of the country is slightly close to 40. The forest breeding researches and the improvements of silvicultural practices made possible to have near ideal operations for seedling production, soil preparation, control of pathogens, nutrition and fertilization, control of weed competition, prevention of forest fires, etc., etc. Advances in forest breeding, cloning and designed clones (being more productive and adapted to the climate, soil and water availability), allowed Brazilians to reach these forest productivity records.

However, all this has a cost. For maximum yield, the forester must provide to the plantations what they need to grow and to form quality wood. Without the adoption of these optimized operations (and to pay for them), certainly the production or growth rates may not be reached or even touched. It is not enough to plant seedlings of excellent genetic quality without adequate preparation of the soil, mineral fertilization, control of weed competition and pathogens, etc. Nor does the opposite - no chance of success in case of poor genetic material, and excellent forest fertilization, irrigation, pest and diseases control, etc. Yields are to be poor in both situations.

So, my friends, if some of you believe that the Eucalyptus is a magic tree, you are right about this: it has a magical potential to grow. However, Eucalyptus is not miraculous. This potential needs our help (with good forestry operations) to be converted into forest productivity and high-quality wood production at the end of the rotation. In other words, we must invest in forest operations to achieve greater revenues at the end of the rotation, when the productive forest will be harvested supplying timber of suitable quality for selected markets (at an appropriate price). Therefore, those who want to invest in forestry activity, as a productive and profitable business, must have optimized technologies and to apply them, paying the costs that they worth.

Today in Brazil, to plant and manage a plantation forest of Eucalyptus, from soil preparation to harvest, the forester needs to invest about 3,000 to 3,500 Brazilian reais per hectare (1,700 to 2,100 U.S. dollars), without counting the land acquisition value and also the so-called "land rental costs". The most significant costs on establishing a new plantation are: high-quality seedlings, soil preparation, control to prevent weed competition; chemical fertilization; fighting pests (ants, etc.) and irrigation plus application of hydrogel at planting (when required). In special situations, when rural farmers are using their own resources of skilled labor and agricultural machinery, they are able to reduce these costs to about 2,000 Brazilian reais per hectare (about 1,200 dollars), with expected average productivity of 35 to 40 m³/ha.year.

To allow you to better know about the composition of these costs, we are offering a selection of websites that bring careful descriptions of the operating costs for planting Eucalyptus forests. There are not too many sources, but they will serve as a reference for your understanding of the composition of these costs and how to optimize them.

Check what we are bringing for your browsing; however, try to understand the premises for each of these operational costs spreadsheets.

CEDAGRO - Center for the Development of the Agribusiness.
(in Portuguese)
The Center for the Development of the Agribusiness - CEDAGRO - is located in Vitoria - ES. Its main purpose is the protection, promotion and strengthening of the agribusiness in the state of Espirito Santo. It has several companies and associations as members, among which forest-based companies operating in the region. CEDAGRO has an excellent bibliography available on its website, such what they call technical coefficients (for costs and productivity) covering different crops, also for the Eucalyptus and Pinus. In the case of Eucalyptus, CEDAGRO has spreadsheets that apply to different soil conditions and topography, the type of forest technology applied, etc. (Website) (Land value at Espirito Santo state) (Technical coefficients for several crops) (Spreadsheet 01 for Eucalyptus) (Spreadsheet 02 for Eucalyptus) (Spreadsheet 03 for Eucalyptus) (Spreadsheet 04 for Eucalyptus)

CIFlorestas - Intelligence Center on Forestry.
(in Portuguese)
The Intelligence Center on Forestry for the state of Minas Gerais also offers a section on its website with links to studies on the costs of forest operations. Some of them we have already indicated to you, such as those from CEDAGRO, but other are equally interesting. Visit: (Forest operations costs in Minas Gerais state) (Silvicultural costs of Eucalyptus forests planted in family farms - Embrapa Florestas spreadsheets) (Forest operations costs in Goias state. 2002) (Forest operations costs in Sao Paulo state. 2002)

Embrapa Florestas. (in Portuguese)
Among the countless forest documents on Eucalyptus, Embrapa Florestas offers in its website, there are some indicating forest costs. We have selected some of them for your knowledge.
(Excellent online publication from Embrapa Florestas, emphasizing the cultivation of Eucalyptus at different technical approaches, including technical coefficients, costs, return on investments, etc.) (Article "Custos florestais de producao: conceituacao e aplicacao - Production forest costs" by L.R. Graca; H.R. Rodigheri; A.J. Conto. Documentos series, 32 pp., 2000) (Article "Indicadores de custos, produtividade, renda e creditos de carbono de plantios de eucaliptos e Pinus em pequenas propriedades rurais - Indicators for forest costs, productivity and incomes" by H.R. Rodigheri. L.R. Graca; M.A. Lima. Technical Informative 136, 08 pp., 2005)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
(by Ester Foelkel)

In this edition: Eucalyptus Wood Flooring

The Eucalyptus are known as fast-growing trees, which allow us to plant them in economic and sustainable forests. These forests are also environmentally certified in many parts of the world. Eucalyptus woods from planted forests are supplying numerous demands from Human Society; thus they also allow the natural forests and ecosystems preservation. The environmental and economic advantages are increasing the Eucalyptus wood utilization for housing, inclusively for flooring, replacing noble wood that are every day more scarce. In Brazil, Eucalyptus wood is replacing native origin woods, such ipe (Tabebuia spp), angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium spp.), sucupira (Bowdichia nitida), muiracatiara (Astronium spp.), among others. Some of these noble native woods may even have origin from illegal logging of Brazilian natural forests (Iwakiri et al., 2009).

The fast-growing plantation woods have recently surpassed the noble hardwood for flooring production, mainly because raw material availability, short rotation and early harvesting of the planted forests, and for their multiple-uses. All these factors help to make these materials more competitive in domestic and international markets. They can also offer higher processing yields and better final product qualities because of wood uniformity.

The planted forest certified wooden floors are considered to be environmentally friendly, and are preferred on imports by many countries, like USA and several green countries in Europe. In many cases, certified woods become a consumer market strong requirement. Eucalyptus wood floors also help to add product value, especially when forests are well-managed and certified (eco-labelled). In such cases, the wood is considered a renewable and environmentally friendly resource, ensuring also its subsequent use for other purposes after disposal (recyclability), as biomass fuel, handicrafts, etc. When planted forest wood floors are compared to synthetic carpets and ceramic tiles (produced from non-renewable resources) they are considered much more viable and sustainable. As an example, in a study comparing the wood flooring and synthetic carpet energy demands for production, Iwakiri et al. (2009) found that the wood floors required 0.85 megawatts per ton of floor against 3.59 MW/ton of carpet. This indicates the lower energy needs for the wooden flooring manufacture.

There are different types of wooden floors and many of them can be manufactured from Eucalyptus wood. They can be made with solid wood, with wood panels, or even with papers made from Eucalyptus kraft pulp (bleached or unbleached).

Here are the main Eucalyptus flooring types available on markets today:

Solid flooring: they are the most traditional and conventional, made entirely of solid wood, sized as very small or large lumbers/boards. Woods need to be hard and noble, with rich designs and beauty. The solid flooring can be manufactured from large boards to small parquets, using the remains of the first in making the second (Revista da Madeira, 2005).

Most of these floors are suitable for social housing areas. The under-floor needs to be sealed (impermeable) to prevent warping/curling of the wood boards. The installation can be done through screwing the lumber directly to the under-floor pavement. The screws are hidden by dimples/caps made from the same wood, prior to the floor finishing stage. The floor is then polished, receiving application of wax or other synthetic and glossy resin for protection (Revista da Madeira, 2005). There are those who maintain the hardwood floor floating or suspended without entering in contact with the ground, leaving a "breathing" area. This prevents wood from decaying or warping. A quite common type of solid wood floors are the pre-made parquets, which have a format similar to a small and thin parallelepiped block (120 x 20/24 x 8 mm), grouped into panels by overlapped and glued plates, using a thermoplastic network to keep then together. Two days before the installation, the parquets should be placed in contact with the surface where they will be installed, but they should not be submitted to inappropriate environmental conditions, such excess of moisture or high temperature. The ideal relative humidity for parquets is around 65%. For the gluing operation, it’s suggested to start the installation by the center of the room, being recommended that the parquets do not touch the walls. The space between wall and parquets is established according with the size of the area being floored. After gluing, the next stages are polishing procedures and the varnish/resin application (Triangulo, 2009).

Engineered or structured flooring:
engineered floors are considered the most recent technology for high-quality and sustainable wooden floors manufacturing. They are made of a thin high-quality and high-priced layer of a polished noble wood applied with glue over a solid wooden panel, such HDF (high density fiberboard) or MDF (medium density fiberboard). The base (substrate) of this flooring type doesn’t need to be natural wood, so the final product price will be reduced. There are cases where the wood panel is replaced by plywood, as the substrate in the engineered flooring. The manufacture of this floor generates wood residues, but these wastes are reused in the manufacture of the wood panels (reconstituted wood). This is another environmental advantage in relation to the noble solid hardwood flooring. The engineered floors (structured) have excellent dimensional stability. This property is enhanced by the different sizes and arrangements of the layers of glue and wood (Iwakiri et al., 2009). Another advantage is the fit/joint arrangement in the longitudinal and transverse sides, which guarantees this superior dimensional stability. In some cases, engineered floors are also designed as wood carpets, which can be found on the market in various designs, sizes and formats. According to Revista da Madeira (2005), engineered floors have natural noble wood layers applied on the top of a substrate of plywood or fiberboard. In these cases, the male-female joints help ensure stability of the whole, making it easier to install as far as the ground (cement type) be properly on level and sealed (impermeable).

To manufacture the structured floors, the noble tree logs, after debarking, are submitted to softening treatments to make easier the veneering, cutting or sawing the high-quality pieces. After, they receive pest control preventive treatments before gluing and pressing. The hardwood noble layer is glued on the top of a lower quality wooden board or on a high-quality wood panel (HDF, MDF or plywood). Next, it starts the finishing process, where the boards are sanded and polished, followed by an application of the sealer and the varnish/resin for high gloss and resistance to abrasion/wear. There are several types of floor structure that differ in the thickness of the noble wood top layer. They’re also different according to the way they are taken from the logs, glued and pressed. We have the engineered floor called "sliced", where the top wood blade or layer is sliced, and after, glued; the "veneered" engineered floor, where the wood blade of the hardwood is "peeled" from the log and glued to the substrate; and the "structured" solid floors, consisting in a thicker blade (as small boards) showing a structure similar to a parquet floor.

The engineered floor bottom parts usually have low cost because they are made from wood panels (reconstituted wood). Only the cover (wooden blade) uses the noble and beautiful native woods. So, we can save using less of this material, designed only to the noblest part of the floor. According to IPEF (2005), the planted forest woods (Eucalyptus and Pinus) used for flooring manufacture resulted on 70% savings of native timber, increasing the rational use of the country natural resources.

High-pressure laminate flooring: they are made from papers impregnated with resins (phenolic and/or melaminic) pressed at high pressure and temperature, resulting in a single body ("formica"). This type of flooring is glued directly on the prepared base with some special adhesive. Two types of papers that have Eucalyptus fibers in the composition can be used: the unbleached base paper for phenolic resin impregnation (unbleached base paper) and the top decorative or decor paper (white or colored paper printed with designs of wood, stones, etc. and also impregnated with resins). The success of these floors is due to the resins, which give strength and gloss.

High-strength laminate flooring: as substrate, they have a fiberboard (HDF or MDF) that is covered on its surface with printed decorative paper protected with resins. These floors have the same properties and characteristics of high pressure laminate flooring, but are applied over the cement floor without gluing, like a rug (Eucatex, 2009).

As we have seen, the Eucalyptus woods can be used for the production of solid flooring, as well as being used as raw materials for manufacturing structured/engineered and laminate floors. These floors have strengths, physical and mechanical properties similar to those made from native woods.

When the floors show the Eucalyptus woods on the surface, they may have different colors and also very attractive designs, which can range from brown to reddish-pink, according to the selected Eucalyptus species. This allows more choice options to consumers, who are increasingly demanding high-quality products, combining economy and environmental sustainability. In terms of consumer warranty, the engineered floors made with Eucalyptus have similar durability to the others manufactured with noble hardwoods. There are even some manufacturers that offer 25 years structural guarantee to their products (Eucalypt Floor, 2009).

Iwakiri et al. (2009) tested the physical and mechanical properties of engineered floors made from Eucalyptus grandis, Corymbia maculata (cover, back cover and inner parts) and Pinus taeda (inner parts). The authors observed that the eucalypt species woods were more suitable for the purpose than the tested pinewood, because they had better resistance to compression and tensile strength. Moreover, comparing the Eucalyptus floors with the pine one, the authors noted a significant reduction in the dimensions (thickness) of pine plywoods, explained by the lower pine wood density, what results in lower resistance to compression during production.

Santos (2009) studied the properties of wood flooring produced from two Eucalyptus clones coming from small diameter logs. The author performed several studies evaluating the mechanical properties, processing operations, drying and simulations for utilization's. The results for the tests indicated that the clone MN249 had less deformation capacity, being considered the one giving best properties to resist friction in the floors.

Padilha et al. (2006) compared the physical and mechanical properties of seven Eucalyptus urophylla clones for flooring purposes. Simulations for performance uses and friction tests were done for this evaluation. Although all samples have been classified as suitable, significant differences among clones were found, except for the test with the steel ball. Clones RB59, RB121 and VM1 were those proved to have better responses on the steel ball impact tests, rolling stresses, static and dynamic friction, among others.

Silva and Bittencourt (2002) compared the physical and mechanical characteristics of three fibrous materials (Eucalyptus, bamboo and jatoba wood) for wood flooring manufacture. The results for abrasion tests showed that the type A bamboo and the Eucalyptus were more suitable than jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa) for this function.

The “Minas faz Ciencia” magazine (2009) reported that Professor Jose Reinaldo Moreira da Silva (UFLA -Federal University of Lavras) and his team have been researching some Eucalyptus species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus microcorys and Corymbia maculata for alternative purposes. From all these studies, the authors referred to the use of these woods for floors as one of the most important and potential. They applied simulation tests for wear and product performances (dropping and dragging objects, trampling, heeling and friction wear by rough surfaces), etc. The results showed similarity or even superiority for the Eucalyptus floors compared to various other wooden floors already available on markets, including one famous and called "ivory wooden floor” ("pau marfim" floor). The several tests proved the good resistance of the Eucalyptus wood, performing as well as the most famous Brazilian hardwoods for flooring purposes.

The wooden floors containing Eucalyptus woods and/or papers, besides their beauty, strengths and performances, offer to the consumers many choices of colors and designs. They are even easier to be installed (another plus point in terms of labor force spending and time). They also provide environmental and economic advantages, with prices similar or lower than the floors made from native hardwoods. These facts enhance the Brazilian engineered and laminate flooring markets, which have the Eucalyptus reconstituted woods as the main raw materials.

The manufacturing process technologies for hardwood flooring, wood panels and decor papers in Brazil have grown significantly in quality and quantities. There are companies in the state-of-the-art technologies, fortunately having the Eucalyptus as raw materials for these production processes.

Check just below some technical articles and websites about Eucalyptus floors we have selected for your reading. You can also find information on production facilities and special care with these floors, plus photos to illustrate the Eucalyptus wood flooring visual, beauty and some indoor looks. The commercial websites indications should not be considered as suggestions for making business. They are shown as indications for the availability of knowledge and technologies.

Please, have a look to our suggested literature:

Pisos, tacos, habitacoes. Brazilian Technical Standards. Accessed on 07.12.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pisos laminados. Duratex Durafloor. Accessed on 24.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pisos laminados. Eucatex. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in Portuguese) (Installation guide for Eucafloor)

Eucalyptus flooring. House-Energy. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in English)

Exotic hardwood flooring. Expama. Accessedon 23.11.2009. (in English)

Pisos estruturados engenheirados de madeira. Ultrapisos. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Tipos de madeiras.
Eucalipto. RECOMA. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in Portuguese) (Several types of woods) (Recommendations for wood flooring)

Cada taco no seu lugar. U. Leal. Technologies for Building Construction. Technical Texts. USP. 03 pp. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Wood flooring species. County Floors. Accessed on 23.11.2009. (in English)

Madeira. Pisos de Madeira. PowerPoint presentation: 71 slides. Academic hand-outs. PUC/RS. Accessed on 20.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pisos de madera. Rosario Pisos. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pavimentos. Parquetes. Sardinha & Leite S.A. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Os pisos laminados e os assoalhos. Faz Facil Pisos. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese) (Flooring) (Laminate flooring)

Assoalhos tradicionais. Produtos. Madel. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pesquisas identificam novos usos para a madeira de eucalipto. Minas faz Ciencia. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Piso em madeira. Triangulo Pisos. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in Portuguese)

Wood flooring from rapidly-renewable species. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in English)

How to build a hardwood floor this weekend. J.Truini. Popular Mechanics. Accessed on 03.11.2009. (in English)

Universidade pesquisa ampliacao de uso de eucalipto na construcao e artesanato. L. P. Roque. Revista Sustentabilidade. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Madeira de eucalipto e alternativa para piso engenheirado. S. Iwakiri; A. B. M. Stinghen; E. L. S. Nunes; E. H. C. Zamarian; M. K. O. Adriazola. Revista da Madeira 112. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao da madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para a producao de piso a partir de toras de pequeno diametro. I. S. Santos. Master Dissertation. UFLA. 77 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Ensaios de simulacao de uso em piso de Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus microcorys e Corymbia maculata. M. Martins. Master Dissertation. UFLA. 57 pp. (2008)

Avaliacao da qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla para utilizacao em pisos. C. Padilha; J. T. Lima; J. R. M. Silva; P. F. Trugilho; H. B. Andrade. Scientia Forestalis 71: 141-147. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Industrializacao viabiliza custo da madeira. Revista da Madeira 91. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo do desgaste a abrasao do eucalipto, madeira laminada e bambu gigante laminado utilizados como elemento de piso. F. D. da Silva; R. M. Bittencourt. VIII Brazilian Meeting on Wood and Wooden Structures. Uberlandia. 10 pp. (2002)
(in Portuguese)

Projeto de pesquisa estuda a utilizacao da madeira de eucalipto em "engineered wood floor". IPEF Noticias Nº 157. p. 01. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus wood flooring images:

Google Imagens:
(Eucalyptus flooring) (Eucalyptus flooring)

FSC solid Eucalyptus flooring:

Interior work:

Solid wood Eucalyptus flooring:

Eucalyptus flooring pics:

European Eucalyptus flooring:

Scandian wood floors - Photo gallery:

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

Eucalyptus Plantations and Genetically Modified Trees

In the past and recent decades, biotechnology has been one of the sciences with faster development and growth in applications. There are great varieties of biotechnological creations, especially in medicine, agriculture and livestock production, industrialization of food, industrial process technologies, waste treatment, etc. Also in forestry, biotechnology has shown important advances. We may find several useful applications of biotechnology for the improvement of forests: cloning techniques, tissue culture, plant resistance to diseases and insect pests, development of plants adapted to stress situations, genomics, genetic engineering (transgene), etc. Thanks to some powerful new biotechnological tools in forestry, there are advances in plant breeding for growing forests more productive, healthier and better adapted to marginal conditions (nutrient-poor soils, saline soils, water shortage conditions, etc.). Also, the forest biotechnology offers opportunities for recovery and preservation of endangered species, allowing their propagation, adaptation and conservation. As a conclusion, there are no doubts that the opportunities offered by forest biotechnology are numerous. It is possible to speed up forest breeding programs and to allow things to happen in ways that Nature itself would take forever to do, or even have not the ability to do. Maybe, for this last mentioned point is that the perception of Society is still wary of some of the biotechnology tools, for example, in relation to genetic engineering. The manipulation of genes (transfer and modification of organisms) has been seen by most environmental NGOs as something threatening, risky and with many unknowns and question-marks. Thus, as a precaution measure or philosophical ideology, they oppose to and defend these contrary viewpoints with passion. They argue that the strong changes caused by man on the natural succession of things would be something like "playing God" [], by changing the way of Nature rules. However, under this logic, one can say that for years the man has affected strongly the laws of Nature, by creating synthetic molecules unknown by mother Nature, or advancing the length of people's lives by offering new ways to treat diseases, including the regeneration of organs via stem cells, etc., etc.

These concerns and care are also shared by scientists seeking to develop mechanisms for biosafety and responsible use of biotechnology. Doing this, they are hoping to minimize the risks and concerns and receiving the expected benefits. However, doubts are still many within the Society, and the scientists and technicians of the sector are been too little skilled in clarifying the interested parties on these questions. Among the major concerns of the Society, there are those involving experiments with gene transfer and organism genome modifications, which are known as genetic modification or genetic engineering []. This is because they can generate genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which had changes in their genes by human action. Even if we have something quite likely to occur in Nature, such as transferring a gene from one tree to another plant of the same species, provided this is done through genetic engineering, we are creating a GMO - genetically modified organism. Those who are not so familiar to the subject could ask: why to do so, as far Nature could take care of doing it? It turns out that the practical advantages of this biotechnological technique are numerous, as plant breeding can be accelerated and made at more accurate and reliable levels. Notice that when someone is transferring a gene that confers super-resistance to frost from a tree of Eucalyptus nitens to another plant of the same species (but with low resistance to frost) and that had previously been improved for productivity and quality of the wood, we'll be changing rapidly just one phenotypic expression of the new plant being created rather than several at once. For natural crosses involving pollen and ovules, this gene transfer would be possible too, but would be done carrying together other genes that alter the quality of the progeny. It would take a long time to forest breeder to re-purify and to assess the new created material through back-crossing, screening tests, etc. These techniques would be required to eliminate undesirable genes that were also transferred through the natural crossing.

Nature, when developing the genetics of living beings was extremely creative and intelligent. All living beings have a genetic structure with the same basic foundation: sequences of same type of nitrogenous bases for the formation of DNA nucleic acid. Therefore, it is so easy transferring genes from one species to another, even between different genera and even between different kingdoms.

Thanks to the advances in science, men have been able to identify and sequence the genomes of some living beings (Eucalyptus, Drosophila, Pinus, etc.). To do this, they use sophisticated tools of a science known as genomics. Genomics is the study of the genomes of organisms. To disclose the DNA base sequencing for a certain organism corresponds to unravel its genetic code, its genetic identity. However, it is not just the base sequencing that is targeted by scientists, but how these bases are arranged in genes that are responsible for expressing the characteristics of this specific organism. Another great advance of science is in full development stage: identifying the genes and knowing what they are responsible for. We know today many plant genes that have already been identified, mapped and their metabolic pathways of expression also known. Thus, we may have control and command on the genetics of plants, allowing fantastic gains in improving their agricultural and forest performances. A known and proven gene can be transferred to another plant, leading to expression of a particular feature of this receiver organism. This is the case of the well-known Bt gene, that has been used in genetic engineering of plants (including trees) to confer resistance to some insect pests. There are several GM opportunities that bring fantastic advantages to tree breeding, such as resistances to diseases and pests; resistances to frost and/or drought; reduced consumption of nutrients by trees; reduction in lignin content in the wood; modification of the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in the molecule of lignin; changes in leaf architecture, allowing greater photosynthetic efficiency; inhibition of flowering, allowing the plant to spend less metabolites on flowers and more in timber production; plant resistance to glyphosate, a herbicide widely used in agriculture; etc.

All plants that are submitted to genetic engineering experiments (gene transfer) are classified as GMO - genetically modified organisms, as we have seen. There are other names in use for the same purpose: transgenic plants, genetically engineered plants, biotech plants, etc. However, regardless of the name we want to use, we must understand that GM trees is the name most widely accepted and understood by Society and that's about we should try to elucidate the overall public. There are numerous transgenic plants that have already been developed by science, especially in agriculture. Some tree species are also among them. The most widely known cases of GM trees are: Bt gene in poplar (Populus spp.); gene to confer resistance to virus in the Hawaiian papaya crop; gene for reduction of lignin content in wood; etc. It is reported that there are about one million GM poplar trees with the Bt gene planted in China.

Therefore, there are real and practical cases of agricultural crops and planted forests that have already been genetically modified. The growth of this technology will strongly depend on how the social perception and how the applicable legislation will develop in different countries. Independently of any of these issues, we need to work very hard on the aspects of biosafety, monitoring and transparency in the dialogue with stakeholders. The laws, which vary between different countries, they also need continued improvements. This means: all possible care must be taken by the organizations researching transgenic organisms and genomics and by the public entities that grant licenses for commercial GMO production. In addition to the legislation compliance and the obligation for licensing the genetically modified plants, there is a great need for social-environmental responsibility in the organizations that wish to explore and/or grow these organisms. This is the intriguing question for many environmental organizations, which are used to see farmers and agricultural and industrial companies as typically capitalism-minded, just oriented to economic profit. However, times have changed, and capitalism as well. There is room for new roads, including looking at genetic engineering in this itinerary.

In Brazil, there is a very elaborate legislation to license and authorize research and commercial plantations of GMO crops. The organization that governs and guides this process is CTNBio (National Technical Commission on Biosafety). The emphasis of CTNBio to deregulate a genetically modified crop is the biosafety: be safe to humans, to the environment and to other living beings. CTNBio takes into account in these evaluations: scientific data, evidences, verifications, comparisons, plus the practices of precaution and risk analysis. There are several GMOs already released for commercial use, such as soybean, corn, cotton, etc. Others are being evaluated, including some reports on GMO trees are available at the CTNBio website. The most important thing is that the levels of knowledge and research in genetic engineering are well-advanced and understood in Brazil. There are available knowledge and technologies, dominated and practiced by Brazilians scientists, who trust and encourage biosafety and responsible use of biotechnology techniques. This makes it easier for the dialogue that is required and helps the decisions to be taken with this regard.

We believe that the way for scientific and commercial applications of genetic engineering is irreversible: there is no return and no way to stop researching. The developed scientific concepts proved to be remarkable, and they have created useful and efficient tools. Moreover, the benefits are enormous to help meeting increasing demands of the human population. The genome of the Eucalyptus is almost disclosed. Many genes are already known and validated, with their metabolic pathways elucidated. Technologies for transferring genes are dominated in their conceptual aspects. Science has evolved considerably in recent years. The timing is extremely important to forest biotechnology. Those who want to walk in the biotechnological roads with more intensity should become more involved in public discussion forums, in cooperative research to develop protocols of responsibility, to help improving legislation and to share more technical information. When we look at some companies still afraid to talk about these issues, we recommend that this position should be changed quickly, since it will not add value to the process, but will slow the acceptance of biotechnology by Society. To work with transgenic plants we need deep and honest dialogues, a lot of responsibility, a lot of science and a lot of credibility. All the aspects of sustainability should definitely be privileged.

We also know that the demands of the human population for goods and services will continue to grow. The Earth planet is to show insufficient resources to meet these new additional needs. Forests will also show difficulties to adequately supply this huge growing population with wood, biomass, forest products and services. The human beings will continue to squeeze the world's forests, to expand agriculture and real estate occupation. Thus, we need to increase high productivity and high quality forest plantations areas in exhausted lands. The biotechnological tools can help achieving these new required and predicted levels of forest production. There are risks associated to this - every action leads to reaction - this is also a rule of Nature. These risks should be assessed, monitored, measured and mitigated. The requirements for forests with high levels of excellence and sustainability should also be increased. Both plantations and natural forests can benefit from the knowledge and applications of biotechnology. The resistance to diseases and pests attacks can be either offered to the trees of the forest plantations, such as those of native forests. Other expected benefits are: reduced use of forest land to supply larger quantities of wood, reduced use of fertilizers and pesticides, better industrial operations, higher yields in the conversion of wood to industrial products, etc. However, to achieve and to take advantage of these gains, the risk with GMOs must be minimized, and the acceptance of the technique maximized.

The forest certification organizations, those responsible for promoting sustainability and good forest management, play a relevant role in this process of biotechnological tools utilization. At present, forest certification organizations as FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) are cautious about certifying areas containing GMOs. If they keep this guidelines, the development of forest biotechnology will be undermined and delayed. This caution is understandable, since the perception of the risk is still high for many stakeholders. Some interested parties are afraid about the potential dissemination of genes in uncontrolled flows and possible invasiveness of modified genes to non-targeted plants.

FSC position has been absolutely rigid: areas containing GMOs are not able to be certified. CERFLOR, the Brazilian forest certification scheme, is less restrictive: CERFLOR does not prohibit research or even planting GM trees, since licensed and in compliance with biosafety and legislation. However, PEFC Council, the entity responsible for the mutual recognition of forest certification systems, has a recommendation to CERFLOR not to certify areas containing GM trees. This will be kept until the issue be better discussed and clarified by a PEFC task force that is being created especially for this purpose. Since the Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations oriented for industrial use are mostly certified by the FSC and/or CERFLOR, we believe that forest certification will inhibit even the research with genetically engineered Eucalyptus trees for some time ahead. There is a large dependence on certified wood production and the certified companies in the market today surely do not want to lose the benefits of certified products (market pulp, paper, furniture, flooring, charcoal, etc.).

For all these reasons, the continued aggregation of scientific knowledge, responsible use of biotechnological tools, dialogue, transparency and empowerment of licensing and legislation processes will continue to be the driving factors for GM forests. This is very good since we are to have more dialogue, more understanding, more responsibility, more control, more biosafety and minimum risks. The Eucalyptus plantations of the future will be much better in sustainability than the current ones, no doubts about. The biotechnological tools that they will be using in future years will depend on the exact level of understanding and decisions that are to be taken from now onwards. We hope that common sense and good will may build guidelines for these changes towards sustainability. We also hope that the decisions do not be taken based only on feelings or pure emotions, but based on a lot of science, appropriate dialogue and consensus among the involved stakeholders. However, if there are doubts about the risks, adopting the precautionary principle, it is better to clarify them by developing new scientific knowledge and serious and responsible dialogue among stakeholders. There is no doubt that GM trees can bring many benefits to Society and to the environment, but they also pose risks to be minimized by the actions and commitments from all those involved in this application.

Selected websites about genetically modified trees as a suggestion for browsing:

CTNBio - National Technical Commission on Biosafety.
CTNBio is a multidisciplinary collegial body, founded in 2005, whose purpose is to provide technical and consulting advice to the Brazilian Federal Government in the formulation, updating and implementation of the National Biosafety Policy on GMOs, and the establishment of technical standards and safety technical advising concerning the protection of human health, living organisms and the environment, for activities involving the construction, testing, growing, handling, transporting, marketing, consumption, storage, release and disposal of GMOs and associated products. (Website) (Technical documents, approvals and opinions) (Biosafety documents on GMOs)

The Institute of Forest Biotechnology. (USA)
IFB aims for the sustainability of forest biotechnology in a global scale, working on three basic pillars to accomplish this mission: scientific knowledge; leadership, accountability and governance; transparency and dialogue. (Website) (Biotechnological resources, comprising links, most frequent questions and answers) (Publications, speeches, articles, reports)

Responsible Use of Forest Biotechnology.
Responsible use is a program with the Institute of Forest Biotechnology guidance to ensure commitment of producers and users of genetically modified trees in relation to responsible use principles developed with the participation of stakeholders from the Society. (Website) (Forest biotechnology "primer")

ArborGen. (USA)
ArborGen is a biotechnology-based company that involves partnerships with more than one hundred researchers and scientists in the field of forest biotechnology, investing and investigating this science in the United States, Brazil and New Zealand. ArborGen is one of the leading companies in the advances of genetic engineering applied to trees, including among them the Eucalyptus. (Website) (ArborGen vision) (Forest biotechnology benefits)

References of literature (scientific and technical articles) as a suggestion for reading about genetically modified trees:

The role and implications of biotechnological tools in forestry.
A.D. Yanchuk. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization Website. Accessed on 07.12.2009: (in English)

Deliberate release of genetically modified trees. An abundance of poplars.
GMO Safety. Accessed on 07.12.2009: (in English)

Trangenicos - Arvores geneticamente modificadas.
M.L. Silva. UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. Accessed on 07.12.2009: (in Portuguese)

Melhoramento florestal: enfase na aplicacao da biotecnologia. D.P. Golle; L.R.S Reiniger; A.R. Curti; C.B. Bevilacqua. Ciencia Rural 39(5): 1606-1613. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Forest biotechnology and its responsible use. A. Costanza; S. McCord. Institute of Forest Biotechnology. 14 pp. (2009) (in English) (Draft paper) (in English)

Transformacao genetica: estrategias e aplicacoes para o melhoramento genetico de especies florestais.
L. M. Sartoretto; C. W. Saldanha; M. P.M. Corder. Ciencia Rural 38(3): 861 - 871. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Guia do eucalipto. Oportunidades para um desenvolvimento sustentavel.
CIB - Conselho de Informacoes sobre Biotecnologia. 20 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

The potential environmental, cultural and socio-economic impacts of genetically modified trees.
UNEP. Executive Secretary. U.N. Convention of Biological Diversity. 17 pp. (2008) (in English)

Genetically engineered trees: some answers to frequent asked questions. A. Petermann. Global Justice Ecology Project. 08 pp. (2008) (in English)

The era of transgenic Eucalyptus (A era dos eucaliptos transgenicos). R. Moraes. TAPPI Journal TeckLink. Paper 360º (December): 32 – 34. (2008) (in English) (in English) ("A era dos eucaliptos transgenicos" - in Portuguese - O Papel magazine, August, 2008)

ABSTRACT: Forest biotechnology: trees of our future.
R. Kellison; S. McCord. International Journal of Biotechnology 9(5 ): 460 - 467. (2007)
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(in English)

Potentialities of genetically modified trees for the eucalypt kraft pulp industry. F.L. Brun; M. Hinchee; F.S. Gomes; N. Ramsey. III ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. 04 pp. (2007) (in English)

Transgenic trees and forestry biosafety. S. Valenzuela; C. Balocchi; J. Rodriguez. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 9(3): 335 - 339. (2006) (in English)

Genetically modified trees: the ultimate threat to forests. C. Lang. (2004) (in English)

Forest biotechnology in Latin America.
Edited by R. Kellison, S. McCord; K.M.A. Gartland. Workshop Biotecnologia Forestal. 126 pp. (2004) (in English)

Advances in tree genetic engineering in China
. S. Xiao-hua; Z. Bing-yu; H. Qin-jun; H. Lie-jian; Z. Xiang-hua. XII World Forestry Congress. (2003) (in English)

Genetically modified trees: production, properties and potential. K.M.A. Gartland; R.M. Crow; T.M. Fenning; J.S. Gartland. Journal of Arboriculture 29(5). 08 pp. (2003) (in English)

Forest certification and genetically engineered trees: will the two ever be compatible? P. Coventry. Oxford Forestry Institute. 44 pp. (2001) (in English)

Mamao transgenico. M.T. Souza Jr. Biotecnologia Ciencia e Desenvolvimento. Special Notebook. 06 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

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