Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends
Here we are again, with the 18th
issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information
and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember
that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding
about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that
you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are
forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on
good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations
of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire
these trees and the products they offer to Society.
This edition brings to you another chapter of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, continuing the series of chapters about the "eco-efficient
management of solid wastes in the pulp and paper industry". We
hope that it may be bringing some new insights about this exciting
topic. The aim is helping the P&P sector to reduce the generation
of wastes and to recycle what is being impossible to eliminate at the
In the section "The friends of the Eucalyptus" I'm introducing
to you a friend of mine for over 20 years, so close that I consider
him as my "Chilean brother". All forest sector in Chile know
him very well. However, his competence, determination, and skills in
teaching, researching and institutional working should become renowned
also in the world. I'm talking about "professor Jose Paz Pena", a great friend of the Eucalyptus, as we are to see just a couple of
my mini-article deals with "innovative
ways to face the wastewater treatment in the Eucalyptus bleached
kraft pulp mills". Once more, I'm bringing
an environmental subject as the main issue in my Eucalyptus Newsletter.
I know my objectives very well: to bring
my cooperation to a substantial environmental improvement in the pulp
business; and, as a consequence, in its relation to the interested
parties of our Society.
In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us this time about the "manufacture
of soaps and detergents", having as raw materials the essential
oils and exuded extractives obtained from the Eucalyptus trees. Something
is becoming very often to be found in our daily life, but that many
of us is far away to imagine from where and how they are produced.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting
partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics and Forestal Web.
They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia,
Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However,
thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote
our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for
believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more
about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:
again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the 9,500
registered people receiving monthly these online
about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and
to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications
may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also
the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP,
Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates,
Suzano, VCP and
from the supporting partners.
Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all
hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.
Online Book Chapter 13 (in Portuguese)
Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Jose Paz Pena
on Events and Courses
Technical Journals & Magazines
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The Eucalyptus used
for the production of soaps & detergents (by Ester
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached
Kraft Pulp Mills
Online Book Chapter 13 (in Portuguese)
downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 13.5 MB) just click below
over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier,
is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save
target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer
directories. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in
your computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it. Since it is a heavy file,
please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e
Papel de Eucalipto. Parte 02: Fatores de sucesso para seu gerenciamento"
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Professor Jose Paz Pena
this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter I feel very confortable and
extremely happy to introduce to you one of the most
admirable friends of the Eucalyptus, and at the same time, one of my
great personal friends, my dear "Chilean brother" professor
Jose Paz Pena. Professor Jose Paz, as he is kindly known and admired
by all forest-based sector in Chile, is definitively one of the great
and unquestionable icons of the Latin American forest industry. His achievements,
both academic, didactic and on scientific research have exceeded the
limits of Chile. Jose Paz is very well-known also in Brazil, Mexico,
Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, etc.
Although retired from his university works at Universidad de Concepcion
(http://www.udec.cl/index.html) since 1997, Jose Paz continues being
very active and helpful to the pulp and paper segment, since he is continuously
being reelected director of ATCP Chile - Technical Association of Pulp
and Paper - Chile (http://www.atcp.cl/content/view/7/1/ ). In this association,
he has always being distinguished with relevant positions in the board
of directors, from the time he participated in the association foundation
His life, both personal and professional, is very rich in conquests and
achievements. These relevant facts associated with his enormous personal
charism and affinity to people, have converted Jose Paz in someone very
admired and loved by all who know him.
Jose Paz was born
in the municipality of Arauco, Chile, in 1932. At those times, the Chilean
forestry sector was still modest and economically
inexpressive. The saying "Chile - a forestry country" was far
from become a reality, as it is today (http://www.chilepaisforestal.cl).
Being short, in the early 1900's, the Chilean forest sector was closer
to an extractivism model using natural resources, than being an admired
segment based on sustainable forest plantations as it is now-a-days.
The highly engineered plantations of "pino insigne" - Pinus
radiata - (http://www.papelnet.cl/arbol/pino_insigne.htm) and Eucalyptus
globulus and E.nitens (http://www.papelnet.cl/arbol/eucalipto.htm) had
still to be born.
Jose Paz was born in rural lands, in a small farm owned by his grandparents.
When a child, he was not used to find Eucalyptus and Pinus trees
to enjoy then for playing as a kid. However, he was used to the Chilean
trees, one of his expertise. He knows very much the country's natural
resources. I believe this was the origin of his special pleasure to Nature
and to the forestry resources. Later, years ahead, he was able to purchase
all the land correspondent to the farm where he was born from his relatives,
legatees of that rural property. Jose Paz got back the land he was born
to plant, guess what? Today, he has 1.5 hectares planted with Pinus
radiata and 12 hectares with Eucalyptus globulus. Some years ago, he started
planting E.nitens, but a strong attack of an Eucalyptus nitens pest ("Gusano
del Tebo" - Chilecomadia valdiviana) make him change the mind to
E.globulus, a more tolerant and resistant species, with a better priced
wood. Today, he is patiently waiting the trees to grow, aiming to take
advantage of the income they will provide to him in a couple of years
Jose Paz is one of
the sons in a numerous family, being a total of 9 brothers/sisters. After
getting married with Maria Eliana in 1965, they
kept the rule. His family is composed of 3 "children" (two
boys and one girl), who have given them 6 grandchildren.
Jose Paz spent his childhood in Arauco, studying and dreaming to grow
professionally. Thanks to his studies and efforts, he deserved a scholarship
for continuing studies at Concepcion, the major city in the region. In
1954, he started his academic studies at the UDEC - Universidad de Concepcion,
selecting the chemical engineering career. Along his university studies,
he lived in the university student housing system. He feels very luck
for this fact, because he had the chance to get several friends from
other careers. This fact enabled him to open the mind to other things
and to gain a global view, in times when the telecommunications were
still very strict. He concluded his studies in 1961, writing as the conclusion
academic work a technical paper about "Pinus radiata wood
He selected trees and woods for his studies, as a result of the care
and love he always had for them, since the time he lived in the rural
area of Arauco. Exactly at the time he was studying at UDEC, the renowned "Laboratory
of Forest Products" was being born at the University. The responsible
for the creation of this laboratory, which facilities and reseraches
were the drivers to the Chilean forest industry development, was the
chemical engineer Mr.Ingo Junge. Ingo was brilliant, talented and visionary.
He was able to foresee a bright future to the forest industry in Chile,
and decided to work for this to happen. Ingo had strong influence to
the creation of INFOR - Forest Institute of Chile and INFORSA, a newsprint
paper mill in the region of Nacimiento. When Ingo left the university
to join the paper industry, he had influence to promote partnerships
between the paper companies and the Forest Products Laboratory he had
helped to be created at the Universidad de Concepcion. This means that
the forest/industry integration in Chile started very early in Chile,
one of the reasons for the great success years later.
Jose Paz started working as a researcher at the Forest Products Laboratory
- UDEC- just after his graduation as chemical engineer. There, he found
his great master teacher and friend, professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza.
With Roberto, Jose has cultivated a partnership and a strong friendship
for decades, both deserving all recognition and admiration in Chile due
to their numerous achievements and academic results. Together, they could
teach and being responsible for hundreds of students along their university
careers. We may say, without any fear of committing an error or an injustice,
that the great majority of all the mill managers and technical staff
in the Chilean pulp and paper mills have been ex-students and are admirers
of Don Jose and Don Roberto. Both have helped, with their talent and
hardwork, the consolidation and the growth of a victorious pulp and paper
industry in that country. Jose always values and give high importance
to the role occupied by two of the engineers working at the early stages
of the UDEC forest products laboratory: Ingo Junge and Edgard Bluhm.
He also always mentions the importance of his talented successor, Dr.
Jose's first research studies at the university were oriented to the
woods produced by trees of Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus globulus, acacias
e poplars. The initial objective was the generation of a bank of data
to favor the commercial utilization of these woods in Chile. Originally,
the laboratory facilities were very modest and simple. However, along
the 80's, they received support from OAS - Organization of American States
to modernize and to upgrade the laboratory.
Eucalyptus globulus was originally planted in Chile to supply dense and
resistant wood to the mining galleries. On the other hand, Pinus
radiata detached from other forest species in reason of the high growth rates
and superior wood quality for timber/lumber. The radiata pine wood residues
coming from sawmills soon started being used for kraft pulping by the
pulp/paper industry. The studies with Eucalyptus and Pinus gained importance
and were occupying all the attention at the laboratory. You are to notice
this fact in the list of Jose's papers provided below. The Eucalyptus pulp and paper potentialities were soon discovered by Jose and Roberto.
They started to show the pulping results with the Eucalyptus in the late
60's, early 70's. However, there was no response from the not so interested
parties. In a CORFO event (Corporacion de Fomento de la Produccion -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CORFO), they tried to prove the enormous
potentials for the Eucalyptus to Chile, due the papermaking advantages
of the Eucalyptus globulus wood, both in yield and in fiber quality.
At that time, very little attention was given to their efforts. The focus
was all placed on top of the Pinus radiata forests and woods. Some pulp
and paper mills were obtaining good success with radiata pine long fibers.
The low level of tradition with Eucalyptus were not drivers for growing
in this raw material direction. The Chilean pulp and paper industry was
growing, but even so, without the utilization of the Eucalyptus.
After the first attempts and the corresponding fails to demonstrate that
the Eucalyptus could be classified as feasible pulping species to Chile,
Jose and Roberto did not give up. They continued the studies, now in
connection with INFOR, the organization that promoted the utilization
of E.nitens in Chile. They have grabbed this task with a lot of determination,
they had to convince many actors in Chile to succeed. However, they were
favored by the great success the Eucalyptus were reaching in the neighbor
country Brazil. In Brazil, many pulp mills were installed late 70's,
based on the utilization of Eucalyptus as raw material. Jose and Roberto
have dedicated efforts and research studies to both Eucalyptus and Pinus
radiata. For this reason, I feel confortable to name them not only "Friends
of the Eucalyptus", but "Friends of the Pinus",
The main research lines in the forest products laboratory were cored
at: pulping, bleaching, wood and fiber qualities. The innumerous papers
and articles developed by the laboratory team and by the UDEC students
have provided more options to Chile for the right decisions, both at
the private and governmental sides. The country was able to find its
way to reach the deserved success with the forest based industry and
Beyond the academic research and resulting scientific papers, Jose and
Roberto have been responsible for building the foundations to the pulp
and paper education in a region where this industry started to blossom:
the Bio Bio river region. The course they have taught for years at UDEC
had the name "Chemical process industries", and offered to
both chemical and industrial engineering careers. Since in Chile one
of conditions to become graduated in engineering is to present an original
technological paper to conclude the course, Jose Paz has an enormous
pride to have had the opportunity to be the advisor for ten's of these
Jose Paz was professor at Universidad de Concepcion from 1961 till 1997.
He is proud to know, I guess even by name, any of all his previous students.
Jose has several papers published most of them in partnership with Roberto
and also with his students. He is also very proud of his class hand-outs,
about pulping, bleaching and wood characteristics and properties. The
great majority of his papers have being released through the ATCP Chile
publications: Celulosa y Papel magazine and proceedings of the ATCP major
event - Jornadas Tecnicas de la Celulosa y el Papel. Furthermore, Jose
had several opportunities to show his scientific and technical value
in international events and courses, such as: Mexico, USA, Brazil, Colombia,
Besides academy and science, Jose Paz has strong participation in institutional
and associative activities. In 1972, a group of 25 enthusiastic pulp
and paper technicians, including Jose, have founded the Chilean technical
association of pulp and paper - ATCP Chile. Besides being one of the
founders, Jose has had intense and prominent work in the ATCP board of
directors. His career has always been very rich, active and creative,
in anything he does.
My knowledge and friendship with Jose Paz started in 1987, when I was
invited to present a speech about the Eucalyptus in Brazil (from
forestry to pulping utilization as raw material). This took place in
in one of the first ATCP Jornadas Tecnicas (the third one - http://www.atcp.cl/content/view/16/42/).
It has been very easy to develop this friendship, something very good
to be always cultivated. In 1988, I was invited by ATCP Chile to present
a full-week course on Eucalyptus for pulping/papermaking in
Chile. The course was financed with resources coming from UNDP (United
Program - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Development_Programme).
The course was a success and my friendship to Chile and to Jose was raised
to the top. (http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/Curso%20sobre%20Eucalipto%20ATCP%20Chile%20Celso%20Foelkel.pdf).
At that time, there was close to nothing in terms of Eucalyptus wood
utilization for pulping in Chile. There were only some industrial trials,
but a lot of interest and anticipation. In Brazil, the Eucalyptus had
reached a position of prominence as source of hardwood fibers to the
marked pulp industry. The Brazilian example was a good driver to Chilean
companies. Jose Paz made strong efforts to my course success, he was
also one of my diligent students. Today, more than 20 years later, I
may affirm, without any doubts, that I had, as Jose and Roberto, a key
participation, placing some stones for paving the road of success for
the Eucalyptus trees as raw material for bleached kraft market
pulp in Chile. Something I'm very proud of, since I have Chile as a country
admire and where I have many good friends.
From 1988 onwards, the forest-based industry in Chile has developed at
fantastic rates. There are new names, and many newcomers are occupying
key positions in this industry, both business and technical. For this
very reason, I want to make this life tribute to Jose Paz and Roberto
Melo. I do this with a lot of confidence, justice and admiration for
them. It is far more than fair to honor them, and with warm and enthusiastic
applause. In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we had Jose Paz
as our guest, although it is impossible to separate both names - Jose
Paz and Roberto Melo. In future edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter,
we'll bring to you professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza's life and achievements.
When I asked Jose Paz which events he could define as his most important
professional achievements, he replied to me with his usual candor:
have had the chance to educate so many engineers to the forest industry
with his classes at Universidad de Concepcion;
• to provide high quality information about the wood quality and potentials
for Chile for several forest species;
• to have contributed to many mill optimization projects and technological
developments to Chilean companies;
• to be one of the ATCP Chile founders, helping the association to grow,
to survive difficult times, and to develop, always with the belief
and the ideal for collective efforts and results."
Jose Paz life is not only satiated by science, education and technology.
He has always being
very dedicated to his family, friends,
and sports (gymnastics, tennis, karate); he loves Nature and for
this reason he always travels with Maria Eliana to know more the Chile
beauties and also other countries.
Professor Jose Paz, it is a honor to me being a great admirer of
the remarkable human being you are; to be also "your brother in targets,
ideals, and in friendship". It is a great honor to me to
introduce you to Eucalyptus Newsletter readers as one of the great "Friends
of the Eucalyptus". Thanks very much for all you have done
to Chile, to Chileans, to the pulp and paper segment, and to the Eucalyptus.
Know more about professor Jose Paz's academic and
Entrevista al profesor Jose Paz Pena. Ingeniero Civil Quimico. Universidad
de Concepcion. Celulosa y Papel 16(1): 16 – 20. (2000) (in Spanish)
Paz: Experiencia en investigacion. Simplified
Curriculum Vitae. (in Spanish)
historia de ATCP Chile. J. Paz Pena. Celulosa
y Papel. 2 pp. (in Spanish)
reflejam el desarrollo del sector. J. Paz Pena.
VI Jornadas Tecnicas ATCP. Celulosa y Papel. 1 pp. (1995) (in Spanish)
en la formacion profesional en el area de la celulosa y el papel
de Chile. J. Paz; R. Melo. 6 pp. (in Spanish)
Know more about professor Jose Paz's technical and scientific
production along his career:
especies en la produccion de celulosa. J. Paz; R. Melo. Celulosa y Papel
3(1): 13 – 15. (1987) (in Spanish)
Pulpas kraft mediante licor blanco oxidado. G. Yanez; J. Paz; M. Fernandez.
Celulosa y Papel 6(2): 22 – 25. (1990) (in Spanish)
Ensayos de pulpaje y blanqueo de madera de eucaliptos (Eucalyptus
spp.). R. Melo; J. Paz; A. Solis; V. Carrasco. Celulosa y Papel 7(1). 10 pp.
(1991) (in Spanish)
Aptitud pulpable del aserrim. V. Drapela; J. Paz; R. Melo. Celulosa y
Papel 8(2): 14 – 20. (1992) (in Spanish)
Caracteristicas fisicas, quimicas y biometricas de distintas
especies de Eucalyptus y su aptitud pulpable. J. Paz. Actas del Simposio de los
Eucalyptus em el Desarrollo Forestal de Chile. 26 pp. (1993) (in Spanish)
Obtencion de pulpas de alta absorcion. A. Avila Gallardo; J. Paz Pena.
Celulosa y Papel 11(4): 20 – 26. (1995) (in Spanish)
Estudio de variables que afectan al color del efluente de una
planta de celulosa kraft blanqueada. M.A. Palma; J. Paz; C. Jones; M. Osses.
Celulosa y Papel 16(3): 4 - 8. (2000) (in Spanish)
Consiguem celulosa de alta pureza en laboratorio. J. Paz. 1 pp. (in Spanish)
Obtienem celulosa soluble mediante metodo no tradicional. J. Paz. Celulosa
y Papel. 1 pp. (in Spanish)
Efecto del peroxido de hidrogeno a temperatura en el contenido
de hemicelulosas y la energia de refinacion de pulpas kraft. V. Parra; J. Paz. ATCP Chile.
12 pp. (in Spanish)
Blanqueo de pulpas de eucalipto obtenida mediante pulpaje extendido. A. Jara; J. Paz. 19 pp. (in Spanish)
Blanqueo de pulpas kraft de Eucalyptus globulus com oxigeno,
ozono y peroxido. P. Perez; R. Melo; J. Paz. 13 pp. (in Spanish)
Caracterizacion de la pulpa producida com diferentes condiciones
de proceso RDH. R. Esteban; R. Melo; J. Paz. 15 pp. (in Spanish)
Estudio tecnico-economico de uso de rechazo de clasificacion
de pulpa cruda. S. Vera; J. Paz; M. Osses; K. Sanhueza. 9 pp. (in Spanish)
Interrelacion entre las propiedades de uma celulosa kraft y la
materia prima usada para su fabricacion. R. Melo; J. Paz; V. Carrasco; N. Bello.
Celulosa y Papel. 6 pp. (in Spanish)
Obtencion de pulpas quimica blanca sin uso de compuestos clorados. G.
Salvadores; J. Paz; R. Melo. 12 pp. (in Spanish)
Posibilidad de produccion de pulpas semiquimicas en Chile. R. Melo; J.
Paz; V. Carrasco; C. Murcia; H. Pacheco; M. Torres. Celulosa y Papel.
5 pp. (in Spanish)
Pulpas a partir de madera de Eucalyptus globulus. J. Paz; E. Reitze.
9 pp. (in Spanish)
Pulpas de madera de fibra larga a partir de mesclas de pino insigne
(Pinus radiata), manio (Podocarpus nubigena) y canelo (Drymis winteri). R. Melo;
J. Paz; V. Carrasco; M. Torres; G. Rivera. 13 pp. (in Spanish)
Pulpas semiquimicas a partir de madera de eucalipto. Proceso
a la soda fria. J. Paz; A. Solis; H. Ruiz; M. Torres. 9 pp. (in Spanish)
I want to express my most sincere gratitude to ATCP Chile for providing
the chance to disclose to you all some of the relevant papers published
by professor Jose Paz. They have been incorporated, as an ATCP Chile
courtesy, to the website www.celso-foelkel.com.br for making things easier
in the edition of this section. Thanks also to ABTCP Brazil for the cooperation
on scanning and converting several of these publications to the digital
format. You have surely found many important technical information to
the science and technology of the Eucalyptus in Chile. I hope you are
to enjoy, to be delighted and to learn with professor Paz and professor
Melo achievements. Also, many of these papers also include some of their
most relevant students as co-authors, most of them working now in pulp
and paper mills in Chile.
Wait till next edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter. Soon, you'll be
told about professor Roberto Melo scientific production and professional
life, another great friend of the Eucalyptus. Someone as appreciated
and loved by Chileans as our dear professor Jose Paz.
In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with
relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library.
You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or
to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the
opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable
references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much
connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance
recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the
foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment,
industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.
Eucalyptus & environment
in the climate change age. Aracruz Celulose. Specialized
website. Access on 05.12.2008. (in Portuguese
and in English)
This is a special section in the Aracruz Celulose website oriented to
explain about the importance of the Eucalyptus plantations, impacts and
benefits. Besides the interesting navigation you may also download the
entire section as a pdf document, with all the reported information.
de celulose do ponto de vista de seus processos quimicos e ambientais. C.A. Sousa. I Environmental Engineering Week UFMS/VCP/MS.
PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. Access on 30.09.2008 (in Portuguese)
This is a great and didactic speech, oriented to all those who are willing
to know more about the Eucalyptus kraft pulp manufacturing process.
Toward understanding wood, fibre, and paper deeper knowledge
through modern analytical tools. Turku. Abo. Finland. 86 pp. (2008) (in English)
The address links you to the book of abstracts of the events COST Action
41 (Analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry)
and Workshop Action E 50 (Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood).
A precious document to all who have interest on wood and fiber qualities.
Eucalyptus. The genus Eucalyptus. J.J.W. Coppen. CRC Press. 450 pp. (2002)
A masterpiece of the Eucalyptus literature, now available through Google
O mundo eucalipto: os fatos e mitos de sua cultura. J.R. Scolforo. 72
pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
This is a recent and just launched book written by professor Scolforo
with the aim to explain about the myths surrounding the plantations of
the Eucalyptus and the corresponding industrialized products. The book
is available only in paper format (paperback), to be purchased in specialized
A celulose de eucalipto - Uma oportunidade brasileira. (Eucalyptus pulp
- A Brazilian opportunity). L.R.S. Queiroz; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Sponsored
by VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel. Avis Brasilis. 156 pp. (2008).
(in Portuguese and in English). A courtesy from prof. L.E.G. Barrichelo.
This book is a masterpiece written as a review by the authors Queiroz & Barrichelo,
two renowned experts on knowledge and knowledge transfer and dissemination.
They are rescuing the history of the Eucalyptus in Brazil and informing
the Society with their marvelous books, with fantastic texts and images.
Learn with all the talent and know-how accumulated by professor Barrichelo
and efficiently translated to a journalistic language by Mr. Queiroz.
Producao da extracao vegetal e da silvicultura em 2007. IBGE Brazilian
Institute of Geography and Statistics. PEVS 2007. 45 pp. (2008). (in
Excellent source of Brazilian statistics on the production of the forest
sector, a reference to all interested on this kind of data.
Guia do eucalipto. Oportunidades para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. CIB Council of Information on Biotechnology. 20 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
A reference document about the Eucalyptus, genetic breeding and biotechnogical
Eucaliptais - Qual Rio Grande do Sul desejamos? A. Teixeira Filho. 472
pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
A very recent digital book discussing the inconveniences of planting
Eucalyptus forests in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as the
views and perspectives of a group of environmental and worker's unions
activists. The coordination of the book was under professor Althen Teixeira
of the InGa NGO, with references about the book)
for complete downloading of the book)
for complete downloading of the book)
The onward march of Eucalyptus. G.K. Moore; R.N. Jopson. & "Mr.
Eucalyptus - Brazilian fiber expert Celso Foelkel". Paper 360° (September):
14 - 15. (2008). (in English). A courtesy from TAPPI/USA.
vessel cell measument improves runnability of high-end papers. D. Watzig;
J.P. Weihs. Tappi Journal Techlink. Paper 360º (August):
34 - 37. (2008) (in English)
Restauracao de areas degradadas. Imitando a natureza. A. Reis; D.R.
Tres; A. Siminski. 90 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)
Pioneiros do eucalipto. S. Mascarenhas. USP. 1p. (Undated) (in Portuguese)
Evaluacion de parametros morfologicos y fisiologicos de plantas de
Eucalyptus producidas en distintos contenedores. Centro Tecnologico
de la Planta
Forestal. INFOR Chile. PowerPoint presentation: 39 slides. (2008) (in
planted forests thematic study. Results and analysis. A.D. Lungo; J.
Ball; J. Carle. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization. Forestry
Department. 178 pp. (2006) (in English)
An excellent publication containing statistics about world forest plantations
and natural forests, with the FAO guarantee of quality.
on Events and Courses
This section has as aim to introduce to you several very
good links with recently already happened events. The advantage
provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made
the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading.
This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility.
Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly
procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.
Seminario de Colheita e Transporte Florestal. (XV Seminar on Forest
Harvesting and Wood Transportation) (in Portuguese)
This is a very traditional event in Brazil, that regularly takes place
in Curitiba, Parana state. The event is simultaneous to: ExpoForest
- Brazilian Forestry Exhibition; Brazilian Silviculture Meeting and
the 3rd Brazilian Meeting of the Forest Services Suppliers. These events
have always the enthusiasm and dedication coming from Dr. Jorge Roberto
Malinovski, a renowned expert on forest harvesting and professor of
the Federal University of Parana. Know the speeches that are made available
thanks to the Portal Colheita da Madeira (Wood Harvesting Website/Portal).
See also an interview from Dr. Malinovski to the CeluloseOnline website/portal.
the topic - "Palestras dos eventos" - in Portuguese)
- Professor Jorge Malinovski reporting the event to CeluloseOnline)
Forum Nacional sobre Carvao Vegetal. (National Forum on Wood Charcoal)
This magnificent event about the utilization of the Eucalyptus wood
to manufacture charcoal was organized by SIF - The Society of Forest
Investigations, in 2008. The speeches were able to cover in a great
deal, many aspects of plantation technology, charcoal manufacture and
commercialization. Definitively, a very good updating on the energetic
utilization of the Eucalyptus, since charcoal production is one of
the main destinations of the Eucalyptus woods in Brazil. The speeches
may be found for downloading, both at SIF website, as in the Painel
Florestal specialized website. Please, visit them:
- SIF website)
and Program - Painel Florestal website)
6º Forum Latino Americano sobre
Meio Ambiente e Responsabilidade Social. (6th Latin American Forum
and Social Responsibility)
An event that took place within the EcoLatina magnum event. There are
several workshops, with most speeches available for downloading. Please,
pay attention to the speeches presented in the Workshop about Forestry
Sustainability and about Climate Change & Forest Plantations. Please,
do not miss, there is a lot to learn there:
II Semana de Atualizacao para Tecnicos Agricolas
e Florestais. (II
Week for Technological Updating of Agriculture and Forestry Technicians)
This is a very didactic and informative event organized by our partner
SIF - The Society of Forest Investigations. It was oriented to develop
more expertise and knowledge to many technical workers planting and
managing Eucalyptus plantation forests. Something unmissible, even
to those who know very much about these issues.
Florestas Plantadas do Mato Grosso do Sul 2007. (2007 Seminar on Forest Plantations in the State of Mato
Grosso do Sul) (in Portuguese)
This seminar was organized by REFLORE MS - Associacao Sul-Mato-Grossense
de Produtores e Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas, an association
in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil - that has orientation
to assist the planters and consumers of forest products. With the growing
interest of Eucalyptus plantation forests in that Brazilian state,
REFLORE is definitively helping to clarify many points on technologies
and utilization's of the plantation forests. Several of the speeches
are connected to environmental issues, a key point to be explained
to the interested parties.
2008. Seminario Madeira Energetica. (Seminar about Energetic
Wood) (in Portuguese)
This event has happened in Rio de Janeiro, and it was coordinated by
ABC - Brazilian Association of Sciences. The main topics were related
to the utilization of the wood from plantation forests as renewable
energy sources. The many speeches from renowned experts and covering
several issues are available for downloading. Do not miss this chance.
It is very worth to all those related to biomass as fuel for energy
program and speeches for downloading)
Mercosur sobre Certificacion Forestal. (First Mercosur Seminar on Forest Certification) (in Spanish)
This event was organized and sponsored by IRAM - Argentinean Institute
for Standardization and Certification. It has taken place in Buenos
Aires, in 2006.
de Plantio e Manejo de Eucalyptus para Uso
Multiplo". (Symposium on Planting and Managing Techniques for
Multi Purposes Products Eucalyptus Plantations ) (in Portuguese)
This was a great seminar by GELQ - "Luiz de Queiroz" Study
Group - ESALQ- University of Sao Paulo. It is devoted to discuss new
ways to manage Eucalyptus forest plantations to develop value-added
multiple products. Please, visit and do not miss the opportunity to
download the presentations.
Symposium "Power Products from Waste
and Biomass". (in English)
This symposium happened in Espoo - Finland in 2002. It was organized
by a selected group of entities that are interested on developing the
utilization of biomasses for energy generation. The leading organization
was VTT Technical Research Center of Finland. The event proceedings
has 354 pages, it contains the relevant presentations. You are invited
to visit the webpage and to know the speeches.
Here, we are bringing to you a series
of links with several very good websites that have strong connection
with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage
of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.
- Associacao Brasileira dos Prestadores de Servicos Florestais. (Brazilian
Association of Forest Service Suppliers) (in Portuguese)
This organization was created in Minas Gerais state - Brazil to represent the
suppliers of forest services to the forest industry. The executive director
is our dear friend and well-known forest engineer Jose Batuira de Assis.
AET - Alliance for Environmental Technologies. (in English)
AET is an organization bringing together the chemical products suppliers to
the pulp and paper industry. The aim they have is to improve the environmental
performance in such type of industry. However, the main topic of discussions
is the ECF ("Elemental Chlorine Free") bleaching process for chemical
pulps, by supporting the development of the technology and providing arguments
to clarify any doubt from society in relation to this technology. The website
is very rich on knowledge. There are very interesting sections, and I'd like
to suggest you to visit those related to the science of ECF bleaching, the
one giving information on minimum impact pulp and paper mills, the section
suggesting the measures to be taken by paper purchasers to buy environmentally
friendly white papers, etc. You are to find an amazing number of technical
and commercial oriented reports. Everything written and/or coordinated by the
enormous expertise of our dear friend Doug Pryke. Doug is one of the most relevant
experts and top authority in kraft pulp bleaching. Among his relevant services
to the pulp industry, Doug has presented a statistical report showing the trends
in the bleaching of pulp - "Trends in World Bleached Pulp Production".
- "Trends in World Bleached Pulp Production")
Preferred Paper" - about the environmental characteristics of
the white papers to be purchased due to environmental reasons)
about ECF pulp bleaching)
evaluation made on top of the WWF comments about the Arauco Valdivia
mill and the ECF and TCF bleaching sequences for pulp bleaching)
environmental impact mills, a special reference to the Veracel mill/Brazil)
Blog Celulosa & Papel. (in Spanish)
This is a very creative blog, designed and made available to
public by the Argentinean Mr. Mariano Agostini, who is a graduated
in printing production
management. He has the aim to convert this blog in a place for consulting,
offering comments, suggestions, and opinions to those in the paper business,
either producing or using papers.
CETCEP - Centro de Tecnologia de Celulose e Papel. (Center of Pulp and Paper
Technology) (in Portuguese)
CETCEP is an entity of the Brazilian SENAI system - SENAI - National Service
for Industrial Training. CETCEP is located in the municipality of Telemaco
Borba, where the first laboratories and classrooms were established about
45 years ago. CETCEP has very good laboratory facilities, an excellent team
experts, and a good library. The center is oriented to the training of forest
and pulp&paper technicians, to research and to study these sciences and
technologies, to write books and hand-outs, to provide consulting services,
and to organize qualified courses and events. One of the major highlights is
the Mobile Laboratory in a partnership with the Brazilian laboratory equipment
manufacturer REGMED. This mobile lab is used for "in company" training.
They also have an intelligent software (simulation of operations) for training
the forest harvester operators. CETCEP is one of the first non-financial supporters
for our Eucalyptus Online Book. Please, know more about CETCEP at:
harvesting training modular course)
- Council of Sustainable Industry. (in English)
COFI is an organization for promoting the sustainability in the
forest industry in the interior of the British Columbia province,
Canada. As far BC forest
sector has an important participation in the Canadian economy, COFI has many
activities destined to promote the forestry and forest products of such industry.
We suggest you to have a look on the publications they make available to
Department of Sustainable Development - Organization of
American States. (in English and in Spanish)
This OEA department has an enormous number of reports, publications and technical
material discoursing about sustainable development: biodiversity, climate
change, energy conservation, etc.
the DSD - Department of Sustainable Development)
Environmental Paper Network. (in English)
EPN is a network of environmental organizations that decided
to work together to offer suggestions and alternatives to speed
up the process of changes
required to convert the pulp and paper industry in a more environmentally
of industry, according to their thoughts and recommendations. EPN target
is the excellence in sustainability among the pulp and paper manufacturers.
have several projects, being one of them the suggestions offered to
paper purchasers to favor what they consider to be "greener purchases of paper".
vision and mission)
to paper purchasers)
environmental practices in P&P and forestry)
http://www.environmentalpaper.org/stateofthepaperindustry/confirm.htm (Report "The
state of paper industry - Monitoring the indicators of environmental
Grimwade Plant Collection - Specimen Index. (in English)
You are to find very complete botanical sheets for several Australian
plants, some of them are Eucalyptus species. It is a service
provided by the School
of Botany from the University of Melbourne - Australia.
International Forestry Students' Association. (in English)
IFSA is an organization whose aim is to bring closer the world forestry students
though a wide range of activities: forums, student exchange programs, training
for trainees, information, experiences, etc. To know more about IFSA, go
to visit the website, and a special look to the download section:
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. (in English)
This is a very rich and interesting website by Michel H. Porcher, University
of Melbourne - Australia. Mr. Porter was able to create a world list of species
whose names are presented and written in many different languages.
list of plant genii)
PITA - Paper Industry Technical Association. (in English)
PITA is an independent organization in the United Kingdom for
promoting the technology and the knowledge on
pulp and paper segments. PITA has an innovation
in its website: the fantastic "factsheets" - some summarized technical
sheets plenty of useful information. Another valuable service to society are
the available editions of the magazine Paper Technology, one of the leading
pulp and paper journals in a world basis. PITA has also a series of events,
courses, etc. to the UK P&P technical people.
Technology Journal - in digital format you may find the issues
for the years 2005, 2006 and 2007)
Technical Journals & Magazines
Here, we are bringing to you a selection
of excellent online journals and magazines with connection to the
In these journals, you may freely download articles or read the news,
without the need of memberships, passwords or payments. The maximum
you may need to do is to register yourself. They are journals or
article collections at our hands (or eyes), available to all those
wondering to read and to learn more about forestry, environment,
pulp, paper, woods, and Eucalyptus, surely. Please, go to the search
tool in each journal, and type the word "Eucalyptus" in
the available search box. Then, have a look in the result. In this
way, many times you may find valuable technical material. To the
editors of these journals, our most sincere appreciation and thanks.
We hope many other journals may join forces to enrich this scientific
and technical knowledge chain.
Florestal Forest Brazil. (in Portuguese)
This is a bulletin of the consulting and managing forest company
named Forest Brazil.
access the bulletins)
Revista Ciencia e Investigacion Forestal. (in Spanish)
CIFOR is an INFOR - Instituto Forestal Chile magazine. Some of the
issues are available in digital format for downloading.
Spectrum - Andritz. (in English)
Fiber Spectrum is an important technical information journal edited
by one of the leading suppliers to the pulp, paper and energy sectors
of past issues)
Floresta e Ambiente. (in Portuguese)
Floresta & Ambiente is a scientific magazine published by the
Instituto de Florestas (Forestry Institute) - Universidade Federal
Rural do Rio de Janeiro - UFRRJ /Brazil.
issues - Webpage in English)
em Foco. (in Portuguese)
It is a technical and marketing bulletin edited and published by
Silviconsult, one of the leading Brazilian forestry consulting companies.
The bulletin covers relevant issues to the forestry segment in Brazil.
Paper Age. (in English)
Paper Age is both a web portal and a digital magazine. It contains
valuable information, news and technical issues to the pulp and paper
sector. One very useful tool is the always updated list of prices
for selected papers and market pulps. Go to visit:
of past issues - Paper Age)
prices list - several grades)
prices list - several grades)
Habitare. (in Portuguese)
Habitare is a technological and scientific magazine resulted from
the development of the Program for Housing Technology, coordinated
by FINEP - Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, a Brazilian financing
bank to promote technological innovation. There are many articles
related to the utilization of woods in the civil construction industry.
of the Habitare program)
of past issues)
Soap is known by human beings for
a long time. It’s estimated that this product already exists for more
than 2,500 years. The soaps were initially considered luxury articles
by Phoenicians and Romans. In the IX Century, they have been rediscovered
by the Europeans and gained additional force as a consuming product.
The name soap has a doubtful origin. It could be originated from
the Celtics, considered one of the first soap-makers in the world.
They produced the "saipo", a soap-like product made from
animal fat and vegetable ashes. Most historians believe the name
soap comes from there. Another possible origin is from the middle
age, when soaps restarted to be produced.
One of the first cities
to make soap at that time was Savona on Italy and maybe the name
soap came to honor this place. Between doubts and curiosities,
soap has established itself and is considered one of the most popular
products consumed all over the world.
Although considering its long time utilization, the soap cleaning
properties were only recognized along the 2nd Century After Christ.
Some scientific works proved soaps capability for cleaning skin
and body. Just after the 16th century, soaps became extremely popular
in Europe and after that, on the rest of the planet. Today, these
products are almost indispensable on human hygiene. Soap manufacturing
technology and the related products such as the synthetic detergents,
laundry soaps and also environmentally friendly products with biodegradable
enzymes are becoming more common and frequent.
Before the 40's, most soaps were only made using the concepts of
the saponification reaction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponification).
This is nothing more than the mixture of fat, grease and/or oil
and a strong caustic base (sodium or potassium hydroxide) submitted
to heat and frequent stirring (strong movements). However, after
the invention of the synthetic detergents, the common soaps started
to be consumed in smaller scale because of their higher price.
Today, they are mostly used to clean humans as toilet soaps or
for domestic hygienic purposes.
Nowadays there are different kinds of soaps - they all have the
same definition: a product obtained during the saponification reaction
or neutralization of oils, fats, resins, greases, gum, wax and
rosins using a strong caustic base. It also can be formed from
the fatty acids and organic or inorganic bases obtained from the
substances cited just before. The soaps have some derivative forms
as powders, grains, grated soaps, and others used for domestic
and industrial cleaning, as well. Besides the fatty compounds,
there are other relevant ingredients used for soap-making like:
abrasives, acids, glycerin, water, alkalis, salts, bleaching agents,
chelants, solvents, colorants and the fragrances and perfumes.
Body soaps are specialty products used specifically for skin cleaning.
Their major components are alkalis, salts, fatty acids and perfumes.
Their format and texture are ideal for bath care. There are soaps
on solid, liquid or paste forms. They are also defined as toilet
The detergents are synthetic products and are defined according
to their function. They are products designated for surface cleaning
and preserving purposes. They can also have in their composition
some synthetic compound mixtures that are going to speed up the
process and to act on specific cleaning (tensoactives and surfactants).
The detergents act on the water surface tension and its colloidal
reaction to fatty compounds, which helps their removal. There are
mixtures of caustic soda and fatty acids that are water soluble,
a desired characteristic for good cleaning effect.
The natural soaps can be easily degraded after their use. This
is considered a very good environmental advantage. On the other
hand, the synthetic detergents are more difficult to be naturally
decomposed. This results in frequent foam pollution problems in
The resin and the exuded gum from Pinus and Eucalyptus are grease/fatty
materials that can also be used on laundry soaps manufacture (powder
form), low quality and less expensive body soaps and some other
special kinds of soaps, as the handcraft and artisan made ones.
The resin and the gum extracted from Pinus and Eucalyptus trees,
respectively, are used for grease matter correction and to promote
fast, abundant and better foaming.
Technically, the exudation extracted from the Eucalyptus trees
cannot be called resins. This can be explained for the fact that Eucalyptus are hardwoods or angiosperms. So they don’t have
resins ducts and resin canals like the Pinus do (as conifers).
The Pinus resin has a fatty acid compound named resin acid. On
opposite to that, the Eucalyptus produces polyphenolic extractives
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphenol) and also other types of fatty acids, known as gums or kinos. The
resins and gums are
saponified in lower levels and yields when compared to other oils
or fats. So, they have soft texture and are considered too smooth
to preserve a bar format. That’s why their soaps are considered
to be of low quality. However, they may be successful in the form
of liquid soaps. The "resin soap", name given also to
the Eucalyptus gum soap, is formed from the saponification of this
gum by caustic soda. Another undesirable effect is that resin and
gum have dark yellow colors, requiring bleaching techniques to
use the product as prime raw material for cleaning products.
In addition to the gum used for soap-making, the Eucalyptii have
another commonly used ingredient for bars, powders, body soaps
and also detergents. This valuable product is the essential oil,
extracted mainly from Eucalyptus globulus and Corymbia (Eucalyptus)
citriodora leaves. In the same way the markets started to give
preference to synthetic detergents, the natural fragrances used
on cleaning products have also lost room and have been substituted
by the artificial ones. According to Morris (1978), the offer/demand
variation and price volatility of the natural essences on markets
were the major responsible for this market losses. As a consequence,
the synthetic scent/flavor started to dominate the perfumes and
aromas markets. The natural fragrances as the Eucalyptus oil, citronella
oil, rose and others have only a modest market share on the cleaning
and domestic products.
Soap production corresponds to around 25 % of the total cleaning
products. An important part of this percentage is from small industries
or handcraft production. The soap-making technique is considered
easy and accessible. So, it’s very well utilized on small
scale soap factories, helping the development of some Brazilian
regions, offering additional incomes to local families. The increasing
demand for environmentally friendly products, handcraft made toilet
soaps or even some homemade ones are grabbing more market share,
although facing the strong competition of the industrialized low
cost soaps. Even kitchen oil and other food fats left over that
were thrown out on the garbage are now becoming raw materials for
the own family soap making.
The Eucalyptus oil essences are considered natural, so they are
largely employed as handcraft soap fragrances. Another explanation
for this high level utilization is because the Eucalyptus oil not
only helps on cleaning, but it also has antiseptic properties and
gives suitable odor and a refreshing skin tactile feeling. C.
citriodora produces large amounts of essential oils, especially
citronellal. It has a much appreciated smell and for this reason
used as fragrance. Furthermore, other species like E. globulus produces cineol, witch has medicinal and antiseptic properties.
The cineol can also be added as a soap ingredient, acting as therapeutic
functions and for the aromatherapy (therapeutic principles volatilization
giving positive sensation/feelings to the patient).
During soap-making, the essential oils are the last ingredients
to be added on the soap manufacturing mixture. The caustic soda
and fat have already reacted on saponification and turned into
hot semi-liquid soap. That’s the recommended time to add
the fragrances and colorants, keeping on steering until they are
all incorporated into the soap.
The main conclusion coming from this text is that the Eucalyptus trees have an important role on cleaning products production, supplying
raw materials for the aroma and saponification (gum and fatty acid
compounds). So, Eucalyptus plays a role contributing to many family
incomes and helping on making environmentally correct products.
The Eucalyptus odor is becoming popular as cleaning product
fragrance. We can often find soap articles on the market with this
In Brazil, soap-making techniques can be easily found on internet
and are already well-disseminated among this country people. There
are lots of Eucalyptus soap recipes and manufacturing techniques
in the web.
Most of them have natural fragrances using Eucalyptus oil, as one of the fragrance choices.
We suggest the reading of the links just below for all interested
people on making home artisanal soaps or even on starting an handcraft
soap business using the kitchen fat left over, giving a more correct
destination for this waste. The Eucalyptus oil has low cost and
can be found on most supermarkets.
Check pictures and world Eucalyptus market cleaning products and
be surprised with this another important human society utilization
for the Eucalyptus trees. Enjoy the navigation: there are very
interesting links to be opened. In some of them, please find recipes,
pictures and suggestions for using Eucalyptus based soaps.
reports and websites about soaps, detergents and essential
ANVISA – Saneantes – Conceitos
tecnicos. (in Portuguese). Access on 02.12.2008
The Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA) has
placed in its website the main definitions for sanitizing products,
such as soaps, detergents and disinfectants.
detergent and cosmetic making classes. (in English). Access
on 2.12. 2008
Educational website with the objective to transfer and to disseminate
the knowledge about cosmetics and domestic laundry and sanitary
products, including artisanal toilet soaps. The Eucalyptus essential
oil is recommended several times for the manufacture of soaps and
que sao detergentes biodegradaveis? (in Portuguese). Yahoo!
Answers. Access on 02.12.2008
A Q&A section in the Yahoo! website. Have a look in the definitions
about biodegradable detergents and some other Q&A related to
other laundry products, some of them considered to be environmentally
correct in their formulations and manufacturing process.
uses for essential oils. (in English). Access on 2.12.
The blog has several creative ideas for the utilization of the
Eucalyptus oils. One of them is to add some drops of these oils
in the bath water. This brings a very nice odor and a refreshing
sensation to the user.
Eucalyptus oil. ANU - Australian National University, Australia.
(in English). Access on 27.11.2008
Please, find in this website several good hints for using the Eucalyptus oil for laundry and cleaning clothes. There is a suggestion to
use pure Eucalyptus essential oil to remove grease stains, spots
of inks from pens, chewing gums, and many other types of dirt spots.
Besides all this, there is also a lot of fun by navigating in the
purpose carpet cleaning compositions. (in English). FreePatentsOnline.com.
Access on 27.11.2008
This patent refers to the use of Eucalyptus essential oil to odorize
cleaning products and to disinfect carpets from mites.
kitchen cleaner. Eucalypt oil. (in English). Access on
This website discusses properties and uses for the Eucalyptus oils.
Also, it brings some suggestions about using these oils in the
laundry machines, for cleaning kitchens and also bathrooms.
and scientific articles about soaps, detergents and Eucalyptus essential
oils (in English or in Portuguese):
composition. P. W. Elliott. FreePatentsOnline.com (2008)
Tecnico: Sabao. M. S. Uchimura. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas
Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. Instituto de
Tecnologia do Parana. 27 pp. (2007)
Tecnico: Fabricacao de produtos de higiene pessoal. E. F. R.
O. Motta. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas. Brazilian
System for Technical Answers. REDETEC. 37 pp. (2007)
os processos necessarios para fabricacao de material de limpeza,
bem como as materias-primas usadas e quais maquinas usadas? P.
R. C. Silva. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas Tecnicas.
Brazilian System for Technical Answers. RETEC. 10 pp. (2006)
compositional and intra provenance variation for content of essential
oil in Eucalyptus crebra. N.R. Ahmad; M.A. Hanif; U. Rashid.
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 4(5): 519 – 523. (2005)
de obter informacoes sobre a fabricacao de sabao em po, se possivel
a formula e o processo de fabricacao, bem como literatura existente
para pesquisa. L. T. Leite. IBICT Sistema Brasileiro de Respostas
Tecnicas. Brazilian System for Technical Answers. TECPAR. (2005)
vidas e esperanca atraves da reciclagem de residuos de oleo vegetal:
sabao esperanca. D.N. Heidrich; J. Ricardo; V.B.N. Ferreira;
P.L.F. Silva. 8 pp. 2º Congresso Brasileiro de Extensao
Treatment for surface treatment and cleaning which contains Eucalyptus oil,
and wooden building material impregnated with said treatment. FreePatentsOnline.com
and health assessment of substances in household detergents and
cosmetic detergent products. T. Madsen; H. B. Boyd; D. Nylen;
A. R. Pedersen; G. I. Petersen; F. Simonsen. Environmental Project
No. 615. Miljoprojekt. 240 pp. (2001)
de limpeza agroecologicos. Produtos ecologicos. Centro Ecologico.
Ecologia no Dia a Dia. Specialized website. (2000)
oils widely used in flavors and fragrances. Industrial Uses.
Specialty Plants Products. 6 pp. (1995)
and fragrances of plant origin. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations. (1995)
http://www.fao.org/docrep/v5350e/V5350e07.htm (Chapter 05: Eucalyptus oils)
Soap and detergent fragrances — natural vs. synthetic.
E.A. Morris. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society
Vol.55. 1 p. (1978)
and regulations: headaches for toilet soap formulators. J. H.
Pickin Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society Vol.
51. 1 p. (1974)
de produtos de limpeza: Cosmeticos em geral. N. M. Azevedo. ItabunaShop.com.
53 pp. (Undated)
Some available products in the global markets
(they are not references for purchasing - they are only examples of applications):
Eucalyptus soap and rub. (in English)
Eucalyptus pet soap. (in English)
JACKS corporation. Eucalyptus oil products.(in English)
Organic Eucalyptus & tea tree. (in English)
Handmade natural soaps. Essential oil natural soaps.
Laundry Soap – Eucalyptus. (in English)
liquid. (in English)
Seventh generation natural laundry detergent liquid,
blue Eucalyptus & lavender
scent. (in English)
Natural spearmint Eucalyptus laundry soap- 48
loads- Essential oils. (in English)
Kiss a koala soap. Spearmint Eucalyptus. (in English)
The Green Clean Review. Blue Eucalyptus lavender laundry
detergent. (in English)
jabon oxigenante clorofila y eucalipto. (in Spanish)
de eucalipto. Como hacer. (in Spanish)
menta eucalipto relajante muscular. (in Spanish)
bars. (in English)
de Eucalyptus citriodora. (in Spanish)
de eucalipto. (in Spanish)
mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Treating the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft
I have had opportunities of knowing such magnificent
WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) in bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp mills.
I understand that they reflect an investors’ huge care in controlling
pollution and in complying with the restrictive limits imposed by
legislation. These cares and concerns coming from our entrepreneurs
and mill leaderships are very welcome. However, (and there is always
a however, isn’t it?) this all consists of end-of-pipe technologies,
based upon the concept that pollution exists and for this reason
itself we have to treat it. It happens that all these WWTPs, which
provide beautiful photographs and bring pride to our technicians,
have also an environmental impact and it is not that small. They
consume natural resources to be made and to operate. They consume
electric power, water, chemical products, and generate a high amount
of residues, being the main ones: primary, secondary and tertiary
sludges. Water pollution ends up being transferred to sludges – solid
residues – at a high environmental and economic costs. The
primary sludge receives suspended solids. The secondary and tertiary
receive dissolved organic material. Sludge weights and volumes generated
in a pulp and/or paper mill, in a day-to-day basis, are fantastic.
Since sludges are difficult to dewater, their dry weights are multiplied
by 3 to 6 when they are delivered wet. Even when correctly managed,
composted, burnt, recycled or landfilled they represent an environmental
impact to be avoided and minimized. Many times they become environmental
debts / liabilities to be monitored forever.
Nowadays, the investments in WasteWater Treatment
Plants and in Solid Waste Recycling Plants are huge in our sector.
Some mills go to the
limit of purchasing treatment plants with membranes (nanofiltration,
ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) for the whole effluent flow, regardless
the quality of the different waters that are being added to compose
such a gross/raw effluent. Other ones fit long pipes along third
parties lands, crossing ten’s of kilometers to discharge effluents
into the sea, where they believe impact will be minimized. This all
means high capital demand, and high operating and depreciation costs.
In this manner, competitiveness proportionally decreases, no doubt
about that. Rather than complaining, the answer is perhaps to change
the model to another one.
I have always been saying and insistently repeating that the answer
to pollution is to be found where it is generated, where our technology
or operators fail when discharge it to be treated. There is no advantage
at all to have great losses of chemicals and suspended solids to
the WWTP and then produce a highly clean treated effluent, almost
pure water, that some directors insist on telling us that "it
could even be drinkable". Environmental impact is still high,
in spite of a treated effluent showing excellent standards.
Environmental wasting happens here in this just mentioned case in
• By discharging " useful raw materials" from the process
to the effluent, in the form of pollution;
• By the high demands on effluent treatment for treating these losses;
• By the high demands in handling, recycling, disposing and landfilling
For my mind, solving the bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater problems
depends to a large extent on the answers we give to a very simple
question: "what should I do to reduce the organic material load
(BOD – Biochemical Oxygen Demand; COD – Chemical Oxygen
Demand); TSS – Total Suspended Solids; AOX – Adsorbable
Halogenated Organic Compounds; salinity (conductivity); temperature
and flow rate of the raw effluent? We call raw effluent the addition
of the sectorial effluents which are sent to the WWTP to be treated.
We are talking about raw effluent generation, is that clear? I'm
not proposing to solve the problem treating the effluent, but avoiding
to generate raw effluent as much as possible.
I have already written on previous Eucalyptus Newsletter’s
mini-articles my considerations about water consumption reduction,
and closing water cycles in bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp mills.
I am quite determined to cooperate in achieving this goal. If I was
not, I would not be offering one more mini-article for your reading.
At the same time that I try to motivate, I try to offer alternatives
I believe in such. Hence, if you want continue to read, I promise
to offer you good reasons for reflecting and acting. Our final target
should then be generating less wastewaters and at the same time to
meet law requirements in terms of concentrations (ppm, ppb), and
in terms of specific loads (kg/adt) for the pollutants. It is a difficult,
but not impossible task.
It all begins with the way our mill is designed. Technicians in general
choose, sometimes up-to-date and charming technologies, or sometimes
lower cost ones. After establishing the pulp mill project, they calculate
sectorial pollution and water loads and then design the WWTP and
the industrial solid waste landfill. Many of the modern technologies
are evidently well optimized, drawn to operate at higher efficiency,
no doubts about that. What I propose, however, is exactly a change
in the focus: to pre-define what is the effluent volume that we are
going to treat (raw effluent) and what are the maximum pollution
loads that are going to reach the WasteWater Treatment Plant. We
must stress that a challenging level is welcome... For example, we
may pre-define that our kraft mill would have a specific generation
of raw effluent on the basis of 20 m³/adt; a COD load of 25
kg/adt; a BOD load of 8 kg/adt, and the Total Suspended Solids would
be 2 kg/adt. All they based on the raw effluent. To be more exciting,
we could also pre-establish that the maximum raw effluent temperature
reaching the WWTP should be 40ºC. Based on this fact, the WWTP
would not be required to have a cooling tower to reduce raw effluent
temperature. In case we would bring back our mind to pre-settle the
final treated effluent loads and flows, our efforts would be redirected
to the construction of magnificent WWTP and not to solve the pollution
problems along the industrial and manufacturing process. Was I clear
To restrict the pollution generation and to prevent pollution loads
and flows, we need to pre-define the maximum levels in each one of
the generation sources, or mill sectors. There are several recommended
steps to be followed, as:
Step 01: Select minimum environmental impact technologies, such as:
• oxygen delignification of the pulp in a 100% closed cycle (no effluent
• acid stage to chemically hydrolyze the hexenuronic acids still present
in the unbleached or oxygen delignified pulp;
"ECF Light" bleaching sequences. These sequences do allow
to have cleaner effluents, although there is a possibility to have
higher non-lignin COD generation due to more pronounced hemicelluloses
• washing presses in all fiberline. However, these presses must deliver
squeezed pulps with over 30% consistencies.
• highly efficient evaporation plant, with minimum condensates or black
• etc., etc.
Step 02: Select preventive technologies to perform as barriers to
the operational losses (water, dissolved organic material, fibers,
chemical raw materials, etc.). Some examples of such technologies:
• efficient and well-designed spill collection and losses prevention
• storage tanks with extra capacities to retain sectorial losses to
be reincorporated back into the process and not to be discharged
to the WWTP;
• filters to collect fiber losses (valuable suspended solids) in rich-fibers
filtrates such as: bleaching line, pulp sheet forming and drying,
fiber sorting and recycling at the centricleaners effluent flows.
This material is too valuable to be sent to the primary clarifiers.
This screening system deserves a local "kidney" type treatment.
• countercurrent washing along all fiberline, with minimum losses of
• etc.; etc.
Step 03: Select sectorial "kidney" systems, transferring
to the different operational areas part of the responsibility to
treat the locally generated pollution. Examples are:
• chloride removal system to purify the recovery boiler ashes (system
closure leads to chloride ion higher concentration in the kraft recovery
• system to recover water in the log washing and wood room areas;
• efficient condensate stripping and distillation - with reduced COD
loads in clean condensates and generation of biofuels (ex: methanol);
• indirect contact heat exchangers to recover the heat from evaporation
condensates and bleaching filtrates;
• membrane system to purify contaminated sectorial effluents, preventing
the mixture of these high-load effluents to other better quality
effluents from other areas. These membrane systems would be running
as kidney devices, but oriented to small flows, not to the overall
• etc.; etc.
Step 04: System closures and water reuses. For the success of these
measures, some recommendations are:
• segregate all used waters and give to the recyclable ones another
chance in the mill. Some waters are so good in quality that deserve
to be pumped to the Water Treatment Plant and not to the WasteWater
Treatment Plant. Among these high quality waters we may mention:
storm water, sealing waters, hydraulic waters, vacuum pump waters,
clean condensates, etc.
• eliminate the adoption of the today's technology for cooling towers.
These towers lose a high percentage of the water (or effluent) to
the atmosphere. We need better technologies, the ones that may cool
the water, but not losing so much of this natural resource;
• use as much as possible of the evaporation clean condensates in brown
• use as much as possible of the semi-clean evaporation condensates
in the causticising unit to manufacture the kraft white liquor.
• use the dirty evaporation condensates to rewet the wood chips in
the chip piles (condensates would become chip moisture instead of
• etc.; etc.
05: Adopt the rule "Prevent losses and segregate waters" -
we need to work in the causes and not with the end-of-pipe technologies.
Step 06: Kill the problems at the sources, at the origin. There are
several situations in a kraft pulp mill where my suggestion is to
eliminate any chance to have an effluent: chemical plant, causticising,
digester, brown pulp washing, recovery boiler, etc.
Imagine now the following: in case we are able to reduce the raw
effluent generation to 20 m³/adt of pulp, as proposed, and completely
feasible, we would be reducing the hydraulic capacity of our WWTP
in about 30% in comparison to the just started modern bleached kraft
pulp mills, that have being built and started operation from 2005
to 2008. In case we may bring the raw effluent temperature to 40
- 45ºC and no longer 60 - 65ºC, another fantastic environmental
gain with design simplifications would be achieved. This is also
feasible. In case we are able to reduce overall fiber losses and
sand/soil losses in the wood room area, the primary treatment may
be drastically reduced to a simple and small clarifier. Most of the
effluent would be low solids not demanding for primary treatment;
only a small fraction would be high solids deserving a primary clarifier.
This is also viable. In case the COD total losses could be reduced
to a maximum of 20 - 25 kg/adt in the raw effluent, the requirements
for secondary and tertiary treatments would also be reduced and simplified.
When I reinforce the fact that these things are feasible, I'm based
on successful cases already being achieved in some world-class mills
in the P&P sector. There are several minimum impact mills operating
with similar figures in our kraft pulp business. Even these high
quality mills have room for further improvements.
My dear friends, the wastewater treatment has its starting point
in the mill processes. Wastewater treatment must be operated in any
of the mill process area through prevention, segregation and commitments/specifications.
The sophisticated end-of-pipe technologies are also necessary, but
only when the alternatives to prevent pollution in the process are
exhausted. For these very reasons, when the limits imposed by legislation
to your mill are extremely strict, do not go straight to a tertiary
level wastewater treatment plant. There are many mills using aluminum
sulfate or APC (aluminum poli-chloride) for flocculation of the residual
dissolved organic matter. This water pollution would leave the mill
as sludge. The environmental impact of a flocculation type tertiary
level wastewater treatment is also high. We have several impacts
such: the aluminum sulfate has some level of ecotoxicity, aluminum
flocculants demand also high environmental impacts to be manufactured,
their utilization has as consequence a huge generation of tertiary
sludge. Flocculation/clarification with aluminum sulfate corresponds
to enormous charges/loads of flocculants (from 12 to 25 o.d.kg/adt
pulp of aluminum sulfate with 18 molecules of constitution water).
A significant proportion of the aluminum sulfate will be converted
into tertiary sludge (about 50% of the added chemical). The remaining
will leave the mill dissolved in the final treated effluent, as residual
chemical. It may have some impact to the water course where the effluent
is discarded. This means the following: to remove from 5 to 10 kg
of COD/adt pulp from the secondary treated effluent, we generate
about 15 to 22 o.d.kg of tertiary sludge/adt pulp. An issue and numbers
to keep in mind...
From what it was said till now, we may think that we are improving
the environment, but we are having other impacts and misutilization
of natural resources along the whole life cycle. As I have just mentioned,
to remove some COD and color from the secondary effluent, we are
bringing other environmental losses. In reality, when we are minimizing
some effects, we may be generating others. This is the Law of Nature
- things tend to move in opposite directions, in search of equilibrium.
Today, with the modernization of the eco-efficient technologies in
addition to the environmental management and responsibilities in
our pulp mills, we are able to reach very low and sound levels of
pollution at the secondary biologically treated effluents: excellent
values of COD, BOD, AOX, TSS, conductivity, color and temperature
are been reported. As far as we are able to improve the quality of
the raw effluent, the resulting treated effluent will be very good
in quality. For your reference, we are presenting just ahead in the
following table, some figures that are normal in ecoefficient and
world-class modern bleached kraft pulp mills using Eucalyptus as
raw material. Please, observe the values for pollution load along
the WWTP - from raw effluent to final tertiary level treated effluent
(flocculation/clarification with aluminum sulfate).
State-of-the-art Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mills:
in kg/adt pulp
23 – 26
0,25 – 0,45
0,15 – 0,3
0,2 – 0,25
0,04 – 0,07
0,02 – 0,05
0,4 – 0,6
0,3 – 0,4
2.000 – 3.000
2.500 – 3.000
3.000 – 3.500
Under an environmental point of view, an appropriate
process for pollution prevention and process losses retention is
able to generate
a low impact raw effluent, that may be treated to an adequate level
of quality by a secondary type wastewater treatment plant. This effluent
may be appropriate to be discharged in many water courses without
any additional requirements. In case the authorities recommend to
have a tertiary level WWTP because the receiving water body is somewhat
fragile, I suggest first to evaluate a system of stabilization ponds
or a well-designed constructed wetland. For this, we need a larger
area, but this is not a problem to most of the kraft pulp mills.
In case we may be considering a "greenfield" mill, this
will be very simple and welcome to be included in the project. Nothing
better to count with Nature to finalize the wastewater treatment.
Our secondary level effluent may become more stable, with more life,
and naturally equilibrated. There are alternatives, no doubts about.
In case they are more natural and with minimum impact, even better.
However, we shall not discard the utilization of the tertiary level
treatment with aluminum sulfate or any other flocculants. Also, the
filtration with membranes may be the sole alternative in some cases.
We have situations and situations, and in some cases, the sophisticated
end-of-pipe technology is the remaining and most appropriate one.
As a conclusion my dear friends, when you are to elaborate an environmental
impact study of your kraft pulp mill, please, do also one to your
wastewater treatment plant. You are invited to use the LCA - Life
Cycle Analysis. From this study, I'm sure that many creative solutions
may come as alternatives to minimize the overall environmental effect
of your operations. You may choose new solutions to bring your wastewater
treatment plant and your pulp mill to the most environmentally sound
ones. At the same time, it is fundamental to search for eco-efficiency
in the mill processes. When evaluating in such way, we will be considering
not only the impact of the treated effluent flows and concentrations,
but all the mill processes, including the generation, treatment and
disposal of the effluents, raw materials and corresponding solid
Any industrial activity of such extent generates environmental impacts.
This is a unquestionable reality. However, better we know them, better
and more efficiently we may reduce these impacts in intensity, frequency,
magnitude, range, extension, risk, etc. Our pulp mills will be better,
and our effluent treatment will be also minimum impact, not only
our pulp mills.
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