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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends,
here we are again, now with the issue number 36 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations, concerns and interests, allowing that our readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the benefit of the human society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

In this edition, we are continuing making a rescue to the general public (“or a recovery through internet”) of all scientific publications (articles, lectures and "posters") so far presented in the fantastic event International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp - internationally known as ICEP. This type of event began with its first edition in 2003, in Vicosa-Brazil, having as its great founder and driver the Professor Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette, from UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, in close work with Dr. Jose Livio Gomide, professor at the same university. Then, after the first event, we had four others, which have happened in Brazilian and Chilean cities. To date, there were five editions of the colloquium. In this present edition of our newsletter we are offering to you the lectures / articles / presentations of the Second ICEP. In subsequent editions of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will offer the technical materials from the others, gradually. We have achieved this amazing possibility for sharing all this knowledge to public thanks to the support and enthusiasm coming from Dr. Colodette, who has allowed us to display all these presentations from the various conferences at With this support, we are helping to perpetuate the enormous amount of good science and technology introduced in these colloquia, and that are being, up to certain extent, limited to a restricted number of people interested on knowing more about the Eucalyptus. We are grateful to all the other organizers of the ICEP's for this opportunity. In this specific case, our gratitude to ATCP – Chile (Chilean Technical Association of Pulp and Paper), the major organizer of the Second ICEP.

We are also bringing to you important and valuable technical knowledge developed about some pests of Eucalyptus by the talented Brazilian academic teacher and researcher Prof. Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann, professor at UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho" – Ilha Solteira Campus. As an expert in bug/beetle pests of Eucalyptus and Pinus, his scientific papers and researches acquire fundamental importance to modern silviculture, since there are numerous reports of attacks of these kinds of pests in forest plantations in Brazil.

The section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", written by the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel, presents to all of you a very interesting issue: "Pharmaceutical Products (Medicines) Derived from the Eucalyptus". This is a fairly well-known utilization of some essential oils obtained from Eucalyptus plants and which are used as coadjuvants in certain types of pills, tablets, inhalers and medicines for flu, colds, sore throat, etc.

Also, in this issue, we are bringing back the traditional sections "References about Events and Courses" and "Online Technical Videos". We hope you may enjoy the selection that we have prepared to you.

Our technical article in this edition continues with my own reflections about sustainability and development of the eucalyptic value network based on principles of environmental and social responsibilities. Please, read and know more about the environmental performance and the challenges in the pulp and paper industrial segments that have the Eucalyptus woods as the main raw materials. I hope that you may become motivated with the article "Sustainability on the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Value Network".

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites; other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites. Anyway, every time when trying to access a referenced link from our newsletter and it does not work, I suggest you to copy the title of the article or event and place in quotation marks to search for the same in a search engine such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc. Sometimes, the entity that holds the reference remodels its website and the URL addresses are modified. Other times, the material is removed from the referenced website, but may eventually be located at some other address, if properly pursued.

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you who honor us with your reading.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology, Blog do Papeleiro and Blog 1800 Flowers. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland, Belarus and South Africa. However, thanks to the World Wide Web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to a long "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to many thousands of registered web addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now onwards is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree and ABTCP, and also from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

ICEP’s – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus PulpArticles and Speeches from the Second Colloquium – II ICEP – Concepcion / Chile

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases - Articles written by Professor Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann

References about Events and Courses

Online Technical Videos

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Pharmaceutical Products (Medicines) Derived from the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel
Sustainability on the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Value Network

ICEP’s – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

Articles and Speeches from the Second Colloquium – II ICEP – Concepcion / Chile

The event International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp is considered to be one of the world best and well-known congresses about pulp production and pulping technologies. Till the present, five ICEP events have taken place, either in Brazil or Chile. At the 2011 edition of the ICEP, recently held in Porto Seguro/Brazil, we received from Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette the support and the authorization to bring to the eucalyptic society all presentations and technical articles from all ICEP’s.

Since the year 2003, the Eucalyptus Colloquia, as they are known and referred in Brazil, have been converted into a forum to bring people together to exchange knowledge and ideas about woods, pulps, fibers and papers obtained from Eucalyptus.

The Second ICEP happened in 2005 in the city of Concepcion – Chile, having as main host ATCP – Chile – Asociacion Tecnica de la Celulosa y el Papel ( The other supporting institutions that cooperate on a regular basis in the organization of the colloquia were also supporting the Chilean event: UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, SIF - Society of Forest Investigations; ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association and CeluloseOnline webportal.

Our special compliments to ATCP - Chile that placed strong and valuable cooperation in a way that the Eucalyptus colloquia would follow a process of turnover among countries, thus strengthening the links of friendship among people of different countries with different technologies and manufacturers of Eucalyptus pulp.

In this second edition of the colloquium, about 180 technical and research people have attended, including participants and speakers. The Chilean delegation was the largest, as expected; but the Brazilian group has also emerged with around 30 attendees. In addition to numerous performances of very high quality, one of the highlights of this event were the lectures of the great Friend of the Eucalyptus ( and Pinus (, Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite.

The basic thematic of the 2005 event have dealt on the quality of the Eucalyptus woods and fibers and the improvement in pulp and paper industrial productivity. Several excellent presentations were made available on these issues and some of them have turned into global reference on the subject.

Stay tuned, in upcoming editions of Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will bring the materials from the other colloquia.

Enjoy your reading.

Articles and Speeches of the Second International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

Identificacion de especies de Eucalyptus. (Identification of Eucalyptus species). I. Quinonez; V. Sepulveda; F. Halabi. 09 pp. (in Spanish)

Aplicacion de la espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIR) en la industria forestal: clasificacion de maderas de Eucalyptus y prediccion de propiedades. (Utilization of NIR - Near Infrared Spectroscopy in the forest industry: classification of Eucalyptus woods and prediction of wood properties). J. Ruiz; M.A. Peredo; J. Rodriguez; J. Baeza; J. Freer. 05 pp. (in Spanish)

Caracterizacion fisica y quimica del Eucalyptus nitens con la altura. (Physical and chemical characterization of Eucalyptus nitens wood with tree heigth). S. Mariani; H. Poblete; M. Torres; A. Fernandez; E. Morales. 07 pp. (in Spanish)

GentleBarking – a log debarking method for higher yield. "From innovation to reality". A. Jalonen. 04 pp. (in English)

Eucalyptus - Challenge for wood preparation. M. Salmi; J. Vuojolainen. 13 pp. (in English)

Product-driven eucalypt-fibre selection for papermaking. R.P. Kibblewhite. PowerPoint presentation: 64 slides. (in English)

Selecao e caracterizacao de clones de eucalipto considerando parametros silviculturais, tecnologicos e de produto final. (Selection and characterization of Eucalyptus clones taking into account silvicultural, technological and end-product parameters). A. Bassa; A.G.M.C. Bassa; V.M. Sacon; C.F. Valle. 20 pp. (in Portuguese)

Seleccion y caracterizacion de clones de eucalipto considerando parametros silviculturales, tecnologicos y de producto final. (Selection and characterization of Eucalyptus clones taking into account silvicultural, technological and end-product parameters). A. Bassa; A.G.M.C. Bassa; V.M. Sacon; C.F. Valle. ATCP Chile. 15 pp. (in Spanish)

Chemical mechanical pulps from Eucalyptus and their comparison with Eucalyptus chemical pulps. E.C. Xu; P.E. Galatti. 08 pp. (in English)

Comportamiento del Eucalyptus nitens como especie pulpable - CMPC Celulosa Planta Santa Fe.
(Eucalyptus nitens performance as a pulping raw material - CMPC Celulosa Planta Santa Fe). J. Reyes. 17 pp. (in Spanish)

Pulpaje semiquimico de eucalipto nitens (Eucalyptus nitens ex maideni). (Semi-chemical pulping of Eucalyptus nitens ex-maideni). M. Pereira; R. Melo; C. Pereira. 05 pp. (in Spanish)

Calidad de las maderas de clones de Eucalyptus de Brasil para la produccion de celulosa kraft. (Wood quality of Brazilian Eucalyptus clones oriented to kraft pulp production). J.L. Gomide; J.L. Colodette; R.C. Oliveira; C.M. Silva. 17 pp. (in Portuguese)

Impact of cooking conditions on physical strength of Eucalyptus pulp. N.H. Shin; B. Stromberg. 09 pp. (in English)

A modern ECF fiberline for the production of bleached Eucalyptus pulp. J. Reyes; F. Valdebenito; T.M. Poulin. 09 pp. (in English)

Experiencia industrial de la implementacion de una etapa de dioxido en alta temperatura para reducir acidos hexenuronicos en planta Santa Fe de CMPC Celulosa S.A. (Industrial experience for the implementation of a high temperature chlorine dioxide bleaching stage for the reduction of hexenuronic acids at Santa Fe pulp mill – CMPC Celulosa S.A.). F. Valdebenito; J. Reyes; J. Escalona. 12 pp. (in Spanish)

Modelo cinetico simplificado para la remocion de acido hexenuronico presente en pulpa kraft de eucalipto, utilizando una solucion de acido peroximonosulfurico. (Simplified kinetic model for removal of hexenuronic acids from Eucalyptus kraft pulp, utilizing a peroxymonosulfuric acid solution). X. Petit-Breuilh; C. Zaror; R. Melo. 14 pp. (in Spanish)

Progress in Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching
. J.L. Colodette; C.M. Gomes; M. Rabelo; K.M.M. Eiras. 18 pp. (in English)

Fibre influences on tissue quality
. R.P. Kibblewhite. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (in English)

Improved brightness and decreased pitch in biotech-treated Eucalyptus sp. R.L. Farrell; J.M. Thwaites; Y.-C. Su; E.I Wang; C.L. Ho; H.M. Chang; K. Hata. 03 pp. (in English)

Caracteristicas de biopulpas kraft obtenidas a partir de mezcla de E. globulus y E. nitens. (Characteristics of biopulps obtained from Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens wood blends). J. Gonzalez Molina; R. Silva; E. Marchant. 04 pp. (in Spanish)

Ferramentas de controle ambiental utilizadas por fabricas de celulose e papel. (Environmental control tools used by pulp and paper mills). A.L.F. Piedade; T.H. Furley. 09 pp. (in Portuguese)

Control on line de coloides en planta Santa Fe. (Online control of colloids at Santa Fe pulp mill). J. Reyes; J. Schuffenegger. 17 pp. (in Spanish)

Formation of calcium carbonate scale and control strategies in continuous digesters. P.Y. Duggirala. 34 pp. (in English)

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases

Articles written by Professor Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann

Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann is an enthusiastic senior professor in agriculture and forestry entomology in the courses of agronomy at the Sao Paulo State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho", in the College of Engineering – Ilha Solteira campus ( His vocation for the insects has just happened naturally, since he is son of another great master and researcher of the arthropods (in this specific case - the mites), who is my former professor at ESALQ - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", the renowned Dr. Carlos Holger Wenzel Flechtmann.

Carlos A. H. Flechtmann is a respected researcher of insect pests that are commonly attacking Eucalyptus and Pinus. In a short professional biography, we can inform that he was born in the city of Piracicaba / SP - Brazil, in 1963. He graduated as agronomist engineer from ESALQ - USP / University of Sao Paulo, in 1984. He immediately has carried out his masters in entomology at the same college, having graduated as M.Sc. - Master of Science, in 1989. His doctorate (Ph.D.) occurred in 1998 at the University of Georgia in Athens / Georgia / USA. Dr. Carlos’ core expertise is related to insects of the families Scolytidae and Platypodidae, some of which are important pests of Pinus and Eucalyptus.

In his academic activities at FEIS / UNESP, Dr. Carlos teaches courses on General Entomology and Forest Entomology, as well as he provides advising to post-graduate students in researches about insects with forest and agricultural importances. He is also strong on studies about coprophagous Scarabaeidae insects that are common in pastures and native forests. This is because, in the area where the FEIS campus is located, the livestock sector is very strong and there are demands from the local community for insect studies associated to zootechnical matters and to livestock activity.

Know more about Professor Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann in some specialized websites which have relevant information about him, including his personal website associated to the FEIS / UNESP webportal: (Dr. C.A.H. Flechtmann’s curriculum at the CNPq Lattes platform) (About FEIS/UNESP – College of Engineering - Ilha Solteira Campus - for academic teaching and researching on agronomic sciences) (Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering and Soils - FEIS – College of Engineering - Ilha Solteira) (Professional resumee about Dr. Flechtmann available at FEIS website – College of Engineering - Ilha Solteira)

When presenting Professor Flechtmann’s personal website, we are taking the opportunity to open the same in several sub-pages related to forest entomology. There are still a lot of more available issues, such as presentations, lectures, important data on the internal and external structure of insects that are important to agroforestry, etc. Observe also the excellence of the photo gallery and some curiosities about insects (cartoons and chronicles). All of this deserves to be navigated by you, for the top scientific and technical information made available by Dr. Flechtmann. (Dr. Carlos A.H. Flechtmann’s personal website – in Portuguese) (Dr. Carlos A.H. Flechtmann’s personal website – in English) (Course “General Entomology”) (Course “Forest Entomology – Coleopters”) (Course “Biology of Insects in Agroforestry Environments”) (Photo Gallery – Agroforestry insects) (Assembled insects) (Cartoons about insects) (Publications in magazines) (Publications in scientific events)

In issue number 35 of our digital publication PinusLetter (, we are bringing more information about Dr. Flechtmann’s career and scientific production with species of Pinus and other conifers. In the present issue No. 36 of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we are listing the publications of Dr. Flechtmann and his team related to the Eucalyptus.

Selection of articles written by Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann and his team of research – publications related to the Eucalyptus**
**A photo of the larval stage of the Dryocoetoides bug (Scolytidae, Coleoptera) kindly offered by Dr. C.A.H. Flechtmann to be included in this newsletter

Enjoy your reading.

Summary: Scolytidae (Coleoptera) em area de fragmento florestal e de reflorestamento de mata ciliar.
[Scolytidae (Coleoptera) in areas of forest fragments and afforestation of riparian vegetation]. J. Lopes; U.V. Ronque; C.A.H. Flechtmann; T.L. Coppo; K.L.C. Nascimento. XXIII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Atratividade de semioquimicos a Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera) em mata de araucarias, Pinus taeda, cerrado e Eucalyptus grandis. [Attractiveness of semiochemicals to Platypodidae and Scolytidae (Coleoptera) in forest of Araucaria, Pinus taeda, savannah/cerrado and Eucalyptus grandis]. L.G.O. Teixeira; S.Y. Tanabe; C.A.H. Flechtmann. XXII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Atracao primaria e selecao hospedeira de Scolytidae (Coleoptera) em distintas formacoes florestais. [Primary attraction and host selection for Scolytidae (Coleoptera) in different types of forests]. J.S. Castilho; C.A.H. Flechtmann. 14th SIICUSP – International Symposium of Scientific Initiation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 01 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Voo de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em bioma de cerrado. (Flights of Scolytidae and Platypodidae in the Cerrado biome). S.Y. Tanabe; V.G. Tabet; C.A.H. Flechtmann. XXI Brazilian Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Plants of Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). J.C. Zanuncio; M.F. Sossai; C.A.H. Flechtmann; T.V. Zanuncio; E.M. Guimaraes; M.C. Espindula. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 40(5): 513-515. (2005) (in English) (in English)

Summary: Uso do software SpeciesLink (CRIA) como ferramenta na determinacao da distribuicao geografica de Scolytidae. [Utilization of the SpeciesLink (CRIA) software to determine the geographical distribution of Scolytidae]. J.A. Santos; E.Y. Miyada; M.M. Suzuki; C.A.H. Flechtmann. 13rd SIICUSP – International Symposium of Scientific Initiation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 01 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Ataque de Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) a Eucalyptus saligna em Telemaco Borba/PR.
[Attack of Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) in a forest of Eucalyptus saligna in Telemaco Borba/PR]. C.A.H. Flechtmann; L. Cordeiro; R.A. Pereira. XX Brazilian Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Variacao sazonal e levantamento populacional de Scolytidae (Coleoptera) em Seropedica/RJ. [Seasonal variation and population survey for Scolytidae (Coleoptera) in Seropedica/RJ]. C.O. Carvalho; T.O. Pereira, A.C. Jorge; C.A.H. Flechtmann. 6th Open Congress of Biology Students. 01 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Ambrosia and bark beetles (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) in pine and eucalypt stands in southern Brazil. C.A.H. Flechtmann; A.L.T. Ottati; C.W. Berisford. Forest Ecology and Management 142(1-3): 183-191. (2001) (in English)

Comparison of four trap types for ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in Brazilian Eucalyptus stands. C.A.H. Flechtmann; A.L.T. Ottati; C.W. Berisford. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6): 1701-1707. (2000) (in English)

Summary: Teste de feromonios e cairomonios para besouros da ambrosia (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). [Test of pheromones and kairomones for ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae)]. V.L.S. Sagi; M.I. Bomfim; C.A.H. Flechtmann. 12nd UNESP Congress of Scientific Initiation. 01 pp. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Tetanorhynchus leonardosi (Mello-Leitao) (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae), nova praga em eucaliptos. [Tetanorhynchus leonardosi (Mello-Leitao) (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae), a new pest in Eucalyptus]. C.A.H. Flechtmann; A.L.T. Ottati. Anais Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 26(3): 583-587. (1997) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese)

A new trap for capturing Scolytidae (Coleoptera), based on primary attraction. C.A.H. Flechtmann; C.L. Gaspareto. Journal of Applied Entomology 121: 357-359. (1997) (in English)

Scolytidae em patio de serraria da Fabrica Paula Souza (Botucatu/SP) e Fazenda Rio Claro (Lencois Paulista/SP). [Scolytidae in the sawmill wood-yard of Fabrica Paula Souza (Botucatu/SP) and Fazenda Rio Claro (Lencois Paulista/SP)]. C.A.H. Flechtmann; C.L. Gaspareto. Scientia Forestalis 51: 61-75. (1997) (in Portuguese)

Scolytidae em area nativa de cerrado em Selviria, MS, Brasil. Scolytidae in native forest in the cerrado biome at Selviria, MS, Brazil. C.A.H. Flechtmann; A.L.T. Ottati. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 25(2): 365-368. (1996) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Levantamento populacional de insetos em area reflorestada com Eucalyptus grandis em Tres Lagoas/MS. Resultados parciais. (Population survey of insects in Eucalyptus grandis planted forest area located in Tres Lagoas/MS. Preliminary results). C.A.H. Flechtmann; A.L.T. Ottati. XV Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (1995) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Surto de Lepidoptera em area reflorestada com Eucalyptus spp. em Tres Lagoas/MS. (An outbreak of Lepidoptera in forest areas planted with Eucalyptus spp. at Tres Lagoas/MS). A.L.T. Ottati; C.A.H. Flechtmann. XV Congress of Entomology. 01 pp. (1995) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Levantamento populacional de insetos em area reflorestada com Eucalyptus grandis em Tres Lagoas/MS. Resultados parciais. (Population survey of insects in Eucalyptus grandis planted forest area located in Tres Lagoas/MS. Preliminary results). A.L.T. Ottati; C.A.H. Flechtmann. 6th UNESP Congress of Scientific Initiation. 01 pp. (1994) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Uma nova armadilha para atracao primaria de Scolytidae (Coleoptera). [A new trap for primary attraction of Scolytidae (Coleoptera)]. C.A.H. Flechtmann; C.L. Gaspareto. 5th UNESP Congress of Scientific Initiation. 01 pp. (1993) (in Portuguese)

A model of ethanol trap to collect Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Insecta, Coleoptera). E. Berti Filho; C.A.H. Flechtmann. IPEF 34: 53-56. (1986) (in English)

Dois acaros novos para o eucalipto, com uma lista daqueles ja assinalados para essa planta. (Two new mites in the eucalyp, plus a list of those already marked for this plant). C.A.H. Flechtmann. IPEF 23: 43-46. (1983) (in Portuguese) (in Portuguese)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading to all interested parties. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers. We are also highlighting the increasing availability through the Internet of academic materials placed for public utilization by many university professors, who offer class hand-outs and didactic materials from their courses for the use by stakeholders from the society.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

I hope you may enjoy our present selection: there are several very interesting events that happened in Brazil and in other countries.

TAPPSA National Conference 2010. South Africa. (in English)
An event of our partner TAPPSA - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry of South Africa, that took place in Durban, October 2010. Excellent lectures on the technology of pulp and paper manufacturing and biofuels, through the concept of integrated biorefineries.

35th ANAVE Forum - 2010 - National Association of the Professional on Sales of Pulp, Paper and Related Products. Brazil. (in Portuguese)
The ANAVE Forum is recognized and valued as one of the major pulp and paper events in Brazil. It is held every year in Sao Paulo to discuss issues about the markets for pulp and paper. Visit the excellent lectures made available about the different industrial segments of this sector.
(Speeches for downloading)

PROMAB/IPEF Seminar: Water Footprints and the Plantation Forests Management. IPEF – Institute of Forest Researches and Studies
. Brazil. (in Portuguese)
Event organized by IPEF, a partner organization and supporter of our project Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter. The event discussed the new trends in the voluntary assessment of environmental impacts, in this case for the so-called "hydrological footprints", or "water footprints" in planted forests. Topic of relevant importance with several speeches offered by experts in hydrology, forest plantations, especially those with Eucalyptus. The event was held in Piracicaba - SP in March 2011 (Speeches for downloading)

II EBS – Brazilian Meeting of Silviculture. IPEF – Institute of Forest Researches and Studies. FUPEF – Foundation of Forest Researches of Parana. Brazil. (in Portuguese)
The EBS is an event of excellent technical quality that is becoming a forum for updating engineers, researchers and foresters in Brazil. The event took place in Campinas/SP in April 2011, and it was jointly organized by IPEF and FUPEF. The EBS was one of the many attractions of Expoforest (, a major event of great magnitude which occurred in the forest region of Campinas within the same week. The technical committee of the EBS has divided the event and presentations into four thematic blocks, emphasizing issues of importance to the present Brazilian forestry: Perspectives to forestry production sectors – Part 01; Planting, maintenance and re-stablishment of plantations; Perspectives to forestry production sectors – Part 02; New technologies and preventive forestry. The lectures were shared by academic speakers and operation engineers from forest-based companies in each one of the blocks. (Speeches of the II EBS – Brazilian Meeting of Silviculture - for downloading)

III Brazilian Forum of Forest Partnerships (or Forest Fostering). SIF – Society of Forest Investigations. Brazil. (in Portuguese)
Traditional event organized by our partner SIF - Society of Forest Investigations, in order to promote plantation forests to rural farmers who want to plant forests through this type of incentive provided by the forest-based companies. The event took place in Belo Horizonte/MG in June 2011, with many experts discussing several relevant topics. (Speeches of the first day of the event) (Speeches of the second day of the event) (Speeches of the third day of the event)

Academic Materials Made Available by Professors of the Wood Industrial Engineering Course. UNIUV – University Center of Uniao da Vitoria / Parana. Brazil. (in Portuguese)
Outstanding academic materials about various areas of wood engineering - from anatomy, physics, quality, processing to wood end-uses. A must to all those who want a general grounding on the wood and its technological applications. We congratulate the faculty and the managers of this young course for the initiative in helping to disseminate knowledge about wood fundamentals, applications and technologies. (About UNIUV and the project for this academic course) (Course characterization) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Clovis Roberto Gurski about “Wood Preservation and Conservation”) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Jose Antonio Wengerkiewicz about “Wood Structures”) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Peterson Jaeger about “Physical Properties of Wood”) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Peterson Jaeger about “Wood Drying”) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Peterson Jaeger about “Processes for Sawing Timber”) (Didactic class materials offered by professor Peterson Jaeger about “Pulp and Paper”) (Literature and reference didactic materials about “Wood Technology” offered by professor Roberto Pedro Bom)

Online Technical Videos

Videos about Forestry and Pulp & Paper

With the modernization of the methods for spreading knowledge and information through the web, there is now a huge room to learn via videos that are displayed on specialized websites such as "web TV channels". Some of these videos are specific to the forestry and related sectors. They are available in educational webpages including websites of companies and organizations that are related to the Eucalyptus. Nothing more natural than to have a section in the Eucalyptus Newsletter in which we may indicate euca-links to selected videos/movies. Based on some of our indications you may learn more about a particular issue through videos and movies.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

We hope you enjoy the selection that we have prepared to this newsletter edition with videos that are typically associated to forestry and pulp and paper technologies.

Online technical videos about Forestry:

Florestas plantadas: grandes aliadas do planeta. (Planted forests: vital allies of the planet). BRACELPA – Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper). Accessed on 08.07.2011: (in Portuguese) (in English)

Eucalipto. Produtores rurais estao investindo em eucalipto. (Eucalyptus – Rural farmers are investing in Eucalyptus). Accessed on 08.07.2011:,0,1,18650;1,eucalipto.aspx
(in Portuguese)

Serie “Como plantar eucalipto”. (Series “How to plant Eucalyptus). P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV. Youtube. Channel painelflorestaltv. Accessed on 08.07.2011 (Series presentation) (in Portuguese) (Planting objectives) (in Portuguese) (Financing forestry) (in Portuguese) (Legislation) (in Portuguese) (Environmental permits) (in Portuguese) (Area/region selection) (in Portuguese) (Climate) (in Portuguese) (Soil) (in Portuguese) (Soil analyses) (in Portuguese) (Water) (in Portuguese) (High quality seedlings) (in Portuguese)
(The daily routine of a seedling nursery) (in Portuguese) (The forest engineer) (in Portuguese) (Opening the second phase of the series “How to plant Eucalyptus”) (in Portuguese) (About the second phase of the series “How to plant Eucalyptus”) (in Portuguese) (Farming machinery) (in Portuguese) (Tractors) (in Portuguese) (Delivering the tractor) (in Portuguese) (Cutting-ants) (in Portuguese) (Georeferencing) (in Portuguese)

Qual o melhor jeito de fazer mudas de eucalipto? (What is the best way for making Eucalyptus seedlings?). Globo Rural Videos. YouTube. Channel arbocenter. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Celulose e eucalipto. (Pulp and Eucalyptus). Globo Rural Videos. YouTube. Channel juditi2007. Accessed on 08.07.2011: (Part 1) (in Portuguese) (Part 2) (in Portuguese)

Vou plantar uns eucaliptos. (I’m going to plant some Eucalyptus). M. Lacerda; R. Valadares. YouTube. Channel matheuserafael1. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(Informal song valuing the Eucalyptus) (in Portuguese)

Online technical videos about Pulp and Paper:

De onde vem o papel? (Where does paper come from?). TV Escola. Youtube. Channel tvescola. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Como se hace el papel? (How is paper made?) Discovery. YouTube. Channel GEMELAMARLENE. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Spanish)

A historia do papel. (Paper history). Museum of Paper “Terras de Santa Maria de Portugal”. YouTube. Channel labdesigneditorial. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Producao de celulose no Mato Grosso do Sul. (Production of pulp in Mato Grosso do Sul). Globo Rural Videos. YouTube. Channel zclg1. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Da floresta ao papel. (From forest to paper). Painel Florestal TV. YouTube. Channel painelflorestaltv. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Como se produz celulose. (How the pulp is made). Painel Florestal TV. YouTube. Channel painelflorestaltv. Accessed on 08.07.2011:

Como se produz o papel. (How the paper is made). Painel Florestal TV. YouTube. Channell painelflorestaltv. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel

Pharmaceutical Products (Medicines) Derived from the Eucalyptus


The Eucalyptus trees are used by humans for thousands of years for the most diverse purposes (Azambuja, 2009). Since ancient times, the use of essential oils obtained from this group of plants has been applied for the treatment of some human health diseases in different parts of the world (Vitti and Brito, 2003; Estanislau et al., 2001). Brazil has in its territory a large area of forests planted with species of Eucalyptus, a situation which induces the development of a folk medicine including the use of extracts from these plants (Pereira et al., 2005; Estanislau et al., 2001). Compounds extracted from these trees have been commonly used for respiratory diseases, aiding in the treatment of flus and their side effects. Eucalyptus oils have therapeutic properties such as antifungal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, healing, disinfectants, flavoring, among others (Vitti and Brito, 2003; Estanislau et al., 2001). However, few species have chemical compounds in high concentrations in their oils with confirmed medicinal activity (Vitti and Brito, 2003; Zini, 2002).

In this way, the present technical text aims at determining and characterizing some of the most common active ingredients of essential oils from the Eucalyptus that are used as pharmaceuticals today, as well as distinguishing the species most propitious for such use. The text also sought to point out some ways of extraction/separation of these components from the raw oils and presenting studies being performed by scientists on this topic.

The pharmaceuticals obtained from the Eucalyptus should be used with caution and special care to achieve the scientifically expected benefits. Many of the therapeutic properties of Eucalyptus oils are still being tested, pending further studies to the proper confirmation of some reported effects by human population (Zini, 2002).

Essential oils from Eucalyptus

Essential oils are volatile organic compounds with fresh minty aroma which are found in higher concentrations in plant leaves, where they are produced and stored mainly in the glands of the foliar parenchyma. They can also be seen by placing a leaf against the light - the translucent marks/spots can be easily identified, indicating the presence of the essential oils (Rocha and Santos, 2007; Pereira et al., 2005). The organic compounds in the essential oils are terpenes, esters, organic acids, phenolic compounds, ketones, aldehydes, among other volatile substances and some info-chemicals (substances used for communication between different species) produced by plants in order to defend themselves against insects, herbivores, microorganisms, adverse and stressful environments, and to assist in pollination, among others (Zini, 2002; Vitti and Brito, 2003

The cineol – uses and properties

One of the key compounds extracted from the essential oils of the Eucalyptus and commonly used in human medicine is the cineol, also known as cineole or eucalyptol (1.8-cineole) (Cineol... 2011). This colorless monoterpene is insoluble in water. It is widely used in industrial scale in several brands of mouthwash and cough suppressants, such as candies and syrups. That's because it has an effect of bronchial expansion, exerting expectorant action and antiseptic qualities, both desirable to combat colds (Wikipedia, 2011; Aromaflora, 2011; Azambuja, 2008). The eucalyptol can decrease the pain and inflammation by its topical use. It has also been proven to control secretions, acting as a nasal decongestant for a runny nose and reducing the secretions thanks to the inhibition of cytokines (Infludo, undated). The cineol suppresses some types of headaches and reduces the effects of sinusitis - there are even tests to assist in countering cancer (Wikipedia, 2011; Rocha and Santos, 2007). It also improves the well-being of the patient, for the use of tablets with strong taste of Eucalyptus – the patient feels deprived of that "like illness taste" in his oral-respiratory system.

This compound is commonly extracted from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus and it was first identified by Cloez, in 1870. Currently, this species has the highest concentrations of cineole in its essential oil and it is the main source of this compound global harvest. This is explained by the absence of phellandrene in its composition, an essential characteristic for pharmaceutical products used in ingestion (internal use). The wood of E. globulus may also have multiple uses, producing high-quality paper, can serve for firewood, for sawmills and the plantation forest management is considered fairly simple (Rocha and Santos, 2007). In addition, the species has a high oil production and its leaves are also used in some regions for the manufacture of homemade therapeutic teas and infusions (Wikipedia, 2011; Rocha and Santos, 2007; Zini, 2002). The latter author pointed out that several studies have been carried out with eucalyptol, which can also be used as an accelerator of skin permeability to other active ingredients such as kidney and muscle relaxants. The compound also acts as a blood sugar reducer and may increase the cognitive ability of some people. Vitti and Brito (2003) indicated that the E. globulus can yield up to 2% essential oil with the cineole levels ranging from 70 to 80% from the total weight. In European countries like Germany, capsules of 100 mg eucalyptol are already found in the commerce to be used in the treatment against chronic bronchitis, among other ills affecting the respiratory system (Azambuja, 2009).

The oil of E. globulus also presents other specific components, which contains molecular skeletons derived from sideroxilonal, macrocarpal, euglobal and robustadial, which may have an inhibitory action on some viruses, tumors and even help to combat malaria (Zini, 2002). Some euglobal compounds such as euglobal-III and eucaliptone, both isolated from the leaves of E. globulus, are active against some bacteria considered as potentially carcinogenic, as the case of Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus (Rocha and Santos, 2007).

Brazil was once a major producer of oil from this species, but today it is China that leads the markets and the production. The E. globulus is more suitable for fresh climates and it has special forest requirements. There are few commercial E.globulus forests planted in our country more specifically for oil extraction (Rocha and Santos Rocha, 2007). This can be explained by the predominance of tropical and equatorial climates in the majority of the Brazilian territory, with some problems of adaptation of this species to states other than at South. However, it is not only the E. globulus which presents the cineole in high concentrations in their leaves. Others species such as Eucalyptus radiata subsp. radiata (shows a variant of eucalyptol); Eucalyptus polybractea (reaching levels of 60-93% yields of cineole and 0.7 to 5% essential oil), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (with levels of up to 90% cineole and yields of oil ranging from 0.3 to 2.8%), Eucalyptus oleosa (includes levels up to 52% of the same medicinal compound, and may yield 2.1% oil), Eucalyptus smithii (with an average content extraction of 84% from the oil), Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus maedensii, Corymbia (Eucalyptus) maculata, among other less commonly referred species (Azambuja, 2009; Pereira et al. 2005; Zini, 2002).

Mochi (2008) conducted tests drying the leaves of E. camaldulensis aimed at improving the extraction of essential oils as well as the yield of cineole. The leaves were dried in fixed bed dryer, with the subsequent distillation in a special distiller. The analysis of the amounts of 1.8-cineole was performed by gas chromatography. The drying temperature of 65°C has enabled much larger quantities of oil as well in the concentrations of eucalyptol.

Souza et al (2007) pointed out that the Eucalyptus microcorys is rich in 1.8-cineol and hydrolysable tannins. In this way, the authors monthly collected their leaves, evaluating the levels of total phenols, tannins, flavonoids and other components. The results indicated a higher presence of phenols and flavonoids in the dry seasons of the year, indicating probable stresses in the plants during these seasons.

Estanislau et al. (2001) performed studies about the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and C. citriodora. The chemical analyses of these oils were performed by the use of GC/MS (gas chromatography / mass spectrometry). The antibacterial activity was tested in vitro in microbial colonies with Salmonella choleraeseus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus. The E. microcorys was the species with higher concentrations of 1.8-cineole in its essential oil (86%), followed by E. grandis (7.7%). Nevertheless, C. citriodora has been the species that had higher quantities of essential oil per leaf weight (4%), although the concentration of 1.8-cineole was very low. The results showed better antibacterial effects for the oils of C. citriodora and E. grandis, mainly to the inhibition of gran negative bacteria.

In addition to E. globulus, some species of Eucalyptus have also significant aromatic power. This feature is already used for a long time in folk medicine and by the industry. In such cases, the main component (cineole) can be just used as an additive in low concentrations (less than 0.002%) in pharmaceutical products, acting as a flavoring agent. This gives a refreshingly mentholated flavor, which is already associated by most people as "medicine" in throat pastilles and candies to relieve bad breath. These compounds may also improve the taste of some oral care products (mouthwashes, etc.). The same happens to other medicinal products and even food (Wikipedia, 2011; Azambuja, 2009; Rocha and Santos, 2007 ).

Controversies and toxicity of E. globulus essential oil

Despite the fact that the essence of E. globulus is well tolerated by the human body, it must be used with caution. It is not recommended for using in children under six years of age, in infants, in nursing mothers and throughout pregnancy (Aromaflora, 2011; Paulo et al. 2009; Rocha and Santos, 2007). The main adverse effects are commonly referred at digestive tract since the excess may result in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain, especially when there is intoxication due to misuse. The essential oils of the Eucalyptus may present psychological and neurotoxic effects in some patients, because they speed up the hepatic metabolism, impairing the action of other active principles such tranquilizers, anesthetics and analgesics (Wikipedia, 2011; Santos and Teixeira, undated). These essential oils, when oxidized, can also start skin and mucous membrane irritations, making them more sensitive. Ideally, the use of eucalyptol shall follow prescriptions and stored in tightly sealed bottles, kept in dark and cool environment and away from children and animals (Aromaflora, 2001; Cineol ... 2011).

Other pharmaceutical products from Eucalyptus – uses and studies

The former species E. citriodora, currently classified taxonomically as Corymbia citriodora, also known as lemon Eucalyptus, is one of the most planted in Brazil for the purpose of essential oil extraction. The main component used in large scale in some pharmaceuticals is the monoterpenoid citronellal. This oil provides a strong smell of lemon, which is commonly used to scents, hygienic products and household cleaners. It has also been confirmed its efficiency in repellency of mosquitoes and other insects, being sold in several countries for this purpose (Wikipedia, 2011; Vitti and Brito, 2003). However, the latter authors highlighted that this oil for medical use should be reviewed, particularly for inhalation and decongestants.

The essential oil derived from C. citriodora is not rich in cineol. Thus, it is not very suitable for medicinal purposes such as E. globulus, although commonly used for this role. C. citriodora can yield 1 to 1.6% essential oil from the leaves, where the total concentration of citronellal can vary from 65 to 85%, depending on age of the leaves, environmental conditions and genetic variability of plant populations (Vitti and Brito, 2003). The same authors performed a research in 1999 in order to evaluate the quantity of oil and the yield of citronellal with C. citriodora plants from different genetic material origins. Three of these were from South Australia, six from the North of that country, and seven had unknown origin and were already commercially grown for extraction of oils in Brazil. The results were more promising for the provenances from northern region of Australia, where achieved average yields of 1.65% oil and 89% concentration of citronellal on the oil. The authors suggested that these origins could be used for genetic breeding in Brazil to improve the production of essential oil.

In Brazil, the trade of the essential oil produced from C. citriodora is made in the raw form. Following, the oil is purified by chemical processes to separate citronellal, menthol and the hydroxycitronellal (Rocha and Santos, 2007; Vitti and Brito, 2003).

More recently, the oil of lemon Eucalyptus has been studied by researchers at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) for processing into synthetic menthol. This process happens in just one step, in a reactor that transforms the Eucalyptus oil, in particular the citronellal, with the presence of hydrogen and catalysts, in a mentholated oil, containing synthetic molecules of menthol. This project is very promising and may turn in future Brazil into a self-sufficient position as regard to this product (synthetic menthol), which is widely used by the fragrance industry (Castro, 2010).

According to Araujo (2003), other compounds for pharmaceutical uses can be found in several species of Eucalyptus. The author mentions derivatives of rutine, flavone originated chemicals, which is chemically known as 3, 3', 4', 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavone-3-ramnoglucoside. These compounds may increase the venous tone and also have waterproofing capillary action.

The piperitone is another compound that is extracted from E. globulus and a few other plant species. From this substance it is possible to produce both menthol and thymol, used in fine chemistry industries (Vitti and Brito, 2003).

Extraction procedures

The present text is not intended to emphasize the extraction procedures or the distillation with low pressure steam to remove the essential oils from plant parts. This will be provided in another future article in this section of the Eucalyptus Newsletter. At moment, the focus is concentrated on how to extract the components of these essential oils, exactly those used in pharmacology.

According to Vitti and Brito (2003), the essential oil of E. globulus is quite complex – it contains from 50 to 100 volatile compounds very similar in composition. Such complexity of this mixture makes the extraction of the desired compounds to be undertaken with care and caution in order not to impair the quality of the component being extracted (mainly the cineol).

In addition, the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) has already standardized the main characteristics and concentrations of essential oils of Eucalyptus to be accepted in the markets, where the concentration of aldehydes (citronellal or eucalyptol) must be higher than 70%, according the type of destination of the oil (Pereira et al., 2005).

Several methodologies of extraction and individualization of the compounds of Eucalyptus oil have been tested throughout time. Less accurate techniques were widely used in the past such as some quantitative detection methods described by Baker and Smith in 1920, some of which are: hydroboric acid method, method of distillation and the potassium permanganate method. All these methods had some limitations and controversies.

Nowadays, the raw oil extracted from the leaves of E. globulus is purified, where the precursors of the raw cineol are subjected to cooling. Upon reaching the freezing point, the crystals of the cineol precursors gain needle-format and are separated. They are then drained from the remaining oil, mainly due to their inactivity at low temperatures. This crystallization process is repeated several times until obtaining a extract the most purified as possible of the desired compound, with minimal contamination by other components (Cineol... 2011).

According to Zini (2002), there are several ways to perform a laboratory extraction of volatile compounds from the green leaves of Eucalyptus. Nowadays, the most common ones are known as static or dynamic headspace, vacuum distillation with subsequent freeze-concentration, liquid-liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

Other researches on new compounds from essential oils of Eucalyptus

There are many other volatile compounds that belong to both the essential oils of many species of Eucalyptus, as well as the volatile products that may be present in the intercellular spaces of plant tissues (plant headspace). These compounds, which are still being identified and tested, very much likely would be destined for many new uses in pharmacology.

Look at some of these studies from a group of researchers specialized in this theme:

Zini et al. (2003a) have analyzed the performance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from 14 clones of Eucalyptus. Tests were performed via micro-extraction of solid-phase automatic headspace (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method with rescue of ions (ITMS). The compounds R-terpineol and the sesquiterpene â-eudesmol were positively correlated to the solubility in 5% soda, a property related to the hemicelluloses present in the sample of pulp. The use of HS-SPME for analysis of volatile compounds proved to be promising, managing to separate them according to species and hybrids tested.

The same technique was used to identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of chopped leaves of Eucalyptus dunnii, C. citriodora and Eucalyptus saligna in a study undertaken by another group of authors under the same guidance (Zini et al., 2003b). More than 30 volatile compounds were identified in the young leaves of 60 individuals in the study. For other 30, a tentative identification has also been performed. Several compounds were found only in the headspace of the leaves, but not in the extracted essential oil from plants. The authors issued the opinion that they are bioactive volatile compounds.

Final remarks

Due to the raising public environmental concerns, an increasing number of people are seeking for herbal medicines to cure their diseases. The components of Eucalyptus oils are already commonly found in pharmaceutical products in all parts of the world, with an increasing demand for their uses, especially in European countries (Rocha and Santos, 2007).

Much remains to be studied and discovered on the existing compounds in essential oils from the most diverse species of Eucalyptus. Brazil is a great producer of Eucalyptus plantations, with potential for the extraction of essential oils for medicine utilization. Incentives to improvements in the management of the plantations with the most recommended species, such E. globulus, could be performed, as well as the promotion of research on genetic breeding for better adaptation of these trees to the soil and climate of the country (Vitti and Brito, 2003). These authors have also pointed out that the leaves, after the extraction of oil, can be transformed into organic fertilizer, contributing to the sustainability of the system. In addition, the multiple uses of many medicinal species may provide a stimulus to the extraction of their oils. An example is the C. citriodora, which can be used in agroforestry systems and have eventually removed their leaves for the extraction of essential oils (Vitti and Brito, 2003).

Academic researches and technological enhancements with a view to the identification, extraction and purification of the compounds for pharmaceutical use from Eucalyptus essential oils could also be encouraged, making the Brazilian Eucalyptus oil of higher quality and more competitive in international markets.

References of literature and suggestions for reading

Observe just below some technical papers, news, speeches, theses and research papers covering the main compounds which are present in essential oils of Eucalyptus trees, in particular those intended for utilization in pharmaceutical products. Many of these studies were used as references for writing the text you are reading. Watch also some pictures of pharmaceuticals products which have as raw materials some compounds extracted from the essential oil from the Eucalyptus.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

Citronelal. Wikipedia. Accessed on 30.06.2011: (in Portuguese) (in English)

Eucalyptol. Wikipedia. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (in English)

Eucalyptus globulus.
Wikipedia. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (in English) (in Spanish) (
in Portuguese)

O que faz o eucalipto ser tao eficaz em gripes e resfriados? (What makes the Eucalyptus to be so effective in colds and flus?). Aromaflora. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Aromahead Institute. Specialized Website. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (Home page) (in English) (Newsletters)
(in English)

Cineol/Eucalyptol 99%. Shri Sai Trading Company. (2011) (in English)

Utilizacao de extratos de plantas medicinais e oleo de Eucalyptus no controle in vitro de Microsporum canis. (Use of extracts of medicinal plants and oil of Eucalyptus in the in vitro control of Microsporum canis). D. F. R. Frias; D. I. Kozusny-Andreani. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales 15(3): 119-125. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Do eucalipto, o mentol. (From Eucalyptus, the menthol) M. Castro. SEBRAE News. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo comparativo de extratos volateis de eucaliptos geneticamente modificados e nao geneticamente modificados
. (Comparative study of volatile extracts from genetically modified and non-genetically modified Eucalyptus). A. M. Lucas; L. Astarita; E. Cassel. V Exhibition of Post-Graduate Researches – PUCRS. p. 581-583. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Eucaliptol ou 1.8-cineol. (1.8-cineol or eucalyptol). W. Azambuja. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Summary: Monitoring volatile organic compounds from eucalypts by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. S. D. Maleknia; T. M. Vail; R. B. Cody; D. O. Sparkman; T. L. Bell; M. A. Adams. 22nd Conference - ANZSMS - Australian and New Zealand Society for Mass Spectrometry. (2009) (in English)

Ensaios clinicos toxicologicos, fase I, de um fitoterapico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill). [Phase I clinical toxicological assays of a complex herbal medicine (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour and Eucalyptus globulus Labill)]. P. T. C. Paulo; M. F. F. M. Diniz; I. A. Medeiros; L. C. S. L. Morais; F. B. Andrade; H. B. Santos. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 19(1A): 68-76. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Produtos que utilizam como materia-prima o oleo de eucalipto. (Products utilizing as raw material the oil of Eucalyptus). C. G. Victorino. IBICT – Brazilian System of Technical Answers. Technical Answer USP. 02 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Estudo de atividade antileishimania de oleos essenciais de Eucalyptus globulus e de Eugenia uniflora em Leishmania amazonensis. (Study of anti-leishmania activity from essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and Eugenia uniflora in Leishmania amazonensis). A. L. Nery; Z. B. Morais Filho; A. C. L. Amorim; S. A. G. Silva. 32nd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 01 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Efeito do oleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre especies produtoras de aflatoxinas.
(Effect of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus on species producers of aflatoxins). G. R. Vilela. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 65 pp. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Variacao sazonal de fenois e nutrientes em folhas de Eucalyptus microcorys. (Seasonal variation on phenols and nutrients contents in leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys). L. S. Souza; S. C. Santos; P. H. Ferri. 47th Brazilian Chemistry Congress. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Principais interacoes no uso de medicamentos fitoterapicos. (Major interactions in the utilization of herbal medicines). M. A. Nicoletti; M. A. Oliveira-Junior; C. C. Bertasso; P. Y. Caporossi; A. P. L. Tavares. Infarma 19(1/2): 32-40. (2007) (in Portuguese)

O uso comercial e popular do Eucalyptus globulus - Myrtaceae.
(The commercial and popular use of Eucalyptus globulus – Myrtaceae). M. E. N. Rocha; C. L. Santos. Saude e Ambiente em Revista 2(2): 23-34. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Compostos organicos volateis biogenicos (BVOCS) em uma populacao de Eucalyptus citriodora. (Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) in a population of Eucalyptus citriodora). E. G. Alves Filho; L. M. A. Silva; P. H. Ferri; S. C. Santos. Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Congress of Ecology. 02 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Comparativo do rendimento da extracao de oleo essencial obtido de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis destinada a producao de laminas de madeira com a especie Eucalyptus citriodora destinados a producao de oleo essencial. (Comparing yields from the extraction of the essential oil obtained from leaves of Eucalyptus grandis used to produce wood veneers with the species Eucalyptus citriodora intended for the production of essential oils). L. Rota; M. A. A. Pereira; C. Guerini; W. Sholl. Especialization on Essential Oils. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS). (2005) (Text - 16 pp.) (in Portuguese) (PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Efeito vasorelaxante do 1,8-cineol em aorta de rato in vitro. (Vasorelaxant in vitro effect of 1,8-cineole in rat aorta). M. V. Santos; A. M. G. Costa; P. T. T. Frota; L. N. C. Souza; T. S. Brito; J. H. L. Cardoso; P. J. C. Magalhaes. Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting - SBPC – Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Efeito da temperatura de secagem no rendimento do oleo essencial e teor de 1,8-cineol presente nas folhas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis. (Effect of drying temperature on the yield of essential oil and in the content of 1,8-cineole available in the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis). V. T. Mochi. Master Dissertation. Unicamp – State University of Campinas. 91 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Oleo essencial de eucalipto. (Eucalyptus essential oil). A. M. S. Vitti; J. O. Brito. Documentos Florestais 17. ESALQ/USP – University of Sao Paulo. 30 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Farmacoterapia nas doenças vasculares perifericas. (Pharmacotherapy in peripheral vascular diseases). M. Araujo. In: Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular: Guia Ilustrado. 13 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Solid-phase microextraction of volatile compounds from the chopped leaves of three species of Eucalyptus. C. A. Zini; K. D. Zanin; E. Christensen; E. B. Caramao; J. Pawliszyn. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51(9): 2679–2686. (2003) (in English)

Summary: Correlations between pulp properties of Eucalyptus clones and leaf volatiles using automated solid-phase microextraction. C. A. Zini; T. F. Assis; E. B. Ledford, Jr.; C. Dariva; O. J. Fachel; E. Christensen; J. Pawliszyn. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51(27): 7848-7853. (2003) (in English)

Promotores de permeacao para a liberacao transdermica de farmacos: uma nova aplicacao para as ciclodextrinas. (Permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of pharmaceuticals: a new application for cyclodextrins). M. R. F. M. Martins; F. Veiga. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas 38(1): 33-54. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Automation of solid-phase microextraction – gas chromatography – mass spectrometry extraction of Eucalyptus volatiles. C. A. Zini; H. Lord; E. Christensen; T. F. Assis; E. B. Caramao; J. Pawliszyn. Journal of Chromatographic Science 40(3): 140-146. (2002) (in English)

Estudo dos compostos volateis de algumas especies de eucalipto atraves do uso de microextracao em fase solida no modo headspace (HS-SPME). [Study of volatile compounds of some species of Eucalyptus through the use of solid phase micro-extraction in the headspace mode (HS-SPME)]. C. A. Zini. Ph.D. Thesis. UFRGS – Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. 224 pp. (2002)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Summary: SPME applied to the study of volatile organic compounds emitted by three species of Eucalyptus in situ. C. A. Zini; F. Augusto; E. Christensen; E. B. Caramao; J. Pawliszyn. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(25): 7199-7205. (2002) (in English)

Composicao quimica e atividade antibacteriana dos oleos essenciais de cinco especies de Eucalyptus cultivadas em Goias. (Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of five species of Eucalyptus grown in the Goias State). A. A. Estanislau; F. A. S. Barros; A. P. Pena; S. C. Santos; P. H. Ferri; J. H. Paula. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 11(2): 95-100. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Summary: Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME. C. A. Zini; F. Augusto; E. Christensen; B. P. Smith; E. C. Bastos; J. Pawliszyn. Analytical Chemistry 73(19): 4729-4735. (2001) (in English)

Influencia de alguns fatores nao geneticos sobre o teor de oleo essencial em folhas de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.
(Influence of some non-genetic factors on the essential oil content in leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook). A. M. Andrade; S. S. Gomes. Floresta e Ambiente 7(1): 181–189. (2000)
(in Portuguese)

Avaliacao do rendimento e do teor de citronelal do oleo essencial de procedencias e racas locais de Eucalyptus citriodora. (Evaluation of the yield and citronellal content in the essential oils obtained from provenances and local breeds of Eucalyptus citriodora). A. M. S. Vitti; J. O. Brito. Scientia Forestalis 56: 145-154. (1999) (in Portuguese)

Quantitative determination of cineol in Eucalyptus oils. R. T. Baker; H. G. Smith. In: A research on the eucalypts especially in regard to their essential oils. Chest of Books. (1920)
(in English)

Fitoterapicos e interacoes medicamentosas.
(Herbal compounds and drug interactions). J. B. P. Teixeira. J. V. Santos. Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Program for Medicinal Plants and Non-Conventional Therapies. 05 pp. (s/d = Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Infludo. Medicamento antroposofico
. (Infludo. Anthroposophic medicine). ANVISA – National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. 03 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Some images about pharmaceutical products derived from the Eucalyptus (the websites are just provided as source of images and for technical information – they are not to be understood as commercial indications or suggestions of medicines for any medical purposes):
(Cineol + Eucalyptus. Google Images)
(Eucaliptol + Eucalyptus. Google Images)
& aql=undefined&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=
(“Enxaguantes bucais eucalipto”. Google Images)
(“Eucalyptus mouthwash”. Google Images)
("Eucalyptus cough suppressant". Google Images)
(Eucaliptol + “cough suppressant”. Google Images)
(“Eucaliptol + mouthwash”. Google Images)

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel

Sustainability on the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Value Network

The wood of Eucalyptus has turned into one of the main fibrous raw materials to the manufacture of market pulp and printing, writing and sanitary purpose papers in countries like Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Argentina, etc. Moreover, in the form of market pulp, the Eucalyptus fibers are invading many countries in Asia, North America, Europe, Oceania, etc. to be used in manufacturing various types of papers and cellulose derivatives (viscose, rayon, acetate, etc.). In short, Eucalyptus fibers are the pulp fibers of the moment and one can only hope that their productionb processes have appropriate levels of sustainability.

Sustainability is perhaps the strongest demand weighing today over such a huge and intricate value network of pulp paper. Everything starts in the planted forests of Eucalyptus, goes through the processes of pulp production, then to the manufacturing and recycling of paper to finally reach other supply chains, such as the printing industry, hygienic products sector, cellulose derivatives manufacturing segment, etc. In short, this value network is very complex, but perfectly traceable and capable to display appropriate levels on environmental preservation and social responsibility. Sustainability has also been a commitment that many of the industry and class associations at the pulp/paper producing countries have placed on the agendas to their members in the short or medium terms. In a world where environmental awareness and conscious consumption are growing at accelerated speeds, there's no way to manufacturing without the best and most current concepts of sustainability.

Faced by these new requirements to the corporate world, the companies in the industry are striving to achieve competitive advantages that once were in the category of intangibles, one of which being the corporate image of their organizations in aspects related to sustainability. Sustainable development and sustainability are magic words that have emerged in the early 90's and started to strongly influence the pulp and paper business, in particular the Brazilian, which has and will be booming, with audacious plans for expansions in production capacity. Without an appropriate management for sustainability in the Brazilian companies, the conquest of the competitive space that they need would be very difficult, especially in relation to green markets as the Europeans, Americans and Japanese.

The Brazilian industrial sector of market pulp and paper production was undoubtedly one of the first sectors leveraging sustainability in Brazil. This may be confirmed by the fact that Brazilian P&P companies have dived very deeply in forest certification, environmental and social responsibility programs. In nearly all of these third-party certification systems (awarded by credible external entities), the Brazilian companies in the pulp and paper sector have been in leadership to obtain IS0 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 26000, FSC or CERFLOR (forest certification), etc. In all of these certification processes in the country, we always had the leadership of the market pulp and paper production companies.

Indeed, the fundamentals supporting the entire value network from the Eucalyptus pulp and paper industry are closely related to sustainability. Likewise, these same fundamentals, if not properly managed under the perspective of sustainability, may lead to serious environmental and social aggressions. The line dividing the world from being the best and the worst is very tenuous. With proper and eco-efficient management, a company in that sector can reach wonderful positions in terms of sustainability indicators. This can be easily observed in relation of sustainable enterprises in the stock markets of Sao Paulo (BOVESPA), New York (Dow Jones), etc. However, if the company does not perform well in this respect, it is easily placed in the black list of environmental organizations like Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, etc.

There are some basic reasons for the Brazilian pulp and paper sector be achieving quite adequate performance indicators in terms of sustainability. Some of them are listed below:

• The fibrous raw materials come from plantations of Eucalyptus and pines, with all industry-leading companies having their plantation forests certified in accordance with the principles and criteria designed by FSC - Forest Stewardship Council and/or CERFLOR - Brazilian Forest Certification System, the latter recognized by PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes. The forests are improved for high productivity through enhanced photosynthetic performance and efficient use of nutrients and water. Thus, there is less impact on ecosystems and reduced use of land area for the production of the paper goods that human society needs.

• There is a great effort in the management of forest plantations for the use of marginal lands, the ones that have been exhausted by intense past use on agriculture and livestock. At the same time, the forest industry seeks to fulfill its role of environmental responsibility in relation to biodiversity, ensuring that from 0.5 to 1 hectare of native forests are enriched and preserved for each hectare of effective plantation of industrial purpose forest.

• The companies producing pulp and paper hold all the available third-party certifications to ensure compliance and suitability to what is being standardized by IS0 - International Organization for Standardization (and other agencies) for systems related to: product quality, environment, social responsibility, safety and occupational health, etc.

• There is a massive search in the graphic and textile supply chains for certification at the level of chain-of-custody, thereby allowing the final products of these industries to show that the Eucalyptus fibers they contain are green labelled.

• The type 1 environmental labelling (ecolabel based on third-party criteria along the productive cycle) has been seeded in Brazil and there is already a search for labelling of paper products made from Eucalyptus fibers, such as paper for printing and graphic purposes and sanitary papers.

• There are lot of efforts being allocated in the scientific understanding of the P&P industry carbon footprint, seeking to identify the real role of this sector in carbon sequestration via photosynthesis of the planted forests and the possibilities of minimizing the effects of global climate change.

• Likewise, a better understanding of water consumption by mills and planted forests has been the subject of scientific researches to allow the minimization of the effect of hydrological footprint by the industry.

• The energetic matrix of the sector is clearly based on renewable sources, being clean and green. The kraft black liquor, the biomass and hydropower accounted for about 90% of energy requirements in the mills.

• The Brazilian mills producing market pulp embrace state-of-the-art technologies, having the best and most appropriate manufacturing technologies, known as BAT's ("Best Available Technologies").

• The eco-efficiency and cleaner production are styles of management that are being adopted by various companies to ensure better use of raw materials and lower waste generation. There is intense search for the reduction of pollutants, water use and improvements on energy efficiency.

• Paper recycling is receiving increased attention at the paper manufacturing industry and there is a qualitative improvement for recycled papers. Therefore, the barrier that recycled papers had inferior quality than those manufactured from virgin fibers has disappeared. Today, recycled, virgin fibers or mixed-fibers papers are considered complementary and helpful to each other; thus, helping the business sustainability and industrial environment. There are strong incentives to recycle paper, including selective collection of garbage, organization of paper collectors cooperatives, etc.

• The industry professional and business associations are deeply involved in the development of sustainable actions, promoting the engagement of member companies and individual associates regarding ethical codes of conduct and sustainability agendas.

• The companies in the sector are increasingly learning to dialogue with the interested parties of society, progressively escaping from the stigma of "low profile", which was one of the characteristics of the sector in the recent past.

• The generation of social wealth is on the agenda of companies, what is demonstrated by: educational programs designed to increase knowledge and cultural concerns, improved health programs, income generation, partnerships with rural farmers and service providers, cultivation and production of food (honey, livestock, etc.), modernizing on labor relations, etc.

• The business leaders of the P&P sector position themselves with a vision of sustainability and some of them are being worldwide renowned for their actions on sustainable management, compared to other industrial productive sectors.

Nowadays, the focus on sustainability is a priority on the agendas and on the strategic growth plans of the leading pulp and paper companies in Brazil. The concept relies on the three components of sustainability: economic (profit), environment (preservation of natural resources) and social (social and human development).

Paper is a renewable, recyclable, biodegradable, labelable and certifiable product. It is also a neutral carbon sinker/holder and a biofuel. Paper has a life cycle that is strongly connected to Nature. However, there is still much to be done in the road to sustainability - the battles for a better world and for a more sustainable pulp and paper industry are just beginning. These battles depend certainly on our business leaders, but not merely on them, but on all of us. In addition to the many current challenges, others will arise - after all, the route to sustainability is endless.

Sustainability reports provided by some of the world leading Eucalyptus-based pulp and paper companies – 2009 e 2010

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

Arauco – Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion - Chile: (in Spanish) (in English)

Bahia Specialty Cellulose – Brazil: (in Portuguese) (
in English)

BRACELPA – Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper - Brazil:
(in Portuguese and English)

Celbi – Celulose Beira Industrial – Portugal:
(in Portuguese and English)

CEPI – Confederation of European Paper Industry - Europe: (in English)

CENIBRA – Celulose Nipo-Brasileira - Brazil:
(in Portuguese and English)

CMPC – Compania Manufacturera de Papeles y Cartones - Chile:
(in Spanish)
(in English)

ENCE – Spain:
(in Spanish and English)

Fibria - Brazil: (Hotsite in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)
(in English)

ORSA Group - Brazil: (in Portuguese)
(in English)

Celulose Irani - Brazil: (Hotsite in Portuguese)
(in English)
(in Portuguese)

Klabin - Brazil: (Hotsite)
(in Portuguese)
(in English)

Mondi – Republic of South Africa: (Hotsite in English)
(in English)

PortucelSoporcel – Portugal:
(in Portuguese)
(in English)

SAPPI – Republic of South Africa: (Hotsite in English)
(in English)

Suzano Papel e Celulose - Brazil: (Hotsite)
in Portuguese - 2010)
(in English - 2009)

References of literature and suggestions for reading about sustainability issues in the Brazilian pulp and paper sector:

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloadings of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.

Carta de principios / Letter of principles. BRACELPA – Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. Accessed on 13.07.2011 (in Portuguese)
(in English)

Sustentabilidade semeada. (Seeded sustainability). Revista Visao Ambiental. 05 pp. Accessed on 08.07.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Mitos sobre sustentabilidade nas empresas. (Myths about sustainability in business). HSM Webportal. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (in Portuguese)

Seja um lider sustentavel. (Be a sustainable leader). HSM Webportal. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (in Portuguese)

Conversa com lideres sustentaveis. (A talk with sustainable leaders). R. Voltolini. Youtube. Channel ConvSustentavel. Accessed on 28.06.2011: (in Portuguese)

Brasileiro nao acredita em acoes de sustentabilidade. (Brazilians do not believe in actions of sustainability). Painel Florestal. Accessed on 28.06.2011:
(in Portuguese)

Sustainability and environmental issues in the kraft pulp industry. C. Foelkel. V ICEP – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides. (2011)
(in English)

Ten ways to green your paper. P. Riebel. Pulp & Paper International (January): 31-33. (2011) (in English)
(in English) (Also available at Blog do Papeleiro website)

Leveraging the industry’s green credentials. D. Mncube. TAPPSA National Conference. South Africa. PowerPoint presentation: 22 slides. (2010)
(in English)

Normalizacao socio-ambiental: a ultima fronteira da ISO. (Social and environmental standardization: the ISO ultimate frontier). J. Cajazeira. I International Symposium on Sustainability. PowerPoint presentation: 47 slides. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

O perfil do mercado de celulose e papel - Sustentabilidade e os desafios do proximo ciclo. (The pulp and paper market profile - Sustainability and the challenges for the next cycle). S. Nagai. 43rd ABTCP Annual Congress – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Brazilian pulp and paper products. The value of sustainability. E. Carvalhaes. RISI Pulp & Paper Outlook Conference. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (2010)
(in English)

Trilhas de sustentabilidade do setor de celulose e papel. (Tracks of sustainability in the pulp and paper sector). S. Nagai. ANAVE EcoForum. PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2010) (in Portuguese)

A demanda mundial de papel e a sustentabilidade. (The world demand for paper and the sustainability). L. Cornacchioni. II Mato Grosso do Sul Forest Congress. BRACELPA – Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Uma investigacao do nivel de sustentabilidade das companhias de papel e celulose e a influencia das informacoes financeiras sobre a qualidade da divulgacao socioambiental. (An investigation of the level of sustainability of the pulp and paper companies and the influence of financial informations on the quality of the social and environmental disclosure). J.L. Ciofi. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 104 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Brasil - Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto. Floresta plantada a papel. (Brazil - Sustainability in the value network of the Eucalyptus. From planted forest to paper). C. Foelkel. Workshop Ecolabelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade corporativa: papel e celulose. (Corporate sustainability: pulp and paper). C. Lins; H.C. Ouchi. FBDS – Brazilian Foundation for Sustainable Development. 32 pp. (2007)

Praticas de sustentabilidade corporativa no Brasil: uma analise do setor de papel e celulose. (Corporate sustainability practices in Brazil: an analysis of pulp and paper industry). C.H.C. Ouchi. Master Dissertation. COPPEAD/UFRJ. 87 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade no setor brasileiro de papel e celulose: uma analise comparativa entre empresas nacionais e transnacionais. (Sustainability in the Brazilian paper and pulp sector: a comparative analysis of domestic and transnational companies). S.S. Rocha. Master Dissertation. UNESP – Sao Paulo State University. 140 pp. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo da sustentabilidade regional da producao industrial de eucalipto e seus impactos em sua regiao de influencia. (Study of the regional sustainability of industrial production based on Eucalyptus and the impacts on the areas of influence). J.E.R. Cajazeiras; J.C. Barbieri; D. Silva. Revista da Micro e Pequena Empresa 1(2): 18-33. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Evidenciacao ambiental: comparacao entre empresas do setor de papel e celulose dos Estados Unidos e Brasil. (Environmental disclosure: comparison between companies in the pulp and paper sector in the United States and Brazil). M.S. Ribeiro; M.F. Gasparino. VI USP Congress about Controlling and Accounting. 15 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade florestal para um mundo sustentavel. (Forest sustainability for a sustainable world). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius Website. 08 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter
are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2009-2012

This knowledge oriented service was made possible through technical and financial sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the authors or coming from the referenced technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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