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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends

Here we are again, with the 18th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to Society.

This edition brings to you another chapter of the Eucalyptus Online Book, continuing the series of chapters about the "eco-efficient management of solid wastes in the pulp and paper industry". We hope that it may be bringing some new insights about this exciting topic. The aim is helping the P&P sector to reduce the generation of wastes and to recycle what is being impossible to eliminate at the source.

In the section "The friends of the Eucalyptus" I'm introducing to you a friend of mine for over 20 years, so close that I consider him as my "Chilean brother". All forest sector in Chile know him very well. However, his competence, determination, and skills in teaching, researching and institutional working should become renowned also in the world. I'm talking about "professor Jose Paz Pena", a great friend of the Eucalyptus, as we are to see just a couple of lines ahead.

This time, my mini-article deals with "innovative ways to face the wastewater treatment in the Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mills". Once more, I'm bringing an environmental subject as the main issue in my Eucalyptus Newsletter. I know my objectives very well: to bring my cooperation to a substantial environmental improvement in the pulp business; and, as a consequence, in its relation to the interested parties of our Society.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us this time about the "manufacture of soaps and detergents", having as raw materials the essential oils and exuded extractives obtained from the Eucalyptus trees. Something is becoming very often to be found in our daily life, but that many of us is far away to imagine from where and how they are produced.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics and Forestal Web. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the 9,500 registered people receiving monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 13 (in Portuguese)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Jose Paz Pena

Online Technical References

References on Events and Courses


Online Technical Journals & Magazines

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The Eucalyptus used for the production of soaps & detergents (by Ester Foelkel)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Treating the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 13 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 13.5 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer directories. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it. Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Residuos Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto. Parte 02: Fatores de sucesso para seu gerenciamento"

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Professor Jose Paz Pena

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter I feel very confortable and extremely happy to introduce to you one of the most admirable friends of the Eucalyptus, and at the same time, one of my great personal friends, my dear "Chilean brother" professor Jose Paz Pena. Professor Jose Paz, as he is kindly known and admired by all forest-based sector in Chile, is definitively one of the great and unquestionable icons of the Latin American forest industry. His achievements, both academic, didactic and on scientific research have exceeded the limits of Chile. Jose Paz is very well-known also in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, etc.

Although retired from his university works at Universidad de Concepcion ( since 1997, Jose Paz continues being very active and helpful to the pulp and paper segment, since he is continuously being reelected director of ATCP Chile - Technical Association of Pulp and Paper - Chile ( ). In this association, he has always being distinguished with relevant positions in the board of directors, from the time he participated in the association foundation in 1972.

His life, both personal and professional, is very rich in conquests and achievements. These relevant facts associated with his enormous personal charism and affinity to people, have converted Jose Paz in someone very admired and loved by all who know him.

Jose Paz was born in the municipality of Arauco, Chile, in 1932. At those times, the Chilean forestry sector was still modest and economically inexpressive. The saying "Chile - a forestry country" was far from become a reality, as it is today ( Being short, in the early 1900's, the Chilean forest sector was closer to an extractivism model using natural resources, than being an admired segment based on sustainable forest plantations as it is now-a-days. The highly engineered plantations of "pino insigne" - Pinus radiata - ( and Eucalyptus globulus and E.nitens ( had still to be born.

Jose Paz was born in rural lands, in a small farm owned by his grandparents. When a child, he was not used to find Eucalyptus and Pinus trees to enjoy then for playing as a kid. However, he was used to the Chilean natural trees, one of his expertise. He knows very much the country's natural resources. I believe this was the origin of his special pleasure to Nature and to the forestry resources. Later, years ahead, he was able to purchase all the land correspondent to the farm where he was born from his relatives, legatees of that rural property. Jose Paz got back the land he was born to plant, guess what? Today, he has 1.5 hectares planted with Pinus radiata and 12 hectares with Eucalyptus globulus. Some years ago, he started planting E.nitens, but a strong attack of an Eucalyptus nitens pest ("Gusano del Tebo" - Chilecomadia valdiviana) make him change the mind to E.globulus, a more tolerant and resistant species, with a better priced wood. Today, he is patiently waiting the trees to grow, aiming to take advantage of the income they will provide to him in a couple of years more.

Jose Paz is one of the sons in a numerous family, being a total of 9 brothers/sisters. After getting married with Maria Eliana in 1965, they kept the rule. His family is composed of 3 "children" (two boys and one girl), who have given them 6 grandchildren.

Jose Paz spent his childhood in Arauco, studying and dreaming to grow professionally. Thanks to his studies and efforts, he deserved a scholarship for continuing studies at Concepcion, the major city in the region. In 1954, he started his academic studies at the UDEC - Universidad de Concepcion, selecting the chemical engineering career. Along his university studies, he lived in the university student housing system. He feels very luck for this fact, because he had the chance to get several friends from other careers. This fact enabled him to open the mind to other things and to gain a global view, in times when the telecommunications were still very strict. He concluded his studies in 1961, writing as the conclusion academic work a technical paper about "Pinus radiata wood extractives". He selected trees and woods for his studies, as a result of the care and love he always had for them, since the time he lived in the rural area of Arauco. Exactly at the time he was studying at UDEC, the renowned "Laboratory of Forest Products" was being born at the University. The responsible for the creation of this laboratory, which facilities and reseraches were the drivers to the Chilean forest industry development, was the chemical engineer Mr.Ingo Junge. Ingo was brilliant, talented and visionary. He was able to foresee a bright future to the forest industry in Chile, and decided to work for this to happen. Ingo had strong influence to the creation of INFOR - Forest Institute of Chile and INFORSA, a newsprint paper mill in the region of Nacimiento. When Ingo left the university to join the paper industry, he had influence to promote partnerships between the paper companies and the Forest Products Laboratory he had helped to be created at the Universidad de Concepcion. This means that the forest/industry integration in Chile started very early in Chile, one of the reasons for the great success years later.

Jose Paz started working as a researcher at the Forest Products Laboratory - UDEC- just after his graduation as chemical engineer. There, he found his great master teacher and friend, professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza. With Roberto, Jose has cultivated a partnership and a strong friendship for decades, both deserving all recognition and admiration in Chile due to their numerous achievements and academic results. Together, they could teach and being responsible for hundreds of students along their university careers. We may say, without any fear of committing an error or an injustice, that the great majority of all the mill managers and technical staff in the Chilean pulp and paper mills have been ex-students and are admirers of Don Jose and Don Roberto. Both have helped, with their talent and hardwork, the consolidation and the growth of a victorious pulp and paper industry in that country. Jose always values and give high importance to the role occupied by two of the engineers working at the early stages of the UDEC forest products laboratory: Ingo Junge and Edgard Bluhm. He also always mentions the importance of his talented successor, Dr. Claudio Zaror.

Jose's first research studies at the university were oriented to the woods produced by trees of Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus globulus, acacias e poplars. The initial objective was the generation of a bank of data to favor the commercial utilization of these woods in Chile. Originally, the laboratory facilities were very modest and simple. However, along the 80's, they received support from OAS - Organization of American States to modernize and to upgrade the laboratory.

Eucalyptus globulus
was originally planted in Chile to supply dense and resistant wood to the mining galleries. On the other hand, Pinus radiata detached from other forest species in reason of the high growth rates and superior wood quality for timber/lumber. The radiata pine wood residues coming from sawmills soon started being used for kraft pulping by the pulp/paper industry. The studies with Eucalyptus and Pinus gained importance and were occupying all the attention at the laboratory. You are to notice this fact in the list of Jose's papers provided below. The Eucalyptus pulp and paper potentialities were soon discovered by Jose and Roberto. They started to show the pulping results with the Eucalyptus in the late 60's, early 70's. However, there was no response from the not so interested parties. In a CORFO event (Corporacion de Fomento de la Produccion -, they tried to prove the enormous potentials for the Eucalyptus to Chile, due the papermaking advantages of the Eucalyptus globulus wood, both in yield and in fiber quality. At that time, very little attention was given to their efforts. The focus was all placed on top of the Pinus radiata forests and woods. Some pulp and paper mills were obtaining good success with radiata pine long fibers. The low level of tradition with Eucalyptus were not drivers for growing in this raw material direction. The Chilean pulp and paper industry was growing, but even so, without the utilization of the Eucalyptus.

After the first attempts and the corresponding fails to demonstrate that the Eucalyptus could be classified as feasible pulping species to Chile, Jose and Roberto did not give up. They continued the studies, now in connection with INFOR, the organization that promoted the utilization of E.nitens in Chile. They have grabbed this task with a lot of determination, they had to convince many actors in Chile to succeed. However, they were favored by the great success the Eucalyptus were reaching in the neighbor country Brazil. In Brazil, many pulp mills were installed late 70's, based on the utilization of Eucalyptus as raw material. Jose and Roberto have dedicated efforts and research studies to both Eucalyptus and Pinus radiata. For this reason, I feel confortable to name them not only "Friends of the Eucalyptus", but "Friends of the Pinus", too.

The main research lines in the forest products laboratory were cored at: pulping, bleaching, wood and fiber qualities. The innumerous papers and articles developed by the laboratory team and by the UDEC students have provided more options to Chile for the right decisions, both at the private and governmental sides. The country was able to find its way to reach the deserved success with the forest based industry and related businesses.

Beyond the academic research and resulting scientific papers, Jose and Roberto have been responsible for building the foundations to the pulp and paper education in a region where this industry started to blossom: the Bio Bio river region. The course they have taught for years at UDEC had the name "Chemical process industries", and offered to both chemical and industrial engineering careers. Since in Chile one of conditions to become graduated in engineering is to present an original technological paper to conclude the course, Jose Paz has an enormous pride to have had the opportunity to be the advisor for ten's of these students.

Jose Paz was professor at Universidad de Concepcion from 1961 till 1997. He is proud to know, I guess even by name, any of all his previous students. Jose has several papers published most of them in partnership with Roberto and also with his students. He is also very proud of his class hand-outs, about pulping, bleaching and wood characteristics and properties. The great majority of his papers have being released through the ATCP Chile publications: Celulosa y Papel magazine and proceedings of the ATCP major event - Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. Furthermore, Jose had several opportunities to show his scientific and technical value in international events and courses, such as: Mexico, USA, Brazil, Colombia, etc.

Besides academy and science, Jose Paz has strong participation in institutional and associative activities. In 1972, a group of 25 enthusiastic pulp and paper technicians, including Jose, have founded the Chilean technical association of pulp and paper - ATCP Chile. Besides being one of the founders, Jose has had intense and prominent work in the ATCP board of directors. His career has always been very rich, active and creative, in anything he does.

My knowledge and friendship with Jose Paz started in 1987, when I was invited to present a speech about the Eucalyptus in Brazil (from forestry to pulping utilization as raw material). This took place in Concepcion, in one of the first ATCP Jornadas Tecnicas (the third one - It has been very easy to develop this friendship, something very good to be always cultivated. In 1988, I was invited by ATCP Chile to present a full-week course on Eucalyptus for pulping/papermaking in Chile. The course was financed with resources coming from UNDP (United Nations Development Program - The course was a success and my friendship to Chile and to Jose was raised to the top. ( At that time, there was close to nothing in terms of Eucalyptus wood utilization for pulping in Chile. There were only some industrial trials, but a lot of interest and anticipation. In Brazil, the Eucalyptus had reached a position of prominence as source of hardwood fibers to the marked pulp industry. The Brazilian example was a good driver to Chilean companies. Jose Paz made strong efforts to my course success, he was also one of my diligent students. Today, more than 20 years later, I may affirm, without any doubts, that I had, as Jose and Roberto, a key participation, placing some stones for paving the road of success for the Eucalyptus trees as raw material for bleached kraft market pulp in Chile. Something I'm very proud of, since I have Chile as a country I admire and where I have many good friends.

From 1988 onwards, the forest-based industry in Chile has developed at fantastic rates. There are new names, and many newcomers are occupying key positions in this industry, both business and technical. For this very reason, I want to make this life tribute to Jose Paz and Roberto Melo. I do this with a lot of confidence, justice and admiration for them. It is far more than fair to honor them, and with warm and enthusiastic applause. In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we had Jose Paz as our guest, although it is impossible to separate both names - Jose Paz and Roberto Melo. In future edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we'll bring to you professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza's life and achievements.

When I asked Jose Paz which events he could define as his most important professional achievements, he replied to me with his usual candor:

• "to have had the chance to educate so many engineers to the forest industry with his classes at Universidad de Concepcion;
• to provide high quality information about the wood quality and potentials for Chile for several forest species;
• to have contributed to many mill optimization projects and technological developments to Chilean companies;
• to be one of the ATCP Chile founders, helping the association to grow, to survive difficult times, and to develop, always with the belief and the ideal for collective efforts and results."

However, Jose Paz life is not only satiated by science, education and technology. He has always being very dedicated to his family, friends, and sports (gymnastics, tennis, karate); he loves Nature and for this reason he always travels with Maria Eliana to know more the Chile natural beauties and also other countries.

Professor Jose Paz, it is a honor to me being a great admirer of the remarkable human being you are; to be also "your brother in targets, ideals, and in friendship". It is a great honor to me to introduce you to Eucalyptus Newsletter readers as one of the great "Friends of the Eucalyptus". Thanks very much for all you have done to Chile, to Chileans, to the pulp and paper segment, and to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about professor Jose Paz's academic and associative life:

Entrevista al profesor Jose Paz Pena. Ingeniero Civil Quimico. Universidad de Concepcion. Celulosa y Papel 16(1): 16 – 20. (2000) (in Spanish)

Jose Paz: Experiencia en investigacion. Simplified Curriculum Vitae. (in Spanish)

Breve historia de ATCP Chile. J. Paz Pena. Celulosa y Papel. 2 pp. (in Spanish)

Jornadas reflejam el desarrollo del sector. J. Paz Pena. VI Jornadas Tecnicas ATCP. Celulosa y Papel. 1 pp. (1995) (in Spanish)

Experiencias en la formacion profesional en el area de la celulosa y el papel de Chile. J. Paz; R. Melo. 6 pp. (in Spanish)

Know more about professor Jose Paz's technical and scientific production along his career:

Nuevas especies en la produccion de celulosa. J. Paz; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 3(1): 13 – 15. (1987) (in Spanish)

Pulpas kraft mediante licor blanco oxidado. G. Yanez; J. Paz; M. Fernandez. Celulosa y Papel 6(2): 22 – 25. (1990) (in Spanish)

Ensayos de pulpaje y blanqueo de madera de eucaliptos (Eucalyptus spp.). R. Melo; J. Paz; A. Solis; V. Carrasco. Celulosa y Papel 7(1). 10 pp. (1991) (in Spanish)

Aptitud pulpable del aserrim. V. Drapela; J. Paz; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel 8(2): 14 – 20. (1992) (in Spanish)

Caracteristicas fisicas, quimicas y biometricas de distintas especies de Eucalyptus y su aptitud pulpable. J. Paz. Actas del Simposio de los Eucalyptus em el Desarrollo Forestal de Chile. 26 pp. (1993) (in Spanish)

Obtencion de pulpas de alta absorcion. A. Avila Gallardo; J. Paz Pena. Celulosa y Papel 11(4): 20 – 26. (1995) (in Spanish)

Estudio de variables que afectan al color del efluente de una planta de celulosa kraft blanqueada. M.A. Palma; J. Paz; C. Jones; M. Osses. Celulosa y Papel 16(3): 4 - 8. (2000) (in Spanish)

Consiguem celulosa de alta pureza en laboratorio. J. Paz. 1 pp. (in Spanish)

Obtienem celulosa soluble mediante metodo no tradicional. J. Paz. Celulosa y Papel. 1 pp. (in Spanish)

Efecto del peroxido de hidrogeno a temperatura en el contenido de hemicelulosas y la energia de refinacion de pulpas kraft. V. Parra; J. Paz. ATCP Chile. 12 pp. (in Spanish)

Blanqueo de pulpas de eucalipto obtenida mediante pulpaje extendido. A. Jara; J. Paz. 19 pp. (in Spanish)

Blanqueo de pulpas kraft de Eucalyptus globulus com oxigeno, ozono y peroxido. P. Perez; R. Melo; J. Paz. 13 pp. (in Spanish)

Caracterizacion de la pulpa producida com diferentes condiciones de proceso RDH. R. Esteban; R. Melo; J. Paz. 15 pp. (in Spanish)

Estudio tecnico-economico de uso de rechazo de clasificacion de pulpa cruda. S. Vera; J. Paz; M. Osses; K. Sanhueza. 9 pp. (in Spanish)

Interrelacion entre las propiedades de uma celulosa kraft y la materia prima usada para su fabricacion. R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; N. Bello. Celulosa y Papel. 6 pp. (in Spanish)

Obtencion de pulpas quimica blanca sin uso de compuestos clorados.
G. Salvadores; J. Paz; R. Melo. 12 pp. (in Spanish)

Posibilidad de produccion de pulpas semiquimicas en Chile. R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; C. Murcia; H. Pacheco; M. Torres. Celulosa y Papel. 5 pp. (in Spanish)

Pulpas a partir de madera de Eucalyptus globulus. J. Paz; E. Reitze. 9 pp. (in Spanish)

Pulpas de madera de fibra larga a partir de mesclas de pino insigne (Pinus radiata), manio (Podocarpus nubigena) y canelo (Drymis winteri). R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; M. Torres; G. Rivera. 13 pp. (in Spanish)

Pulpas semiquimicas a partir de madera de eucalipto. Proceso a la soda fria. J. Paz; A. Solis; H. Ruiz; M. Torres. 9 pp. (in Spanish)

I want to express my most sincere gratitude to ATCP Chile for providing the chance to disclose to you all some of the relevant papers published by professor Jose Paz. They have been incorporated, as an ATCP Chile courtesy, to the website for making things easier in the edition of this section. Thanks also to ABTCP Brazil for the cooperation on scanning and converting several of these publications to the digital format. You have surely found many important technical information to the science and technology of the Eucalyptus in Chile. I hope you are to enjoy, to be delighted and to learn with professor Paz and professor Melo achievements. Also, many of these papers also include some of their most relevant students as co-authors, most of them working now in pulp and paper mills in Chile.

Wait till next edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter. Soon, you'll be told about professor Roberto Melo scientific production and professional life, another great friend of the Eucalyptus. Someone as appreciated and loved by Chileans as our dear professor Jose Paz.

Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

Eucalyptus & environment in the climate change age. Aracruz Celulose. Specialized website. Access on 05.12.2008. (in Portuguese and in English)
This is a special section in the Aracruz Celulose website oriented to explain about the importance of the Eucalyptus plantations, impacts and benefits. Besides the interesting navigation you may also download the entire section as a pdf document, with all the reported information. (in Portuguese) (in English)

Producao de celulose do ponto de vista de seus processos quimicos e ambientais. C.A. Sousa. I Environmental Engineering Week UFMS/VCP/MS. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. Access on 30.09.2008 (in Portuguese)
This is a great and didactic speech, oriented to all those who are willing to know more about the Eucalyptus kraft pulp manufacturing process.

Toward understanding wood, fibre, and paper deeper knowledge through modern analytical tools. Turku. Abo. Finland. 86 pp. (2008) (in English)
The address links you to the book of abstracts of the events COST Action 41 (Analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry) and Workshop Action E 50 (Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood). A precious document to all who have interest on wood and fiber qualities.

Eucalyptus. The genus Eucalyptus. J.J.W. Coppen. CRC Press. 450 pp. (2002) (in English)
A masterpiece of the Eucalyptus literature, now available through Google Books.

O mundo eucalipto: os fatos e mitos de sua cultura. J.R. Scolforo. 72 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
This is a recent and just launched book written by professor Scolforo with the aim to explain about the myths surrounding the plantations of the Eucalyptus and the corresponding industrialized products. The book is available only in paper format (paperback), to be purchased in specialized bookshops.

A celulose de eucalipto - Uma oportunidade brasileira. (Eucalyptus pulp - A Brazilian opportunity). L.R.S. Queiroz; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Sponsored by VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel. Avis Brasilis. 156 pp. (2008). (in Portuguese and in English). A courtesy from prof. L.E.G. Barrichelo.
This book is a masterpiece written as a review by the authors Queiroz & Barrichelo, two renowned experts on knowledge and knowledge transfer and dissemination. They are rescuing the history of the Eucalyptus in Brazil and informing the Society with their marvelous books, with fantastic texts and images. Learn with all the talent and know-how accumulated by professor Barrichelo and efficiently translated to a journalistic language by Mr. Queiroz. Unmissable.

Producao da extracao vegetal e da silvicultura em 2007. IBGE Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. PEVS 2007. 45 pp. (2008). (in Portuguese)
Excellent source of Brazilian statistics on the production of the forest sector, a reference to all interested on this kind of data.

Guia do eucalipto. Oportunidades para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. CIB Council of Information on Biotechnology. 20 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
A reference document about the Eucalyptus, genetic breeding and biotechnogical issues.

Eucaliptais - Qual Rio Grande do Sul desejamos? A. Teixeira Filho. 472 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
A very recent digital book discussing the inconveniences of planting Eucalyptus forests in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as the views and perspectives of a group of environmental and worker's unions activists. The coordination of the book was under professor Althen Teixeira Filho responsibility. (Website of the InGa NGO, with references about the book)
(Address for complete downloading of the book)
(Address for complete downloading of the book)

The onward march of Eucalyptus. G.K. Moore; R.N. Jopson. & "Mr. Eucalyptus - Brazilian fiber expert Celso Foelkel". Paper 360° (September): 14 - 15. (2008). (in English). A courtesy from TAPPI/USA.

Accurate vessel cell measument improves runnability of high-end papers. D. Watzig; J.P. Weihs. Tappi Journal Techlink. Paper 360º (August): 34 - 37. (2008) (in English)

Restauracao de areas degradadas. Imitando a natureza. A. Reis; D.R. Tres; A. Siminski. 90 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Pioneiros do eucalipto. S. Mascarenhas. USP. 1p. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Evaluacion de parametros morfologicos y fisiologicos de plantas de Eucalyptus producidas en distintos contenedores. Centro Tecnologico de la Planta Forestal. INFOR Chile. PowerPoint presentation: 39 slides. (2008) (in Spanish)

Global planted forests thematic study. Results and analysis. A.D. Lungo; J. Ball; J. Carle. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization. Forestry Department. 178 pp. (2006) (in English)
An excellent publication containing statistics about world forest plantations and natural forests, with the FAO guarantee of quality.

References on Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

XV Seminario de Colheita e Transporte Florestal. (XV Seminar on Forest Harvesting and Wood Transportation) (in Portuguese)
This is a very traditional event in Brazil, that regularly takes place in Curitiba, Parana state. The event is simultaneous to: ExpoForest - Brazilian Forestry Exhibition; Brazilian Silviculture Meeting and the 3rd Brazilian Meeting of the Forest Services Suppliers. These events have always the enthusiasm and dedication coming from Dr. Jorge Roberto Malinovski, a renowned expert on forest harvesting and professor of the Federal University of Parana. Know the speeches that are made available thanks to the Portal Colheita da Madeira (Wood Harvesting Website/Portal). See also an interview from Dr. Malinovski to the CeluloseOnline website/portal. (Access the topic - "Palestras dos eventos" - in Portuguese) (Interview - Professor Jorge Malinovski reporting the event to CeluloseOnline)

Forum Nacional sobre Carvao Vegetal.
(National Forum on Wood Charcoal) (in Portuguese)
This magnificent event about the utilization of the Eucalyptus wood to manufacture charcoal was organized by SIF - The Society of Forest Investigations, in 2008. The speeches were able to cover in a great deal, many aspects of plantation technology, charcoal manufacture and commercialization. Definitively, a very good updating on the energetic utilization of the Eucalyptus, since charcoal production is one of the main destinations of the Eucalyptus woods in Brazil. The speeches may be found for downloading, both at SIF website, as in the Painel Florestal specialized website. Please, visit them: (Event program) (Speeches - SIF website) (Speeches and Program - Painel Florestal website)

6º Forum Latino Americano sobre Meio Ambiente e Responsabilidade Social. (6th Latin American Forum on Environment and Social Responsibility) (in Portuguese)
An event that took place within the EcoLatina magnum event. There are several workshops, with most speeches available for downloading. Please, pay attention to the speeches presented in the Workshop about Forestry Sustainability and about Climate Change & Forest Plantations. Please, do not miss, there is a lot to learn there: (Program and speeches)

II Semana de Atualizacao para Tecnicos Agricolas e Florestais. (II Week for Technological Updating of Agriculture and Forestry Technicians) (in Portuguese)
This is a very didactic and informative event organized by our partner SIF - The Society of Forest Investigations. It was oriented to develop more expertise and knowledge to many technical workers planting and managing Eucalyptus plantation forests. Something unmissible, even to those who know very much about these issues. (Event speeches)

Seminario Florestas Plantadas do Mato Grosso do Sul 2007. (2007 Seminar on Forest Plantations in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul) (in Portuguese)
This seminar was organized by REFLORE MS - Associacao Sul-Mato-Grossense de Produtores e Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas, an association in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil - that has orientation to assist the planters and consumers of forest products. With the growing interest of Eucalyptus plantation forests in that Brazilian state, REFLORE is definitively helping to clarify many points on technologies and utilization's of the plantation forests. Several of the speeches are connected to environmental issues, a key point to be explained to the interested parties. (About REFLORE MS) (Speeches)

MADEN 2008. Seminario Madeira Energetica. (Seminar about Energetic Wood) (in Portuguese)
This event has happened in Rio de Janeiro, and it was coordinated by ABC - Brazilian Association of Sciences. The main topics were related to the utilization of the wood from plantation forests as renewable energy sources. The many speeches from renowned experts and covering several issues are available for downloading. Do not miss this chance. It is very worth to all those related to biomass as fuel for energy generation. (Event program and speeches for downloading)

1º Seminario Mercosur sobre Certificacion Forestal. (First Mercosur Seminar on Forest Certification) (in Spanish)
This event was organized and sponsored by IRAM - Argentinean Institute for Standardization and Certification. It has taken place in Buenos Aires, in 2006.

Simposio "Tecnicas de Plantio e Manejo de Eucalyptus para Uso Multiplo".
(Symposium on Planting and Managing Techniques for Multi Purposes Products Eucalyptus Plantations ) (in Portuguese)
This was a great seminar by GELQ - "Luiz de Queiroz" Study Group - ESALQ- University of Sao Paulo. It is devoted to discuss new ways to manage Eucalyptus forest plantations to develop value-added multiple products. Please, visit and do not miss the opportunity to download the presentations. (Program and speeches)

Symposium "Power Products from Waste and Biomass". (in English)
This symposium happened in Espoo - Finland in 2002. It was organized by a selected group of entities that are interested on developing the utilization of biomasses for energy generation. The leading organization was VTT Technical Research Center of Finland. The event proceedings has 354 pages, it contains the relevant presentations. You are invited to visit the webpage and to know the speeches. (Proceedings)


Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

ABRASFLOR - Associacao Brasileira dos Prestadores de Servicos Florestais. (Brazilian Association of Forest Service Suppliers) (in Portuguese)
This organization was created in Minas Gerais state - Brazil to represent the suppliers of forest services to the forest industry. The executive director is our dear friend and well-known forest engineer Jose Batuira de Assis.

AET - Alliance for Environmental Technologies. (in English)
AET is an organization bringing together the chemical products suppliers to the pulp and paper industry. The aim they have is to improve the environmental performance in such type of industry. However, the main topic of discussions is the ECF ("Elemental Chlorine Free") bleaching process for chemical pulps, by supporting the development of the technology and providing arguments to clarify any doubt from society in relation to this technology. The website is very rich on knowledge. There are very interesting sections, and I'd like to suggest you to visit those related to the science of ECF bleaching, the one giving information on minimum impact pulp and paper mills, the section suggesting the measures to be taken by paper purchasers to buy environmentally friendly white papers, etc. You are to find an amazing number of technical and commercial oriented reports. Everything written and/or coordinated by the enormous expertise of our dear friend Doug Pryke. Doug is one of the most relevant experts and top authority in kraft pulp bleaching. Among his relevant services to the pulp industry, Doug has presented a statistical report showing the trends in the bleaching of pulp - "Trends in World Bleached Pulp Production". (Website) (Report - "Trends in World Bleached Pulp Production") (
"Environmentally Preferred Paper" - about the environmental characteristics of the white papers to be purchased due to environmental reasons) (
Reports about ECF pulp bleaching) (
Critical evaluation made on top of the WWF comments about the Arauco Valdivia mill and the ECF and TCF bleaching sequences for pulp bleaching) (
Minimum environmental impact mills, a special reference to the Veracel mill/Brazil)

Blog Celulosa & Papel. (in Spanish)
This is a very creative blog, designed and made available to public by the Argentinean Mr. Mariano Agostini, who is a graduated in printing production management. He has the aim to convert this blog in a place for consulting, offering comments, suggestions, and opinions to those in the paper business, either producing or using papers.

CETCEP - Centro de Tecnologia de Celulose e Papel. (Center of Pulp and Paper Technology) (in Portuguese)
CETCEP is an entity of the Brazilian SENAI system - SENAI - National Service for Industrial Training. CETCEP is located in the municipality of Telemaco Borba, where the first laboratories and classrooms were established about 45 years ago. CETCEP has very good laboratory facilities, an excellent team of experts, and a good library. The center is oriented to the training of forest and pulp&paper technicians, to research and to study these sciences and technologies, to write books and hand-outs, to provide consulting services, and to organize qualified courses and events. One of the major highlights is the Mobile Laboratory in a partnership with the Brazilian laboratory equipment manufacturer REGMED. This mobile lab is used for "in company" training. They also have an intelligent software (simulation of operations) for training the forest harvester operators. CETCEP is one of the first non-financial supporters for our Eucalyptus Online Book. Please, know more about CETCEP at: (About CETCEP) (
Mobile Laboratory) (
Forest harvesting training modular course)

COFI - Council of Sustainable Industry. (in English)
COFI is an organization for promoting the sustainability in the forest industry in the interior of the British Columbia province, Canada. As far BC forest sector has an important participation in the Canadian economy, COFI has many activities destined to promote the forestry and forest products of such industry. We suggest you to have a look on the publications they make available to web visitors. (About COFI) (COFI publications)

Department of Sustainable Development - Organization of American States. (in English and in Spanish)
This OEA department has an enormous number of reports, publications and technical material discoursing about sustainable development: biodiversity, climate change, energy conservation, etc. (About the DSD - Department of Sustainable Development) (
DSD publications)

Environmental Paper Network. (in English)
EPN is a network of environmental organizations that decided to work together to offer suggestions and alternatives to speed up the process of changes required to convert the pulp and paper industry in a more environmentally friendly type of industry, according to their thoughts and recommendations. EPN target is the excellence in sustainability among the pulp and paper manufacturers. They have several projects, being one of them the suggestions offered to paper purchasers to favor what they consider to be "greener purchases of paper". (EPN vision and mission) (
Suggestions to paper purchasers) (
Best environmental practices in P&P and forestry) (Report "The state of paper industry - Monitoring the indicators of environmental performance")

Grimwade Plant Collection - Specimen Index. (in English)
You are to find very complete botanical sheets for several Australian plants, some of them are Eucalyptus species. It is a service provided by the School of Botany from the University of Melbourne - Australia. (
Species index)

International Forestry Students' Association
. (in English)
IFSA is an organization whose aim is to bring closer the world forestry students though a wide range of activities: forums, student exchange programs, training for trainees, information, experiences, etc. To know more about IFSA, go to visit the website, and a special look to the download section: (About IFSA) (
Downloading section)

Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. (in English)
This is a very rich and interesting website by Michel H. Porcher, University of Melbourne - Australia. Mr. Porter was able to create a world list of species whose names are presented and written in many different languages. (Mr. Michel Porcher) (A list of plant genii)

PITA - Paper Industry Technical Association. (in English)
PITA is an independent organization in the United Kingdom for promoting the technology and the knowledge on pulp and paper segments. PITA has an innovation in its website: the fantastic "factsheets" - some summarized technical sheets plenty of useful information. Another valuable service to society are the available editions of the magazine Paper Technology, one of the leading pulp and paper journals in a world basis. PITA has also a series of events, courses, etc. to the UK P&P technical people. (Home page) (Factsheets) (
Paper Technology Journal - in digital format you may find the issues for the years 2005, 2006 and 2007)

Online Technical Journals & Magazines

Here, we are bringing to you a selection of excellent online journals and magazines with connection to the Eucalyptus. In these journals, you may freely download articles or read the news, without the need of memberships, passwords or payments. The maximum you may need to do is to register yourself. They are journals or article collections at our hands (or eyes), available to all those wondering to read and to learn more about forestry, environment, pulp, paper, woods, and Eucalyptus, surely. Please, go to the search tool in each journal, and type the word "Eucalyptus" in the available search box. Then, have a look in the result. In this way, many times you may find valuable technical material. To the editors of these journals, our most sincere appreciation and thanks. We hope many other journals may join forces to enrich this scientific and technical knowledge chain.

Boletim Florestal Forest Brazil.
(in Portuguese)
This is a bulletin of the consulting and managing forest company named Forest Brazil. (To access the bulletins)

CIFOR Revista Ciencia e Investigacion Forestal. (in Spanish)
CIFOR is an INFOR - Instituto Forestal Chile magazine. Some of the issues are available in digital format for downloading. (About INFOR) (Available magazines)

Fiber Spectrum - Andritz. (in English)
Fiber Spectrum is an important technical information journal edited by one of the leading suppliers to the pulp, paper and energy sectors - Andritz. (Archives of past issues)

Floresta e Ambiente. (in Portuguese)
Floresta & Ambiente is a scientific magazine published by the Instituto de Florestas (Forestry Institute) - Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro - UFRRJ /Brazil. (About the magazine) (Available issues) (Available issues - Webpage in English)

Floresta em Foco. (in Portuguese)
It is a technical and marketing bulletin edited and published by Silviconsult, one of the leading Brazilian forestry consulting companies. The bulletin covers relevant issues to the forestry segment in Brazil.

Paper Age. (in English)
Paper Age is both a web portal and a digital magazine. It contains valuable information, news and technical issues to the pulp and paper sector. One very useful tool is the always updated list of prices for selected papers and market pulps. Go to visit: (Portal) (Archives of past issues - Paper Age) (Pulp prices list - several grades) (Paper prices list - several grades)

Revista Habitare. (in Portuguese)
Habitare is a technological and scientific magazine resulted from the development of the Program for Housing Technology, coordinated by FINEP - Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, a Brazilian financing bank to promote technological innovation. There are many articles related to the utilization of woods in the civil construction industry. (Objectives of the Habitare program) (Archives of past issues)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by
Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The Eucalyptus used for the production of soaps & detergents

Soap is known by human beings for a long time. It’s estimated that this product already exists for more than 2,500 years. The soaps were initially considered luxury articles by Phoenicians and Romans. In the IX Century, they have been rediscovered by the Europeans and gained additional force as a consuming product. The name soap has a doubtful origin. It could be originated from the Celtics, considered one of the first soap-makers in the world. They produced the "saipo", a soap-like product made from animal fat and vegetable ashes. Most historians believe the name soap comes from there. Another possible origin is from the middle age, when soaps restarted to be produced. One of the first cities to make soap at that time was Savona on Italy and maybe the name soap came to honor this place. Between doubts and curiosities, soap has established itself and is considered one of the most popular products consumed all over the world.

Although considering its long time utilization, the soap cleaning properties were only recognized along the 2nd Century After Christ. Some scientific works proved soaps capability for cleaning skin and body. Just after the 16th century, soaps became extremely popular in Europe and after that, on the rest of the planet. Today, these products are almost indispensable on human hygiene. Soap manufacturing technology and the related products such as the synthetic detergents, laundry soaps and also environmentally friendly products with biodegradable enzymes are becoming more common and frequent.

Before the 40's, most soaps were only made using the concepts of the saponification reaction ( This is nothing more than the mixture of fat, grease and/or oil and a strong caustic base (sodium or potassium hydroxide) submitted to heat and frequent stirring (strong movements). However, after the invention of the synthetic detergents, the common soaps started to be consumed in smaller scale because of their higher price. Today, they are mostly used to clean humans as toilet soaps or for domestic hygienic purposes.

Nowadays there are different kinds of soaps - they all have the same definition: a product obtained during the saponification reaction or neutralization of oils, fats, resins, greases, gum, wax and rosins using a strong caustic base. It also can be formed from the fatty acids and organic or inorganic bases obtained from the substances cited just before. The soaps have some derivative forms as powders, grains, grated soaps, and others used for domestic and industrial cleaning, as well. Besides the fatty compounds, there are other relevant ingredients used for soap-making like: abrasives, acids, glycerin, water, alkalis, salts, bleaching agents, chelants, solvents, colorants and the fragrances and perfumes.

Body soaps are specialty products used specifically for skin cleaning. Their major components are alkalis, salts, fatty acids and perfumes. Their format and texture are ideal for bath care. There are soaps on solid, liquid or paste forms. They are also defined as toilet soaps.

The detergents are synthetic products and are defined according to their function. They are products designated for surface cleaning and preserving purposes. They can also have in their composition some synthetic compound mixtures that are going to speed up the process and to act on specific cleaning (tensoactives and surfactants). The detergents act on the water surface tension and its colloidal reaction to fatty compounds, which helps their removal. There are mixtures of caustic soda and fatty acids that are water soluble, a desired characteristic for good cleaning effect.

The natural soaps can be easily degraded after their use. This is considered a very good environmental advantage. On the other hand, the synthetic detergents are more difficult to be naturally decomposed. This results in frequent foam pollution problems in rivers.

The resin and the exuded gum from Pinus and Eucalyptus are grease/fatty materials that can also be used on laundry soaps manufacture (powder form), low quality and less expensive body soaps and some other special kinds of soaps, as the handcraft and artisan made ones. The resin and the gum extracted from Pinus and Eucalyptus trees, respectively, are used for grease matter correction and to promote fast, abundant and better foaming.

Technically, the exudation extracted from the Eucalyptus trees cannot be called resins. This can be explained for the fact that Eucalyptus are hardwoods or angiosperms. So they don’t have resins ducts and resin canals like the Pinus do (as conifers). The Pinus resin has a fatty acid compound named resin acid. On opposite to that, the Eucalyptus produces polyphenolic extractives ( and also other types of fatty acids, known as gums or kinos. The resins and gums are saponified in lower levels and yields when compared to other oils or fats. So, they have soft texture and are considered too smooth to preserve a bar format. That’s why their soaps are considered to be of low quality. However, they may be successful in the form of liquid soaps. The "resin soap", name given also to the Eucalyptus gum soap, is formed from the saponification of this gum by caustic soda. Another undesirable effect is that resin and gum have dark yellow colors, requiring bleaching techniques to use the product as prime raw material for cleaning products.

In addition to the gum used for soap-making, the Eucalyptii have another commonly used ingredient for bars, powders, body soaps and also detergents. This valuable product is the essential oil, extracted mainly from Eucalyptus globulus and Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora leaves. In the same way the markets started to give preference to synthetic detergents, the natural fragrances used on cleaning products have also lost room and have been substituted by the artificial ones. According to Morris (1978), the offer/demand variation and price volatility of the natural essences on markets were the major responsible for this market losses. As a consequence, the synthetic scent/flavor started to dominate the perfumes and aromas markets. The natural fragrances as the Eucalyptus oil, citronella oil, rose and others have only a modest market share on the cleaning and domestic products.

Soap production corresponds to around 25 % of the total cleaning products. An important part of this percentage is from small industries or handcraft production. The soap-making technique is considered easy and accessible. So, it’s very well utilized on small scale soap factories, helping the development of some Brazilian regions, offering additional incomes to local families. The increasing demand for environmentally friendly products, handcraft made toilet soaps or even some homemade ones are grabbing more market share, although facing the strong competition of the industrialized low cost soaps. Even kitchen oil and other food fats left over that were thrown out on the garbage are now becoming raw materials for the own family soap making.

The Eucalyptus oil essences are considered natural, so they are largely employed as handcraft soap fragrances. Another explanation for this high level utilization is because the Eucalyptus oil not only helps on cleaning, but it also has antiseptic properties and gives suitable odor and a refreshing skin tactile feeling. C. citriodora produces large amounts of essential oils, especially citronellal. It has a much appreciated smell and for this reason it’s used as fragrance. Furthermore, other species like E. globulus produces cineol, witch has medicinal and antiseptic properties. The cineol can also be added as a soap ingredient, acting as therapeutic functions and for the aromatherapy (therapeutic principles volatilization giving positive sensation/feelings to the patient).

During soap-making, the essential oils are the last ingredients to be added on the soap manufacturing mixture. The caustic soda and fat have already reacted on saponification and turned into hot semi-liquid soap. That’s the recommended time to add the fragrances and colorants, keeping on steering until they are all incorporated into the soap.

The main conclusion coming from this text is that the Eucalyptus trees have an important role on cleaning products production, supplying raw materials for the aroma and saponification (gum and fatty acid compounds). So, Eucalyptus plays a role contributing to many family incomes and helping on making environmentally correct products. The Eucalyptus odor is becoming popular as cleaning product fragrance. We can often find soap articles on the market with this smell. In Brazil, soap-making techniques can be easily found on internet and are already well-disseminated among this country people. There are lots of Eucalyptus soap recipes and manufacturing techniques in the web. Most of them have natural fragrances using Eucalyptus oil, as one of the fragrance choices.

We suggest the reading of the links just below for all interested people on making home artisanal soaps or even on starting an handcraft soap business using the kitchen fat left over, giving a more correct destination for this waste. The Eucalyptus oil has low cost and can be found on most supermarkets.

Check pictures and world Eucalyptus market cleaning products and be surprised with this another important human society utilization for the Eucalyptus trees. Enjoy the navigation: there are very interesting links to be opened. In some of them, please find recipes, pictures and suggestions for using Eucalyptus based soaps.

General reports and websites about soaps, detergents and essential oils:

ANVISA – Saneantes – Conceitos tecnicos. (in Portuguese). Access on 02.12.2008
The Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA) has placed in its website the main definitions for sanitizing products, such as soaps, detergents and disinfectants.

Soap, detergent and cosmetic making classes. (in English). Access on 2.12. 2008
Educational website with the objective to transfer and to disseminate the knowledge about cosmetics and domestic laundry and sanitary products, including artisanal toilet soaps. The Eucalyptus essential oil is recommended several times for the manufacture of soaps and toilet soaps.

O que sao detergentes biodegradaveis? (in Portuguese). Yahoo! Answers. Access on 02.12.2008
A Q&A section in the Yahoo! website. Have a look in the definitions about biodegradable detergents and some other Q&A related to other laundry products, some of them considered to be environmentally correct in their formulations and manufacturing process.

Creative uses for essential oils. (in English). Access on 2.12. 2008
The blog has several creative ideas for the utilization of the Eucalyptus oils. One of them is to add some drops of these oils in the bath water. This brings a very nice odor and a refreshing sensation to the user.

Eucalyptus oil. ANU - Australian National University, Australia. (in English). Access on 27.11.2008
Please, find in this website several good hints for using the Eucalyptus oil for laundry and cleaning clothes. There is a suggestion to use pure Eucalyptus essential oil to remove grease stains, spots of inks from pens, chewing gums, and many other types of dirt spots. Besides all this, there is also a lot of fun by navigating in the website.

All purpose carpet cleaning compositions. (in English). Access on 27.11.2008
This patent refers to the use of Eucalyptus essential oil to odorize cleaning products and to disinfect carpets from mites.

Bathroom, kitchen cleaner. Eucalypt oil. (in English). Access on 20.11.2008
This website discusses properties and uses for the Eucalyptus oils. Also, it brings some suggestions about using these oils in the laundry machines, for cleaning kitchens and also bathrooms.

Technical and scientific articles about soaps, detergents and Eucalyptus essential oils (in English or in Portuguese):

Soap composition. P. W. Elliott. (2008)

Dossie Tecnico: Sabao. M. S. Uchimura. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana. 27 pp. (2007)

Dossie Tecnico: Fabricacao de produtos de higiene pessoal. E. F. R. O. Motta. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. REDETEC. 37 pp. (2007)

Quais os processos necessarios para fabricacao de material de limpeza, bem como as materias-primas usadas e quais maquinas usadas? P. R. C. Silva. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. RETEC. 10 pp. (2006)

Chemical compositional and intra provenance variation for content of essential oil in Eucalyptus crebra. N.R. Ahmad; M.A. Hanif; U. Rashid. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 4(5): 519 – 523. (2005)

Gostaria de obter informacoes sobre a fabricacao de sabao em po, se possivel a formula e o processo de fabricacao, bem como literatura existente para pesquisa. L. T. Leite. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. TECPAR. (2005)

Resgatando vidas e esperanca atraves da reciclagem de residuos de oleo vegetal: sabao esperanca. D.N. Heidrich; J. Ricardo; V.B.N. Ferreira; P.L.F. Silva. 8 pp. 2º Congresso Brasileiro de Extensao Universitaria. (2004)

Treatment for surface treatment and cleaning which contains Eucalyptus oil, and wooden building material impregnated with said treatment. (2002)

Environmental and health assessment of substances in household detergents and cosmetic detergent products. T. Madsen; H. B. Boyd; D. Nylen; A. R. Pedersen; G. I. Petersen; F. Simonsen. Environmental Project No. 615. Miljoprojekt. 240 pp. (2001)

Produtos de limpeza agroecologicos. Produtos ecologicos. Centro Ecologico. Ecologia no Dia a Dia. Specialized website. (2000)

Essential oils widely used in flavors and fragrances. Industrial Uses. Specialty Plants Products. 6 pp. (1995)

Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (1995)
(Chapter 05: Eucalyptus oils)

Abstract: Soap and detergent fragrances — natural vs. synthetic. E.A. Morris. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society Vol.55. 1 p. (1978)

Shortages and regulations: headaches for toilet soap formulators. J. H. Pickin Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society Vol. 51. 1 p. (1974)

Cursos de produtos de limpeza: Cosmeticos em geral. N. M. Azevedo. 53 pp. (Undated)

Some available products in the global markets (they are not references for purchasing - they are only examples of applications):

Australian Eucalyptus soap and rub. (in English)

Eucalyptus pet soap. (in English)

JACKS corporation. Eucalyptus oil products.(in English)

Organic Eucalyptus & tea tree. (in English)

HawkMoon. Handmade natural soaps. Essential oil natural soaps. (in English)

Natural Laundry Soap – Eucalyptus. (in English)

Laundry liquid. (in English)

Seventh generation natural laundry detergent liquid, blue Eucalyptus & lavender scent. (in English)

Natural spearmint Eucalyptus laundry soap- 48 loads- Essential oils. (in English)

Kiss a koala soap. Spearmint Eucalyptus. (in English)

The Green Clean Review. Blue Eucalyptus lavender laundry detergent.
(in English)

Druide jabon oxigenante clorofila y eucalipto. (in Spanish)

Jabon de eucalipto. Como hacer. (in Spanish)

Jabon menta eucalipto relajante muscular. (in Spanish)

Eucalyptus massage bars. (in English)

Jabon de Eucalyptus citriodora. (in Spanish)

Jabon de eucalipto. (in Spanish)

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel

Treating the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills

I have had opportunities of knowing such magnificent WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) in bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp mills. I understand that they reflect an investors’ huge care in controlling pollution and in complying with the restrictive limits imposed by legislation. These cares and concerns coming from our entrepreneurs and mill leaderships are very welcome. However, (and there is always a however, isn’t it?) this all consists of end-of-pipe technologies, based upon the concept that pollution exists and for this reason itself we have to treat it. It happens that all these WWTPs, which provide beautiful photographs and bring pride to our technicians, have also an environmental impact and it is not that small. They consume natural resources to be made and to operate. They consume electric power, water, chemical products, and generate a high amount of residues, being the main ones: primary, secondary and tertiary sludges. Water pollution ends up being transferred to sludges – solid residues – at a high environmental and economic costs. The primary sludge receives suspended solids. The secondary and tertiary sludges receive dissolved organic material. Sludge weights and volumes generated in a pulp and/or paper mill, in a day-to-day basis, are fantastic. Since sludges are difficult to dewater, their dry weights are multiplied by 3 to 6 when they are delivered wet. Even when correctly managed, composted, burnt, recycled or landfilled they represent an environmental impact to be avoided and minimized. Many times they become environmental debts / liabilities to be monitored forever.

Nowadays, the investments in WasteWater Treatment Plants and in Solid Waste Recycling Plants are huge in our sector. Some mills go to the limit of purchasing treatment plants with membranes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) for the whole effluent flow, regardless the quality of the different waters that are being added to compose such a gross/raw effluent. Other ones fit long pipes along third parties lands, crossing ten’s of kilometers to discharge effluents into the sea, where they believe impact will be minimized. This all means high capital demand, and high operating and depreciation costs. In this manner, competitiveness proportionally decreases, no doubt about that. Rather than complaining, the answer is perhaps to change the model to another one.

I have always been saying and insistently repeating that the answer to pollution is to be found where it is generated, where our technology or operators fail when discharge it to be treated. There is no advantage at all to have great losses of chemicals and suspended solids to the WWTP and then produce a highly clean treated effluent, almost pure water, that some directors insist on telling us that "it could even be drinkable". Environmental impact is still high, in spite of a treated effluent showing excellent standards.

Environmental wasting happens here in this just mentioned case in three ways:

• By discharging " useful raw materials" from the process to the effluent, in the form of pollution;
• By the high demands on effluent treatment for treating these losses;
• By the high demands in handling, recycling, disposing and landfilling generated sludges.

For my mind, solving the bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater problems depends to a large extent on the answers we give to a very simple question: "what should I do to reduce the organic material load (BOD – Biochemical Oxygen Demand; COD – Chemical Oxygen Demand); TSS – Total Suspended Solids; AOX – Adsorbable Halogenated Organic Compounds; salinity (conductivity); temperature and flow rate of the raw effluent? We call raw effluent the addition of the sectorial effluents which are sent to the WWTP to be treated. We are talking about raw effluent generation, is that clear? I'm not proposing to solve the problem treating the effluent, but avoiding to generate raw effluent as much as possible.

I have already written on previous Eucalyptus Newsletter’s mini-articles my considerations about water consumption reduction, and closing water cycles in bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp mills. I am quite determined to cooperate in achieving this goal. If I was not, I would not be offering one more mini-article for your reading. At the same time that I try to motivate, I try to offer alternatives I believe in such. Hence, if you want continue to read, I promise to offer you good reasons for reflecting and acting. Our final target should then be generating less wastewaters and at the same time to meet law requirements in terms of concentrations (ppm, ppb), and in terms of specific loads (kg/adt) for the pollutants. It is a difficult, but not impossible task.

It all begins with the way our mill is designed. Technicians in general choose, sometimes up-to-date and charming technologies, or sometimes lower cost ones. After establishing the pulp mill project, they calculate sectorial pollution and water loads and then design the WWTP and the industrial solid waste landfill. Many of the modern technologies are evidently well optimized, drawn to operate at higher efficiency, no doubts about that. What I propose, however, is exactly a change in the focus: to pre-define what is the effluent volume that we are going to treat (raw effluent) and what are the maximum pollution loads that are going to reach the WasteWater Treatment Plant. We must stress that a challenging level is welcome... For example, we may pre-define that our kraft mill would have a specific generation of raw effluent on the basis of 20 m³/adt; a COD load of 25 kg/adt; a BOD load of 8 kg/adt, and the Total Suspended Solids would be 2 kg/adt. All they based on the raw effluent. To be more exciting, we could also pre-establish that the maximum raw effluent temperature reaching the WWTP should be 40ºC. Based on this fact, the WWTP would not be required to have a cooling tower to reduce raw effluent temperature. In case we would bring back our mind to pre-settle the final treated effluent loads and flows, our efforts would be redirected to the construction of magnificent WWTP and not to solve the pollution problems along the industrial and manufacturing process. Was I clear enough?

To restrict the pollution generation and to prevent pollution loads and flows, we need to pre-define the maximum levels in each one of the generation sources, or mill sectors. There are several recommended steps to be followed, as:

Step 01: Select minimum environmental impact technologies, such as:
• oxygen delignification of the pulp in a 100% closed cycle (no effluent generation);
• acid stage to chemically hydrolyze the hexenuronic acids still present in the unbleached or oxygen delignified pulp;
• "ECF Light" bleaching sequences. These sequences do allow to have cleaner effluents, although there is a possibility to have higher non-lignin COD generation due to more pronounced hemicelluloses dissolution;
• washing presses in all fiberline. However, these presses must deliver squeezed pulps with over 30% consistencies.
• highly efficient evaporation plant, with minimum condensates or black liquor carry-over;
• etc., etc.

Step 02: Select preventive technologies to perform as barriers to the operational losses (water, dissolved organic material, fibers, chemical raw materials, etc.). Some examples of such technologies:
• efficient and well-designed spill collection and losses prevention system;
• storage tanks with extra capacities to retain sectorial losses to be reincorporated back into the process and not to be discharged to the WWTP;
• filters to collect fiber losses (valuable suspended solids) in rich-fibers filtrates such as: bleaching line, pulp sheet forming and drying, etc.;
• fiber sorting and recycling at the centricleaners effluent flows. This material is too valuable to be sent to the primary clarifiers. This screening system deserves a local "kidney" type treatment.
• countercurrent washing along all fiberline, with minimum losses of wastewaters;
• etc.; etc.

Step 03: Select sectorial "kidney" systems, transferring to the different operational areas part of the responsibility to treat the locally generated pollution. Examples are:
• chloride removal system to purify the recovery boiler ashes (system closure leads to chloride ion higher concentration in the kraft recovery cycle);
• system to recover water in the log washing and wood room areas;
• efficient condensate stripping and distillation - with reduced COD loads in clean condensates and generation of biofuels (ex: methanol);
• indirect contact heat exchangers to recover the heat from evaporation condensates and bleaching filtrates;
• membrane system to purify contaminated sectorial effluents, preventing the mixture of these high-load effluents to other better quality effluents from other areas. These membrane systems would be running as kidney devices, but oriented to small flows, not to the overall effluent flow.
• etc.; etc.

Step 04: System closures and water reuses. For the success of these measures, some recommendations are:
• segregate all used waters and give to the recyclable ones another chance in the mill. Some waters are so good in quality that deserve to be pumped to the Water Treatment Plant and not to the WasteWater Treatment Plant. Among these high quality waters we may mention: storm water, sealing waters, hydraulic waters, vacuum pump waters, clean condensates, etc.
• eliminate the adoption of the today's technology for cooling towers. These towers lose a high percentage of the water (or effluent) to the atmosphere. We need better technologies, the ones that may cool the water, but not losing so much of this natural resource;
• use as much as possible of the evaporation clean condensates in brown pulp washing;
• use as much as possible of the semi-clean evaporation condensates in the causticising unit to manufacture the kraft white liquor.
• use the dirty evaporation condensates to rewet the wood chips in the chip piles (condensates would become chip moisture instead of pollution load).
• etc.; etc.

Step 05: Adopt the rule "Prevent losses and segregate waters" - we need to work in the causes and not with the end-of-pipe technologies.

Step 06: Kill the problems at the sources, at the origin. There are several situations in a kraft pulp mill where my suggestion is to eliminate any chance to have an effluent: chemical plant, causticising, digester, brown pulp washing, recovery boiler, etc.

Imagine now the following: in case we are able to reduce the raw effluent generation to 20 m³/adt of pulp, as proposed, and completely feasible, we would be reducing the hydraulic capacity of our WWTP in about 30% in comparison to the just started modern bleached kraft pulp mills, that have being built and started operation from 2005 to 2008. In case we may bring the raw effluent temperature to 40 - 45ºC and no longer 60 - 65ºC, another fantastic environmental gain with design simplifications would be achieved. This is also feasible. In case we are able to reduce overall fiber losses and sand/soil losses in the wood room area, the primary treatment may be drastically reduced to a simple and small clarifier. Most of the effluent would be low solids not demanding for primary treatment; only a small fraction would be high solids deserving a primary clarifier. This is also viable. In case the COD total losses could be reduced to a maximum of 20 - 25 kg/adt in the raw effluent, the requirements for secondary and tertiary treatments would also be reduced and simplified. When I reinforce the fact that these things are feasible, I'm based on successful cases already being achieved in some world-class mills in the P&P sector. There are several minimum impact mills operating with similar figures in our kraft pulp business. Even these high quality mills have room for further improvements.

My dear friends, the wastewater treatment has its starting point in the mill processes. Wastewater treatment must be operated in any of the mill process area through prevention, segregation and commitments/specifications. The sophisticated end-of-pipe technologies are also necessary, but only when the alternatives to prevent pollution in the process are exhausted. For these very reasons, when the limits imposed by legislation to your mill are extremely strict, do not go straight to a tertiary level wastewater treatment plant. There are many mills using aluminum sulfate or APC (aluminum poli-chloride) for flocculation of the residual dissolved organic matter. This water pollution would leave the mill as sludge. The environmental impact of a flocculation type tertiary level wastewater treatment is also high. We have several impacts such: the aluminum sulfate has some level of ecotoxicity, aluminum flocculants demand also high environmental impacts to be manufactured, their utilization has as consequence a huge generation of tertiary sludge. Flocculation/clarification with aluminum sulfate corresponds to enormous charges/loads of flocculants (from 12 to 25 pulp of aluminum sulfate with 18 molecules of constitution water). A significant proportion of the aluminum sulfate will be converted into tertiary sludge (about 50% of the added chemical). The remaining will leave the mill dissolved in the final treated effluent, as residual chemical. It may have some impact to the water course where the effluent is discarded. This means the following: to remove from 5 to 10 kg of COD/adt pulp from the secondary treated effluent, we generate about 15 to 22 of tertiary sludge/adt pulp. An issue and numbers to keep in mind...

From what it was said till now, we may think that we are improving the environment, but we are having other impacts and misutilization of natural resources along the whole life cycle. As I have just mentioned, to remove some COD and color from the secondary effluent, we are bringing other environmental losses. In reality, when we are minimizing some effects, we may be generating others. This is the Law of Nature - things tend to move in opposite directions, in search of equilibrium.

Today, with the modernization of the eco-efficient technologies in addition to the environmental management and responsibilities in our pulp mills, we are able to reach very low and sound levels of pollution at the secondary biologically treated effluents: excellent values of COD, BOD, AOX, TSS, conductivity, color and temperature are been reported. As far as we are able to improve the quality of the raw effluent, the resulting treated effluent will be very good in quality. For your reference, we are presenting just ahead in the following table, some figures that are normal in ecoefficient and world-class modern bleached kraft pulp mills using Eucalyptus as raw material. Please, observe the values for pollution load along the WWTP - from raw effluent to final tertiary level treated effluent (flocculation/clarification with aluminum sulfate).

State-of-the-art Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mills:

Units in kg/adt pulp
Raw Effluent
Secondary Level Effluent
Tertiary Level Effluent
23 – 26
6 - 9
1,5 - 3
5 - 7
0,25 – 0,45
0,15 – 0,3
0,2 – 0,25
0,04 – 0,07
0,02 – 0,05
1,5 - 2
0,4 – 0,6
0,3 – 0,4
Real color
30 - 45
10 - 15
2 - 4
(micro S/cm)
2.000 – 3.000
2.500 – 3.000
3.000 – 3.500

Under an environmental point of view, an appropriate process for pollution prevention and process losses retention is able to generate a low impact raw effluent, that may be treated to an adequate level of quality by a secondary type wastewater treatment plant. This effluent may be appropriate to be discharged in many water courses without any additional requirements. In case the authorities recommend to have a tertiary level WWTP because the receiving water body is somewhat fragile, I suggest first to evaluate a system of stabilization ponds or a well-designed constructed wetland. For this, we need a larger area, but this is not a problem to most of the kraft pulp mills. In case we may be considering a "greenfield" mill, this will be very simple and welcome to be included in the project. Nothing better to count with Nature to finalize the wastewater treatment. Our secondary level effluent may become more stable, with more life, and naturally equilibrated. There are alternatives, no doubts about. In case they are more natural and with minimum impact, even better. However, we shall not discard the utilization of the tertiary level treatment with aluminum sulfate or any other flocculants. Also, the filtration with membranes may be the sole alternative in some cases. We have situations and situations, and in some cases, the sophisticated end-of-pipe technology is the remaining and most appropriate one.

As a conclusion my dear friends, when you are to elaborate an environmental impact study of your kraft pulp mill, please, do also one to your wastewater treatment plant. You are invited to use the LCA - Life Cycle Analysis. From this study, I'm sure that many creative solutions may come as alternatives to minimize the overall environmental effect of your operations. You may choose new solutions to bring your wastewater treatment plant and your pulp mill to the most environmentally sound ones. At the same time, it is fundamental to search for eco-efficiency in the mill processes. When evaluating in such way, we will be considering not only the impact of the treated effluent flows and concentrations, but all the mill processes, including the generation, treatment and disposal of the effluents, raw materials and corresponding solid wastes.

Any industrial activity of such extent generates environmental impacts. This is a unquestionable reality. However, better we know them, better and more efficiently we may reduce these impacts in intensity, frequency, magnitude, range, extension, risk, etc. Our pulp mills will be better, and our effluent treatment will be also minimum impact, not only our pulp mills.

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